Early timeline of Nazism

The early timeline of Nazism begins with its origins and continues until Hitler's rise to power.

Prehistory of National Socialism

  • 1834: The term "Nationalsozialismus" first appears in print, in Börsenblatt für den deutschen Buchhandel (Exchange tables for the German book trade) on page 36.
  • 1841: German economist Friedrich List's Das Nationale System der Politischen Ökonomie (National System of Political Economy) is published, espousing settlement farming and agricultural expansion eastwards along with economic industrialization manipulated by the state, and the establishment of a German-dominated European economic sphere as part of the solution to Germany's economic woes (predecessor ideas to Nazi imperialism).[1]
  • 1856: French aristocrat and author, Arthur de Gobineau, publishes his An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races in which he divides the human species into three races, black, white, and yellow; arguing therein that racial distinctions form a clear and natural genetic barrier of sorts. Gobineau wrote that racial mixing would lead to chaos. While not an anti-Semite, his work is often characterized as philosemitic (since he wrote positively about the Jews), but it is still considered an early manifestation of scientific racism. Historian Joachim C. Fest, in his biography of Hitler, claims that Arthur de Gobineau's negative views on race mixing influenced Hitler and thereby, the ideology of National Socialism.[2]
  • 1870: The term "National Socialism" first appears in English, in "The sects of the Russian Church", The North British Review, Volumes 52-53.
  • 1878: Founding year of the anti-Semitic Christian Social Worker's Party by Adolf Stoecker.
  • 1884: "National Socialism" is mentioned in "Fabian Tracts", Fabian Publications, Great Britain.
  • 1888: German jurist and international law reformer, Franz von Liszt argues that criminal characteristics are innate as opposed to being determined by a person's social environment and coins the term, Kriminalbiologie (Criminal Biology),[3] a theory which renders criminals incapable of rehabilitation and would later influence Nazi anthropologists and racial hygiene proponents in their justification for sterilization and euthanasia.
  • 20 April 1889: Adolf Hitler born at Braunau am Inn, Austria.
  • 1891: Formation of Pan-German League ; Wilhelm Schallmayer publishes a treatise on eugenics, espousing that the neglect of a nation's racial fitness could have negative political consequences for a state.
  • 1895: Alfred Ploetz coins the term Rassenhygiene (Racial Hygiene).
  • 1896: The Czech National Social Party is formed.
  • 1897: Franko Stein moves a small periodical Der Hammer from Vienna to Eger.
  • May 1898: Maurice Barrès, while standing as a nationalist candidate for Nancy, France, coins the term "Socialist Nationalism".
  • 1898: German Workers Congress is organized by Stein in Eger (Cheb).
  • 1899: Houston Stewart Chamberlain writes Die Grundlagen des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts (The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century), a work which influenced many prominent Nazis. Ludwig Woltmann also publishes a tract asserting the superiority of Germanic people and promotes the need for additional Lebensraum (living space).
  • April 1902: Organization of Nationalistic Labor takes place in Saaz.
  • 15 November 1903: Austria-Hungary German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) is formed.
  • 1904: Hans Knirsch proposes to add "National Socialist" to the Austrian DAP name, but the proposal is rejected by party congress conferees.
  • 1905: Racial Hygiene Society founded by Alfred Ploetz.
  • 1909: An "All-Austrian" congress of the German Workers’ Party is held in Prague.
  • 1912: Controversial book, Wenn ich der Kaiser wär (If I were the emperor) by Heinrich Claß appears, a work which promotes imperialism, rife with Pan-Germanism and antisemitic commentary.

World War I

1914

  • 28 July: World War I breaks out.
  • 2 August: Adolf Hitler receives permission to enlist; joins the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment in Munich
  • 30 October: Adolf Hitler is transferred to regimental staff as a runner.
  • 1 November: Adolf Hitler is promoted to Gefreiter, the equivalent of a senior private or corporal.

1916

  • Eugenicist Madison Grant publishes, The Passing of the Great Race which promotes the genetic supremacy of the Nordic race while warning of its racial decline, a treatise quickly embraced by members of the German racial hygiene movement.

1917

1918

  • March: Anton Drexler founded a branch of Freien Arbeiterausschuss für einen guten Frieden (Free Workers' Committee for a good Peace) league in Munich.[4]
  • 17 July: Adolf Hitler saves the life of the 9th Company Commander.
  • 4 August: Adolf Hitler awarded the Iron Cross, 1st Class.
  • 13 October: Adolf Hitler gassed near Ypres.
  • 3 November: Kiel mutiny triggered the German revolution.
  • 7 November: 100,000 workers march on the Royal House of Wittelsbach. Kaiser Wilhelm II flees.
  • 8 November: All 22 of Germany’s lesser kings, princes, grand dukes, and ruling dukes have been deposed. Kaiser Wilhelm told to abdicate.
  • 9 November: Emil Eichhorn, radical leftist of the Independent Socialists, leads an armed mob and seizes the HQ of Berlin; Kaiser Wilhelm consents to abdicate; Social Democrats demand government from Prince Max; Friedrich Ebert assumes the chancellery; First German Republic established.
  • 11 November: First World War ends.
  • 19 November: Hitler discharged from hospital at Pasewalk.
  • December: German conservative organization, Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten founded by former German Army reserve officer and industrialist Franz Seldte in Magdeburg.
  • Mid-December: First Freikorps unit formed; Maercker Volunteer Rifles.

1919

  • January: Independent Socialists and Spartacist League staged large protests, known as the Spartacist uprising; large sections of Berlin seized; German Gov. moved to the city of Weimar.
  • 5 January: Anton Drexler, along with Dietrich Eckart, Karl Harrer, Gottfried Feder and Hermann Esser, founds the German Workers' Party (DAP) from the branch of "Free Workers' Committee for a good Peace" league and the Political Workers' Circle in Munich.[4]
  • 10 January: Battle of Berlin begins; Counter-revolution with Freikorps takes crucial role.
  • 13 January: Battle of Berlin ends.
  • 15 January: Communist leaders Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg are murdered by Freikorps officers
  • March: Adolf Hitler finishes job of guarding Russian prisoners.
  • 3 March: 2nd Battle for Berlin; Communists seize Berlin; Gustav Noske appointed dictator of Germany.
  • 7 March: Communist Strike Committee withdraws proclamation and makes peace overtures to government.
  • 10 March: Gustav Noske orders Peoples’ Naval Division disbanded. Battle for Berlin over.
  • 14 April: Freikorps suppress communists in Dresden.
  • 16 April: "Battle" of the Bavarian government troops at Dachau; Communists defeat Republican forces.
  • 18 April: Freikorps suppress communists in Brunswick.
  • 27 April: Battle for Munich occurs between Communists and Freikorps units.
  • 2 May: City of Munich taken; not declared secure until May 6; approximately 1200 Communists slaughtered.
  • 10 May: Freikorps suppress communists in Leipzig.
  • 22 June: German Reichstag ratifies the Versailles Treaty.
  • 28 June: Versailles Treaty signed in the Hall of Mirrors (Palace of Versailles).

