Earl Marshal (alternatively Marschal or Marischal) is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England (then, following the Act of Union 1800, in the United Kingdom). He is the eighth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Constable and above the Lord High Admiral.
The marshal was originally responsible, along with the constable, for the monarch's horses and stables including connected military operations. As a result of the decline of chivalry and sociocultural change, the position of Earl Marshal has evolved and among his responsibilities today is the organisation of major ceremonial state occasions like the monarch's coronation in Westminster Abbey and state funerals. He is also a leading officer of arms and oversees the College of Arms.
Arms of the Dukes of Norfolk as Earl Marshal.
Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk
since 24 June 2002
|Inaugural holder||Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk (1672 creation)|
|Formation||1672 (current office granted by Letters Patent)|
The office of royal marshal existed in much of Europe, involving managing horses and protecting the monarch. In England, the office became hereditary under John FitzGilbert the Marshal (served c.1130–1165) after The Anarchy, and rose in prominence under his second son, William Marshal, later Earl of Pembroke. He served under several kings, acted as regent, and organised funerals and the regency during Henry III's childhood. After passing through his daughter's husband to the Earls of Norfolk, the post evolved into "Earl Marshal" and the title remained unchanged, even after the earldom of Norfolk became a dukedom.
In the Middle Ages, the Earl Marshal and the Lord High Constable were the officers of the king's horses and stables. When chivalry declined in importance, the constable's post declined and the Earl Marshal became the head of the College of Arms, the body concerned with all matters of genealogy and heraldry. In conjunction with the Lord High Constable, he had held a court, known as the Court of Chivalry, for the administration of justice in accordance with the law of arms, which was concerned with many subjects relating to military matters, such as ransom, booty and soldiers' wages, and including the misuse of armorial bearings.
In 1672, the office of Marshal of England and the title of Earl Marshal of England were made hereditary in the Howard family. In a declaration made on 16 June 1673 by Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, the Lord Privy Seal, in reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms the powers of the Earl Marshal were stated as being "to have power to order, judge, and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility, honour, and chivalry; to make laws, ordinances and statutes for the good government of the Officers of Arms; to nominate Officers to fill vacancies in the College of Arms; [and] to punish and correct Officers of Arms for misbehaviour in the execution of their places". Additionally it was declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted, and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms, without the consent of the Earl Marshal.
The Earl Marshal is considered the eighth of the Great Officers of State, with the Lord High Constable above him and only the Lord High Admiral beneath him. Nowadays, the Earl Marshal's role has mainly to do with the organisation of major state ceremonies such as coronations and state funerals. Annually, the Earl Marshal helps organise the State Opening of Parliament. The Earl Marshal also remains to have charge over the College of Arms and no coat of arms may be granted without his warrant. As a symbol of his office, he carries a baton of gold with black finish at either end.
In the general order of precedence, the Earl Marshal is currently the highest hereditary position in the United Kingdom outside the Royal Family. Although other state and ecclesiastical officers rank above in precedence, they are not hereditary. The exception is the office of Lord Great Chamberlain, which is notionally higher than Earl Marshal and also hereditary, but as it is currently held by a marquess (Marquess of Cholmondeley), is consequently lower in the general order of precedence. The holding of the Earl Marshalship secures the Duke of Norfolk's traditional position as the "first peer" of the land, above all other dukes.
The House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, but the Act provided that the persons holding the office of Earl Marshal and, if a peer, the Lord Great Chamberlain continue for the time being to have seats so as to carry out their ceremonial functions in the House of Lords.
Among the men who have held the title of Earl Marshal of Ireland are: -
(The Barony of Morley was held by his descendants until it fell into abeyance in 1697)
See Earl Marischal.
|Term of office||Monarch|
|Thomas de Mowbray
1st Duke of Norfolk
1st Duke of Surrey
|Ralph de Neville
1st Earl of Westmorland
|John de Mowbray
2nd Duke of Norfolk
|John de Mowbray
3rd Duke of Norfolk
|John de Mowbray
4th Duke of Norfolk
1st Duke of Norfolk
|William de Berkeley
1st Marquess of Berkeley
Duke of York
2nd Duke of Norfolk
1st Duke of Suffolk
3rd Duke of Norfolk
1st Duke of Somerset
1st Duke of Northumberland
3rd Duke of Norfolk
4th Duke of Norfolk
6th Earl of Shrewsbury
2nd Earl of Essex
4th Earl of Worcester
Earl of Arundel and Surrey
Earl of Arundel and Surrey
3rd Earl of Suffolk
6th Duke of Norfolk
7th Duke of Norfolk
8th Duke of Norfolk
9th Duke of Norfolk
10th Duke of Norfolk
11th Duke of Norfolk
|Bernard Edward Howard
12th Duke of Norfolk
KG PC FRS
|Henry Charles Howard
13th Duke of Norfolk
|Henry Granville Fitzalan-Howard
14th Duke of Norfolk
15th Duke of Norfolk
KG GCVO VD PC
|Bernard Marmaduke Fitzalan-Howard
16th Duke of Norfolk
KG GCVO GBE TD PC
17th Duke of Norfolk
KG GCVO CB CBE MC DL
|Edward William Fitzalan-Howard
18th Duke of Norfolk
Deputy Earls Marshal have been named at various times, discharging the responsibilities of the office during the minority or infirmity of the Earl Marshal. Prior to an Act of Parliament in 1824, Protestant deputies were required when the Earl Marshal was a Roman Catholic.
|Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle||1673–?|
|Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle||1701–1706|
|Henry Howard, 6th Earl of Suffolk, 1st Earl of Bindon||1706–1718|
|Henry Bowes Howard, 4th Earl of Berkshire||1718–1725|
|Talbot Yelverton, 1st Earl of Sussex||1725–1731|
|Francis Howard, 1st Earl of Effingham||1731–1743|
|Thomas Howard, 2nd Earl of Effingham||1743–1763|
|Henry Howard, 12th Earl of Suffolk, 5th Earl of Berkshire||1763–1765|
|Richard Lumley-Saunderson, 4th Earl of Scarbrough||1765–1777|
|Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Effingham||1777–1782|
|Charles Howard, Earl of Surrey||1782–1786|
|Lord Henry Howard-Molyneux-Howard||1816–1824||12th Duke of Norfolk|
|Lord Edward Fitzalan-Howard||1861–1868||15th Duke of Norfolk|
|Edmund Fitzalan-Howard, 1st Viscount Fitzalan of Derwent||1917–1929||16th Duke of Norfolk|
|Edward William Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey||2000–2002||17th Duke of Norfolk|
Events from the year 1576 in Ireland.Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk
Bernard Marmaduke Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk, (30 May 1908 – 31 January 1975), styled Earl of Arundel and Surrey until 1917, was a British peer and politician. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 15th Duke of Norfolk, who died when Bernard was only 9 years old. His mother was Gwendoline Herries, 12th Lady Herries of Terregles, and he inherited her peerage when she died in 1945.
He was educated at the Oratory School and was commissioned into the Royal Horse Guards in 1931, but resigned his commission in 1933. He joined the 4th (Territorial Army) Battalion, Royal Sussex Regiment in 1934, and was promoted Major in 1939. He served briefly in World War II, in which he was wounded in action. He subsequently served as Agricultural Secretary in Winston Churchill's Cabinet from February 1940 until June 1945.
As hereditary Earl Marshal, he organised the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, the funeral of Winston Churchill, and the investiture of Prince Charles as Prince of Wales. He was a keen cricket fan and was the manager of the English cricket team in Australia in 1962–63, which excited much press interest.Charles Howard, 10th Duke of Norfolk
Charles Howard, 10th Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal (1 December 1720 – 31 August 1786), was an English peer and politician. He was the son of Henry Charles Howard (d. 10 June 1730) and Mary Aylward (d. 7 October 1747). He married Catherine Brockholes (d. 21 November 1784), daughter of John Brockholes, on 8 November 1739, and succeeded to the title of Duke of Norfolk in 1777 after the death of his cousin Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk.
Charles Howard died on 31 August 1786, at age 65, and was succeeded by his son Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk.College of Arms
The College of Arms, also known as the College of Heralds, is a royal corporation consisting of professional officers of arms, with jurisdiction over England, Wales, Northern Ireland and some Commonwealth realms. The heralds are appointed by the British Sovereign and are delegated authority to act on behalf of the Crown in all matters of heraldry, the granting of new coats of arms, genealogical research and the recording of pedigrees. The College is also the official body responsible for matters relating to the flying of flags on land, and it maintains the official registers of flags and other national symbols. Though a part of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom the College is self-financed, unsupported by any public funds.