Weimar Republic

1919

  • 12 August 1919: The Weimar Constitution is announced.
  • 12 September 1919: Adolf Hitler attends a meeting of the German Workers' Party (DAP) in the Sterneckerbräu in Munich and joins the party as its 55th member.[5][6] In less than a week, Hitler received a postcard stating he had officially been accepted as a party member.[7]
  • 16 October 1919: Hitler's first pre-arranged public speech as a member of the DAP takes place in the Hofbräukeller.
  • Late fall: Freikorps fight the Red Army in the Baltic, eventually retreat in chaos; first Silesian uprising, in which many Freikorps see combat.

1920

  • Many Freikorps were disbanded. Some go underground, to reappear later.
  • January: The DAP grows to 190 members.[8]
  • February: Inter-Allied Control Commission order 2/3 of Freikorps disbanded.
  • 24 February: DAP changes its name to National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP). The party announces its programme in the Hofbräuhaus, known as the "25 points."[9][10][11]
  • 13 March to 17 March: Kapp Putsch
  • 31 March: Adolf Hitler mustered out of the army.[12]
  • April: Government stops paying Freikorps units.
  • 3 April: 21 different Freikorps units, under the command of General Baron Oskar von Watter, annihilate the Ruhr Uprising in five days; thousands killed.
  • 10 May: Dr. Joseph Wirth and Walter Rathenau announce their "Policy of Fulfillment"; not received well by nationalist groups.
  • 8 August: Official founding date of the NSDAP
  • 11 August: National Disarmament Law takes effect; disbands civil guards.
  • 19 August to 25 August: Second Silesian uprising, German Freikorps see more combat.
  • 17 December: NSDAP buys its first paper, the Völkischer Beobachter.
  • 31 December: NSDAP party membership was recorded at 2000.[8]

1921

  • Third Silesian uprising; German forces see more combat.
  • Hermann Erhardt forms Organisation Consul, a paramilitary group, out of former members of his banned Freikorps.
  • Eugen Fischer, Erwin Baur, and Fritz Lenz publish the standard work of German racialism, Menschliche Erblichkeitslehre und Rassenhygiene (Human Hereditary Teaching and Racial Hygiene), a work which later helps form part of the scientific basis to the Nazi racial hygiene policies and their euthanasia campaign.[13]
  • February 1921: highly effective at speaking to large audiences—Hitler spoke to a crowd of over 6,000 in Munich.[8]
  • 28 July: Adolf Hitler is elected Vorsitzender (chairman) of the NSDAP with only one dissenting vote. Executive Committee of the party is dissolved. Party Founder Anton Drexler is made "Honorary Chairman" and resigns from the party soon after. Hitler soon begins to refer to himself as "Der Führer" (The Leader).[14]
  • August 1921: NSDAP party membership was recorded at 3,300.[8]

1922

  • Prototype versions of the Hitler Youth form.
  • The Prussian State Health Commission for Racial Hygiene (Preussischer Landesgesundheitsrat für Rassenhygiene) works to centralise the institute's research concerning the practical application of racial hygiene, eugenics and anthropology.[15]
  • 12 January: Adolf Hitler sentenced to three months for disturbance of 14 September 1921.
  • 24 June: Hitler incarcerated; German Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau assassinated, some involved are in the Organisation Consul.
  • July: Inflation hits the German economy: 670 RM = 1 US$
  • 27 July: Hitler released.
  • August: 2,000 RM = 1 USD
  • October: 4,500 RM = 1 USD
  • 28 October: Benito Mussolini establishes his Fascist dictatorship in Italy.
  • November: 10,000 RM = 1 USD
  • 22 November: Dr. Wirth leaves office
  • 27 December: France occupies the Ruhr.

1923

  • 28 January: First Parteitage (Nazi Party Day) held under the slogan Deutschland Erwache (Germany Awake) in Munich.
  • February: Reichsbank buys back RM; stabilizes RM at 20,000 to 1 USD
  • 4 May: RM 40,000 = 1 USD
  • 27 May: Albert Leo Schlageter, a German freebooter and saboteur, executed by a French firing squad in the Ruhr. Hitler declared him a hero that the German people was not worthy to possess.
  • 1 June: RM 70,000-1 USD
  • 30 June: RM 150,000-1USD
  • 1-7 August: Inflation became hyperinflation: RM 3,500,000-1USD
  • 13 August: Dr. Wilhelm Cuno leaves office
  • 15 August: RM 4,000,000-1USD
  • 1 September: RM 10,000,000-1USD
  • 1 September: German Day Rally takes place in Nuremberg
  • 24 September: Chancellor Stresemann ends the passive resistance in the Ruhr; infuriates the nationalists.
  • 30 September: Major Fedor von Bock crushes a coup attempt by the Black Reichswehr.
  • RM 60,000,000-1USD
  • 6 October: Dr. Gustav Stresemann (People’s) forms 2nd cabinet
  • 20 October: General Alfred Mueller marched on Saxony to prevent a communist takeover.
  • General Otto von Lossow in Bavaria is relieved of command by Berlin; he refuses.
  • 23 October: Communist takeover of Hamburg
  • 25 October: Hamburg uprising suppressed
  • 8 November: Hitler and Ludendorff launch the Beer Hall Putsch in the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich.
  • 9 November: Beer Hall Putsch quelled.

1924

  • 26 February: Hitler Putsch trial begins.
  • 1 April: Hitler sentenced to five-years at Landsberg prison. From here, Hitler writes Mein Kampf with the assistance of Rudolf Hess.
  • 24 October: France recognizes the Communist state known as the Soviet Union, alarming German conservatives in the process.
  • 20 December: Hitler released from the Landsberg Prison.

1925

  • 21 January: Japan recognizes the U.S.S.R.
  • 16 February 1925: Bavaria lifts ban on NSDAP.
  • 24 February 1925: The NSDAP is refounded.
  • 09 Mar 1925: Bavaria bans Hitler from public speaking.
  • 7 July: French troops withdraw from the German Rhineland.
  • 14 July: Allied evacuation of the Ruhr valley begins.
  • 18 July 1925: Vol. 1 of Hitler's Mein Kampf released.
  • July–August: Germans are forced to leave Poland and Poles are expedited out of Germany in disputed territories.
  • 11 November: Schutzstaffel created as a sort of praetorian guard for Hitler.
  • 27 November: Locarno Treaties ratified by Reichstag.

1926

  • 4 July: Nazi Party "Re-founding Congress" takes place in Weimar

1927

  • 05 Mar: Hitler speaking ban lifted in Bavaria.
  • 17 August: Franco-German commercial treaty signed.
  • 20 August: "Day of Awakening" celebrated in Nuremberg

1928

  • 20 March: NSDAP gains 2.6% of the vote in Reichstag elections.
  • 28 September: Prussia lifts Hitler speaking ban.
  • 20 October: Alfred Hugenberg becomes head of DNVP
  • 16 November: Hitler first speaks at Berlin Sportpalast, Germany's largest venue.

1929

  • January: Heinrich Himmler appointed chief of the SS. He begins to transform it into a powerful organization
  • 2 August: "Party Day of Composure" occurs in Nuremberg
  • 16 October: Liberty Law campaign officially begins. The Nazi Party joins a coalition of conservative groups under Hugenberg's leadership to oppose the Young Plan.
  • 22 December: The Liberty Law referendum is defeated. Hitler denounces Hugenberg's leadership parlance.

1930

  • September: Hitler at trial of 3 SA Lieutenants disavows the SA goals of replacing the army and hence appeases the army.
  • 14 September: In a milestone election, Nazis gain 6 million votes in national polling to emerge as the second largest party in Germany.

1931

  • 11 May: Austrian Kreditanstalt collapses
  • May: Four million unemployed in Germany.
  • 20 June: Herbert Hoover puts moratorium on reparations.
  • 13 July: German bank crisis.
  • 18 September: Geli Raubal dies.
  • 11 October: Harzburg Front formed of coalition between DNVP, Stahlhelm, and Nazi Party
  • Himmler recruits Reinhard Heydrich to form the 'Ic Service' (intelligence service) within the SS; later in 1932 it was renamed the Sicherheitsdienst (SD).
  • December: Unemployment (Arbeitslosigkeit) reaches 5.6 million in Germany as people become more and more disillusioned with the German government.

1932

  • 13 March: Hitler convincingly defeated by Hindenburg in his first bid for German president.
  • 10 April: Hindenburg re-elected Reichspräsident with 53% of the vote. Hitler gains 37% and the communist candidate Thälmann gains 10.2%.
  • 13 April: The SA and SS are prohibited from existing by Chancellor Brüning.
  • 30 May: Henrich Bruening (Center) leaves office and is replaced by Franz von Papen.
  • 1 June: Franz von Papen cabinet
  • 16 June: Papen lifts the ban on the SA and SS.
  • 16 June - 9 July: The Lausanne conference takes place.
  • 20 July: "Preußenschlag": Papen dissolves Prussian government.
  • 31 July: Reichstag elections: Nazi party becomes the largest party with 13.7 million votes and acquire 230 out of 608 seats in the Reichstag.
  • 9 August: Konrad Piecuch, a Polish communist activist who took part in Silesian Uprisings against German rule is murdered in Germany by SA; Hitler defends the murderers in German press.
  • 6 November: Reichstag elections: Nazi party loses votes.
  • 17 November: Franz von Papen leaves office.
  • 2 December: Reichswehr General Kurt von Schleicher becomes Chancellor for a very brief period.
  • 18 December: Major dispute between NSDAP figures Gregor Strasser and Hitler erupts. Strasser resigns from the Nazi party.

Nazi Revolution

1933

  • 4 January: Secret meeting between Hitler and Papen occurs.
  • 23 January: Schleicher resigns as Chancellor.
  • 30 January: President Hindenburg appoints Hitler chancellor of a Nazi-DNVP coalition.
  • 1 February: Dissolution of the Reichstag
  • 2 February: Hitler meets with top military leaders, describes his plans to rearm Germany.
  • 17 February: Prussian Interior Ministry permits the shooting of "enemies of the state" under the direction of Hermann Göring.
  • 20 February: Secret Meeting between Adolf Hitler, and 20 to 25 industrialists to raise funds for the election campaign of the Nazi Party.
  • 27 February: Reichstag fire occurs, it was officially blamed on Marinus van der Lubbe, a communist.
  • 28 February: Hitler awarded emergency powers under the presidential decree, Law for the Protection of People and State ("Reichstag Fire Decree"): civil liberties suspended. Gleichschaltung ("coordination"), the process of exerting totalitarian control over Germany, begins. Over the next five months, the Nazis systematically force all opposition political parties to shut down.
  • 5 March: General Elections result in slim majority of Hitler's coalition, though not a majority for the Nazi Party.
  • 9 March: Heinrich Himmler becomes Police President in Munich.
  • 13 March: Joseph Goebbels named Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda.
  • 16 March: Hjalmar Schacht takes over the role of President of the Reichsbank from Hans Luther.
  • 17 March: Sepp Dietrich assumes command of Hitler's body guard, the Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler.
  • 22 March: Dachau concentration camp opens, begins receiving political prisoners. First Nazi "racial hygiene" office established in the Interior Ministry.
  • 24 March: Enabling Act, passed with help of Catholic Center Party, effectively hands the legislative powers of the Reichstag over to the Chancellor. Act permits Chancellor and cabinet to issue laws without a vote of Parliament and to deviate from the Constitution.
  • 1 April: One day boycott of Jewish shops. Himmler is appointed police commander of Bavaria.
  • 7 April: "Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service" - Jewish and Communist inclined workers from the Civil Service purged, around 5% removed in total. Nazi governors appointed to rule the German states. End of federalism. Papen resigns as Reich Commissioner of Prussia.
  • 26 April: Hermann Göring forms the Gestapo (Secret State Police) in the state of Prussia.
  • 2 May: Trade union offices are stormed by SA.
  • 10 May: Deutsche Arbeitsfront DAF (German Labour Front) created and headed by Robert Ley
  • 10 May: A large number of Nazi book burnings takes place across Germany.
  • 23 May: Hitler visits Kiel Harbor to see the fleet consisting of the old pre-dreadnought battleships Schlesien, Hessen, and Schleswig-Holstein and the light cruisers Karlsruhe, Königsberg, and Leipzig. He boards Leipzig with leading SS and government officials including General Werner von Blomberg, Admiral Erich Raeder, Hermann Göring, and Franz von Papen.
  • 6 July: At a gathering of high-ranking Nazi officials, Hitler declares the success of the National Socialist, or Nazi revolution.
  • 14 July: Hitler proclaims the Nazi Party "the only political party in Germany." All others banned.
  • 20 July: Reichskonkordat signed with Holy See. Violations by Germany begin immediately.
  • 22 September: The Reich Chamber of Culture is established with Joseph Goebbels becoming its figurehead.
  • 14 October: Germany officially withdraws from the League of Nations.
  • 9 November: Freikorps symbolically pledge allegiance to Hitler in a huge ceremony.
  • 12 November: Reichstag elections occur with the Nazis acquiring 95.2 percent of the vote (unsurprisingly) in a new single-party state.
  • 27 November: Kraft durch Freude (Strength through Joy) program established.
  • 30 November: The secret state police organization known as the Gestapo, which had only previously existed in Prussia is given authority throughout Germany.
  • November: As part of the Rauschgiftbekämpfung ("war on drugs"), the Reichstag passes a law allowing the imprisonment of drug addicts for up to two years, a period that could be extended indefinitely by legal decree.[16]
  • Fall: Hitler reveals to his close associates a plan to annex Western Poland and create a ring of puppet states around Germany without any policies of their own[17]