Founded by royal charter in 1484 by King Richard III, the College is one of the few remaining official heraldic authorities in Europe. Within the United Kingdom, there are two such authorities, the Court of the Lord Lyon in Scotland and the College for the rest of the United Kingdom. The College has had its home in the City of London since its foundation, and has been at its present location, on Queen Victoria Street, since 1555. The College of Arms also undertakes and consults on the planning of many ceremonial occasions such as coronations, state funerals, the annual Garter Service and the State Opening of Parliament. Heralds of the College accompany the sovereign on many of these occasions.
The College comprises thirteen officers or heralds: three Kings of Arms, six Heralds of Arms and four Pursuivants of Arms. There are also seven officers extraordinary, who take part in ceremonial occasions but are not part of the College. The entire corporation is overseen by the Earl Marshal, a hereditary office held by the Duke of Norfolk, currently Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk.Duke of Norfolk
The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the peerage of England, and also, as Earl of Arundel, the premier earl. The Duke of Norfolk is, moreover, the Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England. The seat of the Duke of Norfolk is Arundel Castle in Sussex, although the title refers to the county of Norfolk. The current duke is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk. The dukes have historically been Catholic, a state of affairs known as recusancy in England.
All past and present dukes have been descended from Edward I (see Dukes of Norfolk family tree). The son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, was Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey; the earl was descended from both Edward I and Edward III.Earl of Norfolk
Earl of Norfolk is a title which has been created several times in the Peerage of England. Created in 1070, the first major dynasty to hold the title was the 12th and 13th century Bigod family, and it then was later held by the Mowbrays, who were also made Dukes of Norfolk. Due to the Bigods' descent in the female line from William Marshal, they inherited the hereditary office of Earl Marshal, still held by the Dukes of Norfolk today. The present title was created in 1644 for Thomas Howard, 18th Earl of Arundel, the heir of the Howard Dukedom of Norfolk which had been forfeit in 1572. Arundel's grandson, the 20th Earl of Arundel and 3rd Earl of Norfolk, was restored to the Dukedom as 5th Duke upon the Restoration in 1660, and the title continues to be borne by the Dukes of Norfolk.Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk
Edward William Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, (born 2 December 1956), styled Earl of Arundel between 1975 and 2002, is a British peer who holds the office of Earl Marshal.Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk
Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk (5 June 1686 – 20 September 1777), Earl Marshal was a British peer and politician.Edward Walker (officer of arms)
Sir Edward Walker (1611 – February 1677) was an officer of arms and antiquarian who served as Garter King of Arms.Great Officer of State
In the United Kingdom the Great Officers of State are traditional ministers of The Crown who either inherit their positions or are appointed to exercise certain largely ceremonial functions or to operate as members of the government. Separate Great Officers of State exist for England and for Scotland, and formerly for Ireland. Many of the Great Officers became largely ceremonial because historically they were so influential that their powers had to be resumed by the Crown or dissipated.
Government in all the medieval monarchies generally comprised the king's companions, later becoming the Royal Household, from which the officers of state arose, initially having household and government duties. Later some of these officers split into two, in the Great Officer of the State and in the Royal Household, or were superseded by new officers or absorbed by existing officers. Many of the officers became hereditary and thus removed from practical operation of either the state or the household.Herald Chancellor of Canada
The Herald Chancellor (Chancelier d'armes in French) is an officer at the Canadian Heraldic Authority. The office is always filled by the Secretary to the Governor General. The Herald Chancellor is responsible for the administration of the entire vice-regal office. In some ways, the position is analogous to the Earl Marshal in England, as it is the Herald Chancellor who issues the warrants permitting the Chief Herald of Canada to make grants of arms. The Herald Chancellor also signs each completed grant document, along with the Chief Herald.