1934

  • 11 April: Pact of the Deutschland: Hitler persuades the top officials of the army and navy to back his bid to succeed Hindenburg as president, by promising to "diminish" the three-million-man plus SA and greatly expand the regular army and navy.
  • 20 April: Gestapo is transferred from Göring to Himmler & Heydrich, who begin to integrate it into the SS.
  • 16 May: German officer corps endorses Hitler to succeed the ailing President Hindenburg.
  • 30 June - 2 July: Night of the Long Knives or Blood Purge: On pretext of suppressing an alleged SA putsch, much of the brownshirt leadership (i.e. Ernst Röhm) are arrested and executed. Schleicher and other political enemies are murdered. Papen briefly imprisoned; between 150 and 200 were killed. The SS, formerly part of the SA, now comes to the forefront.[18]
  • 13 July: Defending the purge, Hitler declares that to defend Germany he has the right to act unilaterally as "supreme judge" without resort to courts.
  • 2 August: President Hindenburg died. The previous day, the cabinet had enacted the "Law Concerning the Highest State Office of the Reich". This law stated that upon Hindenburg's death, the office of president would be abolished and its powers merged with those of the chancellor.[19] The decree is illegal but goes unchallenged. The army swear oath to Hitler.[20]
  • 19 August: The German people in a plebiscite overwhelmingly (90%) approve merger of the offices of President and Chancellor. Hitler assumes the new title of Führer und Reichskanzler (leader and Reich chancellor). He is now both the head of state as well as the head of the government.[21]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Woodruff Smith, The Ideological Origins of Nazi Imperialism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), pp. 30-31, 36, 78-79.
  2. ^ Joachim Fest, Hitler (Orlando, FL.: Harcourt, 2002), pp. 210-211.
  3. ^ Anton Weiss-Wendt and Rory Yeomans, eds., Racial Science in Hitler's New Europe, 1938-1945 (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2013), p. 6.
  4. ^ a b Kershaw 2008, p. 82.
  5. ^ Stackelberg 2007, p. 9.
  6. ^ Mitcham 1996, p. 67.
  7. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 75, 76.
  8. ^ a b c d Kershaw 2008, p. 89.
  9. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 87.
  10. ^ Zentner & Bedurftig 1997, p. 629.
  11. ^ Shirer 1960, p. 37.
  12. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 93.
  13. ^ Beno Müller Hull, "Human Genetics in Nazi Germany", in Medicine, Ethics and the Third Reich, edited by John J. Michalczyk (Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward, 1994), pp. 27-33.
  14. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 83.
  15. ^ Gretchen E. Schafft, From Racism to Genocide: Anthropology in the Third Reich (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2004), p. 47.
  16. ^ Norman Ohler (7 March 2017). Blitzed: Drugs in the Third Reich. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-328-66409-9.
  17. ^ Majer, Diemut (2003). Non-Germans under the Third Reich: The Nazi judicial and administrative system in Germany and occupied Eastern Europe with special regard to occupied Poland, 1939—1945. JHU Press. pp. 188–9. ISBN 0-8018-6493-3.
  18. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 309–316.
  19. ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 226–227.
  20. ^ Martin Broszat, Hans Buchheim, Hans-Adolf Jacobsen, and Helmut Krausnick, Anatomie des SS-Staates, vol 1. (München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1967), p. 18.
  21. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 318.

Sources

  • Brustein, William (1996). The Logic of Evil, The Social Origins of the Nazi Party, 1925-1933. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. pp. 191–193.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6.
  • Mitcham, Samuel W. (1996). Why Hitler?: The Genesis of the Nazi Reich. Westport, Conn: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-95485-7.
  • Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0.
  • Stackelberg, Roderick (2007). The Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-30860-1.
  • Zentner, Christian; Bedurftig, Friedemann (1997) [1991]. The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-3068079-3-0.
Adolf Hitler's rise to power

Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party then known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party). The name was changed in 1920 to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly known as the Nazi Party). It was anti-Marxist and opposed to the democratic post-war government of the Weimar Republic and the Treaty of Versailles, advocating extreme nationalism and Pan-Germanism as well as virulent anti-Semitism. Hitler's "rise" can be considered to have ended in March 1933, after the Reichstag adopted the Enabling Act of 1933 in that month. President Paul von Hindenburg had already appointed Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933 after a series of parliamentary elections and associated backroom intrigues. The Enabling Act—when used ruthlessly and with authority—virtually assured that Hitler could thereafter constitutionally exercise dictatorial power without legal objection.

Adolf Hitler rose to a place of prominence in the early years of the party. Being one of its best speakers, he told the other members to either make him leader of the party or he would never return. He was aided in part by his willingness to use violence in advancing his political objectives and to recruit party members who were willing to do the same. The Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923 and the later release of his book Mein Kampf (Translation: My Struggle) expanded Hitler's audience. In the mid-1920s, the party engaged in electoral battles in which Hitler participated as a speaker and organizer, as well as in street battles and violence between the Rotfrontkämpferbund and the Nazis' Sturmabteilung (SA). Through the late 1920s and early 1930s, the Nazis gathered enough electoral support to become the largest political party in the Reichstag, and Hitler's blend of political acuity, deceptiveness and cunning converted the party's non-majority but plurality status into effective governing power in the ailing Weimar Republic of 1933.

Once in power, the Nazis created a mythology surrounding the rise to power, and they described the period that roughly corresponds to the scope of this article as either the Kampfzeit (the time of struggle) or the Kampfjahre (years of struggle).

Beer Hall Putsch

The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch, and, in German, as the Hitlerputsch, Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch, Bürgerbräu-Putsch or Marsch auf die Feldherrnhalle ("March on the Field Marshals's Hall"), was a failed coup d'état by the Nazi Party (NSDAP) leader Adolf Hitler—along with Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff and other Kampfbund leaders—to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, which took place from 8 November to 9 November 1923. Approximately two thousand Nazis were marching to the Feldherrnhalle, in the city center, when they were confronted by a police cordon, which resulted in the death of 16 Nazis and four police officers. Hitler, who was wounded during the clash, escaped immediate arrest and was spirited off to safety in the countryside. After two days, he was arrested and charged with treason.The putsch brought Hitler to the attention of the German nation and generated front-page headlines in newspapers around the world. His arrest was followed by a 24-day trial, which was widely publicised and gave him a platform to publicise his nationalist sentiment to the nation. Hitler was found guilty of treason and sentenced to five years in Landsberg Prison, where he dictated Mein Kampf to his fellow prisoners Emil Maurice and Rudolf Hess. On 20 December 1924, having served only nine months, Hitler was released. Hitler now saw that the path to power was through legal means rather than revolution or force, and accordingly changed his tactics, further developing Nazi propaganda.

Demagogue

A demagogue (from Greek δημαγωγός, a popular leader, a leader of a mob, from δῆμος, people, populace, the commons + ἀγωγός leading, leader) or rabble-rouser is a leader who gains popularity in a democracy by exploiting prejudice and ignorance to arouse the common people against elites, whipping up the passions of the crowd and shutting down reasoned deliberation. Demagogues overturn established norms of political conduct, or promise or threaten to do so.Historian Reinhard Luthin defined demagogue thus: "What is a demagogue? He is a politician skilled in oratory, flattery and invective; evasive in discussing vital issues; promising everything to everybody; appealing to the passions rather than the reason of the public; and arousing racial, religious, and class prejudices—a man whose lust for power without recourse to principle leads him to seek to become a master of the masses. He has for centuries practiced his profession of 'man of the people'. He is a product of a political tradition nearly as old as western civilization itself."Demagogues have appeared in democracies since ancient Athens. They exploit a fundamental weakness in democracy: because ultimate power is held by the people, it is possible for the people to give that power to someone who appeals to the lowest common denominator of a large segment of the population. Demagogues usually advocate immediate, forceful action to address a national crisis while accusing moderate and thoughtful opponents of weakness or disloyalty. Once elected to high executive office, demagogues typically unravel constitutional limits on executive power and attempt to convert their democracy to dictatorship.

Whereas conventional wisdom sets up democracy and fascism as opposites, to ancient political theorists democracy had an innate tendency to lead to extreme populist government, and provided unscrupulous demagogues with the ideal opportunity to seize power. In Democracy, Fascism and the New World Order ((Imprint Academic, 2003), Ivo Mosley, grandson of the notorious British blackshirt Oswald Mosley argues that totalitarian regimes may well be the logical outcome of unfettered mass democracy.

Index of World War II articles (E)

E. Frederic Morrow

E. Howard Hunt

E. Ion Pool

E. Lloyd Du Brul

E. R. Stephenson

E. S. Gosney

E. V. Loustalot

Earl E. Anderson

Earl G. Harrison

Earl Johnson (baseball)

Earl Kenneth Olsen

Earl N. Franklin

Earle Birney

Earle E. Partridge

Earle Wheeler

Earls Colne Airfield

Early timeline of Nazism

East African Campaign (World War II)

East Hebei Autonomous Council

East Hopei Army

East Indies Station

East Sea Fleet

East Wall (defensive line)

Easter Posey

Easter Sunday Raid

Eastern Approaches

Eastern District Army (Japan)

Eastern Fleet

Eastern Front (computer game)

Eastern Front (World War II)

Eastern Front Medal

Eastern Sierra Regional Airport

Easterwood Airport

Easy Company (comics)

Ebensee

Eberhard Jäckel

Eberhard Rees

Eberhard Taubert

Eberhard von Mackensen

Ecole Supérieure de Journalisme de Paris

Economic Cooperation Administration

Economy of Manchukuo

Economy of Nazi Germany

Economy of Paris

Ed Albosta

Ed and Lorraine Warren

Ed Bearss

Ed Derwinski

Ed Friendly

Ed Frutig

Ed Goddard

Ed Grothus

Ed Guthman

Ed Jucker

Ed Koch

Ed Levy

Ed McMahon

Ed Molinski

Ed Sabol

Edda Mussolini

Eddie Albert

Eddie Carnett

Eddie Chapman

Eddie Eagan

Eddie Jankowski

Eddie Layton

Eddie Rickenbacker

Eddie Slovik

Eddy Capron

Eddy Hamel

Eddy Wynschenk

Edelweiss Pirates

Edgar Aabye

Edgar André

Edgar Borges

Edgar Christensen

Edgar Faure

Edgar H. Lloyd

Edgar Herschler

Edgar Huff

Edgar Julius Jung

Edgar McCloughry

Edgar Meyer

Edgar Quinet (Paris Métro)

Edgar Quinet

Edgar Rădulescu

Edgar Ray Killen

Edgar Seligman

Edgar Sengier

Edgar Whitcomb

Edgard de Larminat

Edgard Potier

Edgardo Sogno

Edgardo Vaghi

Edge of Darkness (1943 film)

Edges of the Lord

Edith Bülbring

Edith Frank-Holländer

Edith Nourse Rogers

Edith Stein

Edler von Daniels

Edme-Armand-Gaston d'Audiffret-Pasquier

Edmond Decottignies

Edmond Delfour

Edmond Kramer

Edmond Malinvaud

Edmond Marin la Meslée

Edmond Rostand

Edmond Schreiber

Edmund Ernest García

Edmund Glaise-Horstenau

Edmund Graves Brown

Edmund H. Marriott (Captain)

Edmund Heines

Edmund Herring

Edmund Hoffmeister

Edmund Ironside, 1st Baron Ironside

Edmund Jankowski

Edmund Kiss

Edmund Knoll-Kownacki

Edmund Leopold de Rothschild

Edmund Lindmark

Edmund Minahan

Edmund Muskie

Edmund Osmańczyk

Edmund Roßmann

Edmund Sebree

Edmund Veesenmayer

Edouard Branly

Édouard Candeveau

Edouard Drumont

Edouard Le Roy

Edric Bastyan

Edsall-class destroyer escort

Edson Raff

Eduard Benedek Brunschweiler

Eduard Bona Bunić

Eduard Brücklmeier

Eduard Deisenhofer

Eduard Dietl

Eduard Ellman-Eelma

Eduard Meijer

Eduard Neumann

Eduard Pană

Eduard Pütsep

Eduard Ritter von Schleich

Eduard Schulte

Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli

Eduard von Bonin

Eduard von Knorr

Eduard von Steiger

Eduard Wirths

Eduardo Camet

Eduardo Propper de Callejón

Education for Death

Education in Poland during World War II

Educational reform in occupied Japan

Edvard Beneš

Edvard Hultgren

Edvard Kardelj

Edvard Kocbek

Edvin Wide

Edward A. Bennett

Edward A. Carter, Jr.

Edward A. Silk

Edward Addison

Edward Almond

Edward Amerasakera

Edward Ashmore

Edward Bernard Raczyński

Edward Brooke

Edward Bushnell

Edward C. Dahlgren

Edward C. Daly

Edward Chester Plow

Edward Colquhoun Charlton

Edward Condon

Edward D. Wood, Jr.

Edward Dunlop

Edward Ellsberg

Edward E. Gyatt

Edward F. Hennessey

Edward F. Rector

Edward Fielden (RAF officer)

Edward Ford (courtier)

Edward G. Breen

Edward G. Wilkin

Edward Gardner (MP)

Edward Gonzalez Carroll

Edward Gordon Jones

Edward Gourdin

Edward Graff

Edward H. Ahrens

Edward H. Brooks

Edward H. Howell

Edward S. Hamilton

Edward Hart (soccer)

Edward Heath

Edward Heffron

Edward Henry Allen

Edward J. Bonin

Edward J. Gurney

Edward J. Moskala

Edward J. O’Neill

Edward J. Ruppelt

Edward Jennings (rowing)

Edward Kenna

Edward Kennedy (journalist)

Edward Kirby

Edward Kobyliński

Edward L. Beach, Jr.

Edward L. Cochrane

Edward L. Jackson

Edward L. Sittler, Jr.

Edward Lansdale

Edward Leonard Ellington

Edward Marsh (rower)

Edward Marshall Boehm

Edward Mechling

Edward Micka

Edward N. Peterson

Edward Neville Syfret

Edward O'Hare

Edward O'Herron, Jr.