The position of Deputy Herald Chancellor (Vice-chancelier d'armes in French) is held by the Deputy Secretary to the Governor General, who is also the head of the Chancellery of Honours, responsible for the administration of the Canadian honours system. When the Herald Chancellor is unavailable, the Deputy Herald Chancellor will issue the proper warrants for the Chief Herald of Canada to grant arms.High Court of Chivalry
Her Majesty's High Court of Chivalry is a civil law (i.e., non common law) court in English and Welsh law with jurisdiction over matters of heraldry. The court has been in existence since the fourteenth century; however, it rarely sits. The sole judge is now the hereditary Earl Marshal of England, the Duke of Norfolk, though if not a professional lawyer, he normally appoints a professional lawyer as his lieutenant or surrogate.In Scotland, these types of cases are heard in the Court of the Lord Lyon, which is a standing civil and criminal court, with its own judge – the Lord Lyon King of Arms and its own procurator fiscal (public prosecutor) under the Scottish legal system.John Marshal (Marshal of England)
John FitzGilbert the Marshal of the Horses (c. 1105 – 1165) was a minor Anglo-Norman nobleman during the reign of King Stephen, and fought in the 12th century civil war on the side of Empress Matilda.Lord High Constable of England
The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal. His office is now called out of abeyance only for coronations. The Lord High Constable was originally the commander of the royal armies and the Master of the Horse. He was also, in conjunction with the Earl Marshal, president of the Court of Chivalry or Court of Honour. In feudal times, martial law was administered in the court of the Lord High Constable.The constableship was granted as a grand serjeanty with the Earldom of Hereford by the Empress Matilda to Miles of Gloucester, and was carried by his heiress to the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford and Essex. They had a surviving male heir, and still have heirs male, but due to the power of the monarchy the constableship was irregularly given to the Staffords, Dukes of Buckingham; and on the attainder of Edward Stafford, the third Duke, in the reign of King Henry VIII, it became merged into the Crown. Since that point it has not existed as a separate office, except as a temporary appointment for the Coronation of a monarch; in other circumstances the Earl Marshal exercises the traditional duties of the office.The Lacys and Verduns were hereditary constables of Ireland from the 12th to the 14th century; and the Hays, Earls of Erroll, have been hereditary Lord High Constables of Scotland from early in the 14th century.Maltravers Herald Extraordinary
Maltravers Herald of Arms Extraordinary is a current officer of arms extraordinary in England. As such, Maltravers is a royal herald, but is not a member of the College of Arms in London. The present office was created in 1887 by the Earl Marshal, who was also the Duke of Norfolk and Baron Maltravers. The office is known to have been held by a pursuivant to Lord Maltravers when he was deputy of Calais from 1540 to 1544. The badge is blazoned as A Fret Or. It was officially assigned in 1973, though it had been assumed by two Maltravers Heralds in the 1930s. It derives from the coat of arms of Maltravers Sable a Fret Or and a Label of the points Ermine, and was the badge of John, Earl of Arundel through which family the barony passed to the Howard dukes of Norfolk.The current Maltravers Herald of Arms Extraordinary is John Martin Robinson, MA (St Andrews) DPhil (Oxford) FSA.Richard Lumley-Saunderson, 4th Earl of Scarbrough
Richard Lumley-Saunderson, 4th Earl of Scarbrough PC (May 1725 – 12 May 1782) was a British peer, styled Viscount Lumley from 1740 to 1752.He was appointed a deputy lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire on 4 August 1757. On 27 October 1759, he was appointed colonel of the North Lincolnshire battalion of militia, and was made a deputy lieutenant of Lincolnshire on 30 November 1761.Scarbrough was Cofferer of the Household and deputy Earl Marshal from 1765 to 1766, and was sworn of the Privy Council in 1765.Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey
Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey, 3rd Earl of Kent, KG, Earl Marshal (8 September 1372 – 7 January 1400) was an English nobleman and courtier.Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal (11 December 1683 – 23 December 1732) was an English peer and politician. He was the son of Lord Thomas Howard and Mary Elizabeth Savile. Upon the death of his uncle Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk, he inherited the titles of 17th Baron Furnivall and 8th Duke of Norfolk. He married Maria Shireburn, daughter of Sir Nicholas Shireburn, 1st and last Bt., of Stonyhurst Hall, on 26 May 1709, when she was age 16 and a half, with a fortune of more than £30,000.At the time of the Jacobite Rising of 1715 he used his influence to secure the acquittal of his brother Edward on the charge of high treason. The Duke himself was arrested on 29 October 1722 under suspicion of involvement in a Jacobite plot, and was imprisoned in the Tower of London. His wife, refused permission to visit, prevailed upon the Earl of Carlisle to act as surety for his bail in May 1723. Howard was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England from 1729-30.His marriage is said to have been unhappy, and his wife, a staunch Catholic and Jacobite, separated from him when he—in her words—"truckled to the Usurper".The Duke died childless on 23 December 1732 at age 49. Upon his death, the title passed to his brother Edward.Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk
Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 3rd Earl of Norfolk, 6th Baron Mowbray, 7th Baron Segrave, KG, Earl Marshal (22 March 1366 – 22 September 1399) was an English peer. As a result of his involvement in the power struggles which led up to the fall of Richard II, he was banished and died in exile in Venice.
|Kings of Arms|
|Heralds of Arms|
|Pursuivants of Arms|
|Scotland Crown Officers|
Italics indicate officers that are in commission, in abeyance or defunct
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