Edward P. King

Edward Peter

Edward Plunkett, 18th Baron of Dunsany

Edward Quinan

Edward Robert Sellstrom

Edward Roschmann

Edward Russell, 26th Baron de Clifford

Edward Rydz-Śmigły

Edward S. Michael

Edward Smith (VC)

Edward Stephen Fogarty Fegen

Edward Stettinius, Jr.

Edward Teller

Edward Thomas Chapman

Edward Tomkins

Edward Toms

Edward Turkington

Edward Tylor Miller

Edward W. Gosselin

Edward Witten

Edward Y. Hartshorne

Edwin A. Pollock

Edwin Alfred Howard

Edwin Barclay

Edwin Bramall, Baron Bramall

Edwin D. Patrick

Edwin Duing Eshleman

Edwin H. May, Jr.

Edwin H. Whitehead

Edwin Hedley

Edwin J. Hill

Edwin Linkomies

Edwin McMillan

Edwin Murati

Edwin Swales

Edwin T. Layton

Edwin Walker

Edwin William Hurst

Edwina Sandys

Eero Berg

Eero Lehtonen

Eero Mäntyranta

Effect of the Siege of Leningrad on the city

Effects of World War II

Efraim Zuroff

Egbert Hayessen

Egon Bretscher

Egon Mayer

Egutu Oliseh

Egypt-Libya Campaign

Ehrenfeld Group

Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus

Ehrenpokal der Luftwaffe

Ehrentempel

Eichmann Interrogated

Eiffel Tower in popular culture

Eiffel Tower

Eight-eight fleet

Eighteenth Air Force

Eighteenth Army (Japan)

Eighth Air Force

Eighth Army (United Kingdom)

Eighth Route Army

Eighth United States Army

Eiji Sawamura

Eileen Nearne

Einar Axel Malmstrom

Einar Gerhardsen

Einar Liberg

Eine Symphonie des Kampfwillens

Eino Leino (wrestler)

Eino Luukkanen

Einsatzgruppe Egypt

Einsatzgruppen Trial

Einsatzgruppen

Einsatzkommando

Einstein–Szilárd letter

Einstossflammenwerfer 46

Eisenwerke Oberdonau

Škorpion vz. 61

EL-DE Haus

Elżbieta Zawacka

Elaine Hendrix

Elbe Day

Elbert L. Kinser

Elbert Tuttle

Elbing-class torpedo boat

Elchonon Wasserman

Elco Naval Division

Elden H. Johnson

Eldon Edwards

Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited

Eldred World War II Museum

Elefant

Elektroboot

Elemér Somfay

Elena Văcărescu

Eleonore Poelsleitner

Eleuthère Irénée du Pont

Eleventh Air Force

Eleventh Army (Japan)

Elford Albin Cederberg

Elfriede Mohnecke

Elfriede Rinkel

Eli L. Whiteley

Eli Thomas Reich

Eli Wallach

Eliad Moreh

Eliane Karp

Eliane Plewman

Elias Degiannis

Elias Katz

Elie Aron Cohen

Elie Carafoli

Elie Frédéric Forey

Elie Wiesel National Institute for Studying the Holocaust in Romania

Elie Wiesel

Elio Vittorini

Elisabeth Becker

Elisabeth Blochmann

Elisabeth de Bourbon-Vendôme

Elisabeth de Rothschild

Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche

Elisabeth Heyward

Elisabeth Leseur

Elisabeth Lupka

Elisabeth Marschall

Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann

Elisabeth of Bavaria (1876-1965)

Elisabeth Schumacher

Elisabeth Volkenrath

Elisabeth von Schleicher

Elisabeth von Thadden

Eliyahu Bet-Zuri

Eliyahu Hakim

Elizabeth Becker-Pinkston

Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon

Elizabeth Devereux-Rochester

Elizabeth Dilling

Elizebeth Friedman

Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom

Elizabeth Lawrie Smellie

Elizabeth P. Hoisington

Elizabeth Wiskemann

Ella Maillart

Ellen King

Ellen Osiier

Elliot Meyerowitz

Elliot Richardson

Elliot Welles

Elliott Roosevelt

Ellis R. Weicht

Elme Marie Caro

Elmer Bernstein

Elmer Charles Bigelow

Elmer E. Fryar

Elmer Gedeon

Elmer Heindl

Elmer J. Burr

Elmer J. Holland

Elmer Knutson

Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr.

Elmo Smith

Elmyr de Hory

Eloi Metullus

Elpida Karamandi

Elsa Gindler

Else Feldmann

Else Hirsch

Else Krüger

Else Ury

Elspeth Rostow

Elton Younger

Elverum Authorization

Elvira Popescu

Elvis Jacob Stahr, Jr.

Elwood Richard Quesada

Ely Jacques Kahn, Jr.

Elyesa Bazna

Emanoil Ionescu

Emanuel Lasker

Emanuel Moravec

Emanuel Querido

Emanuel Schäfer

Emanuele Beraudo di Pralormo

Embassy of Australia in Paris

Embassy of Canada in Paris

Embassy of Serbia in Paris

Embassy of the United States in Paris

Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II

Emergency circulating notes

Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists

Emergency Fighter Program

Emergency Relief and Construction Act

Emergency Shipbuilding program

Emerse Faé

Emerson Dickman

Emerson Norton

Emigration of Germans from Poland in the 20th century

Emil August Fieldorf

Emil Beier

Emil Bitsch

Emil Bodnăraş

Emil Calmanovici

Emil Clade

Emil Fackenheim

Emil Haţieganu

Emil Haussmann

Emil Hácha

Emil Jannings

Emil Kellenberger

Emil Kolben

Emil Konopinski

Emil Lang (fighter ace)

Emil Maurice

Emil Puhl

Emil Racoviţă

Emil Sembach

Emil Sitko

Emil Uzelac

Emil Zinner

Emile-Justin Menier

Émile Albrecht

Emile Boutroux

Emile Dechaineux

Emile Deleau, Jr.

Emile Druart

Emile Lachapelle

Emilie Schindler

Emilio Aguinaldo

Emilio Banfi

Emilio Esteban Infantes

Emilio G. Segrè

Emilio Lussu

Emma Watson

Emma Zimmer

Emmanouil Tsouderos

Emmanuel d'Astier de la Vigerie

Emmanuel de Grouchy, Marquis de Grouchy

Emmanuel Dorado

Emmanuel Foulon

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès

Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie

Emmerich Danzer

Emmett H. Walker, Jr.

Emmett O'Donnell, Jr.

Emmy Andriesse

Emory S. Land

EMP 44

Empire Comfort

Empire of Japan

Empire of the Rising Sun

Empire of the Sun (film)

Empire of the Sun

Empire of Vietnam

Empire Peacemaker

Empire Rest

Empire Shelter

Employee and Worker Faithful Service Medal

Empress of Britain (1930)

Enabling Act of 1933

Encirclement Campaign against Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi Soviet

Encirclement Campaign against Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet

Encirclement Campaign against Northeastern Jiangxi Soviet

Encirclement Campaigns

Encyclopedia of the Holocaust

Encyclopedia of the Third Reich

End of World War II in Europe

End of World War II in the Pacific

Endel Puusepp

Endsieg

Enemy at the Door

Enemy at the Gates

Enemy Coast Ahead

Enemy Objectives Unit

Enfield revolver

Engelbert Endrass

Engineer combat group

Engineering School Leonard de Vinci

England First Party

Englandspiel

Enigma (2001 film)

Enigma (novel)

Enigma machine

Enigma: Rising Tide

Enoch Powell

Enola Gay

Enomoto Takeaki

Enrico Berlinguer

Enrico Bombieri

Enrico Fermi

Enrico Mattei

Enrique de Lucas

Ensemble InterContemporain

Ensign Pulver

Entertainments National Service Association

Entwicklung series

Environmental Measurements Laboratory

Enzian

Enzo Biagi

Enzo Sereni

Enzo Traverso

Enzo Trossero

Ephraim Oshry

Ephraim P. Holmes

Ephraim Urbach

Ephrata Municipal Airport

EPK (Pyrkal) Machine gun

Equipment losses in World War II

Erbkrank

Erbo Graf von Kageneck

ERCO Ercoupe

Ercole Olgeni

Eremia Grigorescu

Ergänzungsjagdgeschwader

Erhard Heiden

Erhard Keller

Erhard Milch

Erhard Raus

Eric "Winkle" Brown

Eric Alfred Winkler

Eric Anderson (VC)

Eric Bols

Eric Burchmore

Eric Calcagno

Eric Carlberg

Eric Charles Twelves Wilson

Eric Djemba-Djemba

Eric Dorman-Smith

Eric Erickson (spy)

Eric Feldt

Eric Fombonne

Eric G. Gibson

Eric Gandar Dower

Eric Gascoigne Robinson

Eric Grant Miles

Eric Halstead

Eric James Brindley Nicolson

Eric Kandel

Eric Koenig

Eric Lawrence Moxey

Eric Lemming

Eric Lock

Eric Lomax

Eric Malmberg (sport wrestler)

Eric Marcus Municipal Airport

Eric Maschwitz

Eric Muhsfeldt

Eric Newby

Eric Pleasants

Eric Rabesandratana

Eric Ravilious

Eric Schwarzkopf

Eric Sykes

Eric W. Harris

Eric William Wright

Eric Williams (writer)

Erich Abraham

Erich Albrecht

Erich Bey

Erich Brandenberger

Erich Bärenfänger

Erich Dethleffsen

Erich Fellgiebel

Erich Fronhöfer

Erich Gimpel

Erich Hartmann

Erich Hilgenfeldt

Erich Hoepner

Erich Hohagen

Erich Honecker

Erich Kahn

Erich Kempka

Erich Klausener

Erich Kleiber

Erich Knauf

Erich Koch

Erich Kordt

Erich Kästner (World War I veteran)

Erich Leie

Erich Leinsdorf

Erich Loewenhardt

Erich Ludendorff

Erich Maas

Erich Marcks

Erich Mende

Erich Mix

Erich Mühsam

Erich Naumann

Erich Neumann (politician)

Erich Priebke

Erich Raeder

Erich Rudorffer

Erich Salomon

Erich Schmidt-Leichner

Erich Topp

Erich Vermehren

Erich von dem Bach

Erich von Manstein

Erich von Selle

Erich Walther

Erich Wolfgang Korngold

Erik Adlerz

Erik Andersson (water polo player)

Erik Bohlin

Erik Byléhn

Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema

Erik Heinrichs

Erik Lundquist

Erik Rhodes (actor, born 1906)

Erik Sætter-Lassen

Erik Scavenius

Erik von Amsberg

Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn

Erik Wilén

Erika Bergmann

Erika Lechner

Erika von Brockdorff

Erillinen Pataljoona 4

Erling Aastad

Erling Dekke Næss

Erling Foss

Ermil Gheorghiu

Ermont Eaubonne railway station

Ernő Schubert

Erna Flegel

Erna Furman

Erna long-range recce group

Erna Paris

Erna Petermann

Ernest A. Watkinson

Ernest Aderman

Ernest Albert Egerton

Ernest B. Price

Ernest Borgnine

Ernest Buckmaster

Ernest Childers

Ernest E. Evans

Ernest Gordon

Ernest H. Dervishian

Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Herbert Pitcher

Ernest Hollings

Ernest Ivy Thomas, Jr.

Ernest King

Ernest Klein

Ernest Lavisse

Ernest Lawrence

Ernest Legouvé

Ernest Lenard Hilbert

Ernest Moreau de Melen

Ernest Oliver Gidden

Ernest Renan

Ernest Smith

Ernest Sykes (VC)

Ernest Tassart

Ernest Vaast

Ernest Vandiver

Ernest W. Prussman

Ernest William Sansom

Ernest William Titterton

Ernie Case

Ernie Curtis

Ernie Dickens

Ernie Koy

Ernie Pyle

Ernst-Günther Baade

Ernst-Günther Schenck

Ernst-Robert Grawitz

Ernst-Wilhelm Reinert

Ernst Arndt (actor)

Ernst Barkmann

Ernst Bergmann (philosopher)

Ernst Biberstein

Ernst Bloch

Ernst Boepple

Ernst Busch (military)

Ernst Cohen

Ernst Düllberg

Ernst Fast

Ernst Felle

Ernst Gadermann

Ernst Graf zu Reventlow

Ernst Gustav Kirsch

Ernst Hanfstaengl

Ernst Heinkel

Ernst Herman van Rappard

Ernst Hermann Meyer

Ernst Hoppenberg

Ernst Jünger

Ernst Kaether

Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Ernst Kantorowicz

Ernst Kitzinger

Ernst Knaack

Ernst Krankemann

Ernst Kretschmer

Ernst Kupfer

Ernst Lerch

Ernst Lindemann

Ernst Linder

Ernst Melchior

Ernst Niekisch

Ernst Nolte

Ernst Pöhner

Ernst R. G. Eckert

Ernst Röhm

Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg

Ernst Rüdin

Ernst Sagebiel

Ernst Schultz

Ernst Schäfer

Ernst Stuhlinger

Ernst Thälmann

Ernst Tiburzy

Ernst Toch

Ernst Udet

Ernst von Bodelschwingh-Velmede

Ernst von Harnack

Ernst von Weizsäcker

Ernst W. Mayr

Ernst Wiechert

Ernst Wilhelm Bohle

Ernst Zündel

Erprobungskommando

Erwin Böhme

Erwin Bumke

Erwin Clausen

Erwin Engelbrecht

Erwin König

Erwin Planck

Erwin Rösener

Erwin Rommel

Erwin Schild

Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Schulhoff

Erwin Thaler

Erwin von Lahousen

Erwin von Witzleben

Escape by Night (1960 film)

Escape from Colditz

Escape from Sobibor

Escape to Athena

Escape to Victory

Eschwege displaced persons camp

ESCP-EAP European School of Management

Escuadrón 201

ESISAR

Eske Brun

Esmond Knight

Esmond Romilly

Espace Dalí

Espeland concentration camp

Esplanade de La Défense (Paris Métro)

ESPO

Esprit Fléchier

Essex-class aircraft carrier

Essex County Division

Essex Scottish Regiment

Esso Tower

Estella Agsteribbe

Esterwegen

Esther Bubley

Esther Béjarano

Estonia in World War II

Estonian anti-German resistance movement 1941–1944

Estuaire (biennale)

Et in Arcadia ego

Ethel Lackie

Etienne Léandri

Etienne Marc Quatremère

Etorofu-class escort ship

Ettore Bastico

Etty Hillesum

Eugen-Ludwig Zweigart

Eugen Beyer

Eugen Bolz

Eugen Fischer

Eugen Hadamovsky

Eugen Honig

Eugen Lunde

Eugen Meindl

Eugen Ott (ambassador)

Eugen Ott (general)

Eugen Ritter von Schobert

Eugen Schmidt

Eugen Sigg

Eugen von Knilling

Eugene A. Chappie

Eugene A. Greene

Eugene A. Valencia, Jr.

Eugene B. Fluckey

Eugene Blair

Eugene Bullard

Eugene Colson

Eugene E. Lindsey

Eugene Earle Amick

Eugene Esmonde

Eugene F. George

Eugene Hollander

Eugene Lazowski

Eugene M. Zuckert

Eugene McDonnell

Eugene Meyer

Eugene Morland Key

Eugene Oberst

Eugene P. Wilkinson

Eugene Rabinowitch

Eugene Sledge

Eugene T. Booth

Eugenics in Showa Japan

Eugenio Calò

Eugenio Monti

Eugeniusz Horbaczewski

Eugeniusz Lokajski

Eugeniusz Nowak

Eugeniusz Stasiecki

Eugène Apert

Eugène Auguste Ernest Havet

Eugène Balme

Eugène Belgrand

Eugène Besse

Eugène Chavant

Eugène Choisel

Eugène Constant

Eugène de Beauharnais

Eugène Delacroix

Eugène Deloncle

Eugène Ionesco

Eugène Isabey

Eugène Marin Labiche

Eugène Mougin

Eugène Schueller

Eugène Scribe

Euphemia Welby

Euphrasia Donnelly

Euro Disney S.C.A.

EuroBasket 1951

Euronext Paris

Europa (wargame)

Europa Europa

Europe (Paris Métro)

Europe first

Europe

European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal

European-American Unity and Rights Organization

European Advisory Commission

European Air War

European Kindred

European Molecular Biology Laboratory

European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

European Theater of Operations

European Theater

European Theatre of World War II

Europäische Freiwillige

Eustaquio de Escandón y Barrón

Eva-Maria Buch

Eva Braun

Eva Green

Eva Olliwier

Eva Schulze-Knabe

Evacuation of civilians from the Channel Islands in 1940

Evacuation of Finnish Karelia

Evacuation of German civilians during the end of World War II

Evacuation of Karafuto and Kuriles

Evacuation of Manchukuo

Evacuation of Tallinn (1941)

Evacuations of civilians in Britain during World War II

Evald Mikson

Evan Mecham

Evans Carlson

Evelyn Barker

Evelyn Colyer

Evelyn Owen

Evelyn Sharp (aviator)

Evelyn Waugh

Evelyn Witthoff

Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor

Events preceding World War II in Asia

Events preceding World War II in Europe

Everett F. Larson

Everett P. Pope

Evert Lundquist

Evert Nilsson

Everton Santos

Everybody Go Home

Evripidis Bakirtzis

Evsei Vainrub

Ewa Paradies

Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin

Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin

Ewald Walch

Ewan Murray Robson

Ewell Ross McCright

Ewen Montagu

Ewing Kauffman

Ex-Voto de 1662

Ex parte Endo

Ex parte Quirin

Excelsior tank

Execution (novel)

Executive Order 9066

Executive Order 9102

Exelmans (Paris Métro)

Exercise Eskimo

Exercise Tiger

Exeter International Airport

Expansion operations and planning of the Axis Powers

Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil

Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (1937)

Expulsion of Germans after World War II

Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia

Expulsion of Poles by Germany

Extermination camp

Extermination of Soviet prisoners of war by Nazi Germany

Extermination through labour

Extraordinary State Commission

Eye of the Needle (film)

Eye of the Needle (novel)

List of books about Nazi Germany

This is a list of books about Nazi Germany, the state that existed in Germany during the period from 1933 to 1945, when its government was controlled by Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP; Nazi Party). It also includes some important works on the development of Nazi imperial ideology, totalitarianism, German society during the era, the formation of anti-Semitic racial policies, the post-war ramifications of Nazism, along with various conceptual interpretations of the Third Reich.

Political views of Adolf Hitler

The political views of Adolf Hitler have presented historians and biographers with some difficulty. His writings and methods were often adapted to need and circumstance, although there were some steady themes, including antisemitism, anti-communism, anti-parliamentarianism, German Lebensraum ("living space"), belief in the superiority of an "Aryan race" and an extreme form of German nationalism. Hitler personally claimed he was fighting against "Jewish Marxism".Adolf Hitler's political views were formed during three periods, namely (1) his years as a poverty-stricken young man in Vienna and Munich prior to World War I, during which he turned to nationalist-oriented political pamphlets and antisemitic newspapers out of distrust for mainstream newspapers and political parties; (2) the closing months of World War I when Germany lost the war as Hitler is said to have developed his extreme nationalism during this time, desiring to "save" Germany from both external and internal "enemies" who in his view betrayed it; (3) and the 1920s, during which his early political career began and he wrote Mein Kampf. Hitler formally renounced his Austrian citizenship on 7 April 1925, but did not acquire German citizenship until almost seven years later; thereby allowing him to run for public office. Hitler was influenced by Benito Mussolini, who was appointed Prime Minister of Italy in October 1922 after his "March on Rome". In many ways, Hitler epitomizes "the force of personality in political life" as mentioned by Friedrich Meinecke. He was essential to the very framework of Nazism's political appeal and its manifestation in Germany. So important were Hitler's views that they immediately affected the political policies of Nazi Germany. He asserted the Führerprinzip ("leader principle"). The principle relied on absolute obedience of all subordinates to their superiors. Hitler viewed the party structure and later the government structure as a pyramid, with himself—the infallible leader—at the apex.Hitler firmly believed that the force of "will" was decisive in determining the political course for a nation and rationalized his actions accordingly. Given that Hitler was appointed "leader of the German Reich for life", he "embodied the supreme power of the state and, as the delegate of the German people", it was his role to determine the "outward form and structure of the Reich". To that end, Hitler's political motivation consisted of an ideology that combined traditional German and Austrian antisemitism with an intellectualized racial doctrine resting on an admixture of bits and pieces of social Darwinism and the ideas—mostly obtained second-hand and only partially understood—of Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, Richard Wagner, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Arthur de Gobineau and Alfred Rosenberg as well as Paul de Lagarde, Georges Sorel, Alfred Ploetz and others.

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