Earl Marshal

Earl Marshal (alternatively Marschal or Marischal) is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England (then, following the Act of Union 1800, in the United Kingdom). He is the eighth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Constable and above the Lord High Admiral.

The marshal was originally responsible, along with the constable, for the monarch's horses and stables including connected military operations. As a result of the decline of chivalry and sociocultural change, the position of Earl Marshal has evolved and among his responsibilities today is the organisation of major ceremonial state occasions like the monarch's coronation in Westminster Abbey and state funerals.[1] He is also a leading officer of arms and oversees the College of Arms.

The current Earl Marshal is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, who inherited the position in 2002. There was formerly an Earl Marshal of Ireland and Earl Marischal of Scotland.

Earl Marshal
Arms of the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl Marshal
Arms of the Dukes of Norfolk as Earl Marshal.
StyleHis Grace
Inaugural holderHenry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk (1672 creation)
Formation1672 (current office granted by Letters Patent)

England

The office of royal marshal existed in much of Europe, involving managing horses and protecting the monarch. In England, the office became hereditary under John FitzGilbert the Marshal (served c.1130–1165) after The Anarchy, and rose in prominence under his second son, William Marshal, later Earl of Pembroke. He served under several kings, acted as regent, and organised funerals and the regency during Henry III's childhood. After passing through his daughter's husband to the Earls of Norfolk, the post evolved into "Earl Marshal" and the title remained unchanged, even after the earldom of Norfolk became a dukedom.

In the Middle Ages, the Earl Marshal and the Lord High Constable were the officers of the king's horses and stables. When chivalry declined in importance, the constable's post declined and the Earl Marshal became the head of the College of Arms, the body concerned with all matters of genealogy and heraldry. In conjunction with the Lord High Constable, he had held a court, known as the Court of Chivalry, for the administration of justice in accordance with the law of arms, which was concerned with many subjects relating to military matters, such as ransom, booty and soldiers' wages, and including the misuse of armorial bearings.

In 1672, the office of Marshal of England and the title of Earl Marshal of England were made hereditary in the Howard family.[2][3][4] In a declaration made on 16 June 1673 by Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, the Lord Privy Seal, in reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms the powers of the Earl Marshal were stated as being "to have power to order, judge, and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility, honour, and chivalry; to make laws, ordinances and statutes for the good government of the Officers of Arms; to nominate Officers to fill vacancies in the College of Arms; [and] to punish and correct Officers of Arms for misbehaviour in the execution of their places". Additionally it was declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted, and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms, without the consent of the Earl Marshal.

The Earl Marshal is considered the eighth of the Great Officers of State, with the Lord High Constable above him and only the Lord High Admiral beneath him. Nowadays, the Earl Marshal's role has mainly to do with the organisation of major state ceremonies such as coronations and state funerals. Annually, the Earl Marshal helps organise the State Opening of Parliament. The Earl Marshal also remains to have charge over the College of Arms and no coat of arms may be granted without his warrant. As a symbol of his office, he carries a baton of gold with black finish at either end.

In the general order of precedence, the Earl Marshal is currently the highest hereditary position in the United Kingdom outside the Royal Family. Although other state and ecclesiastical officers rank above in precedence, they are not hereditary. The exception is the office of Lord Great Chamberlain, which is notionally higher than Earl Marshal and also hereditary, but as it is currently held by a marquess (Marquess of Cholmondeley), is consequently lower in the general order of precedence. The holding of the Earl Marshalship secures the Duke of Norfolk's traditional position as the "first peer" of the land, above all other dukes.

The House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, but the Act provided that the persons holding the office of Earl Marshal and, if a peer, the Lord Great Chamberlain continue for the time being to have seats so as to carry out their ceremonial functions in the House of Lords.

Ireland

Among the men who have held the title of Earl Marshal of Ireland are: -

  • William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (died 1219)
  • John Marshal (died 1235) (illegitimate son of John Marshal, brother of the above William Marshal, who died in 1194)
  • William Marshal 'who joined the Barons against King Henry III and d. 1264' (grandson of the last-mentioned John Marshal)[5]
  • John Marshal, son of the last-mentioned and father of the next-mentioned.[5]
  • William Marshal, 1st Baron Marshal (died 1314)[5]
  • John Marshal, 2nd Baron Marshal (died 1316/17)[5]
  • Robert de Morley, 2nd Baron Morley (died 1360) (husband of Hawisia, sister of the last-mentioned John Marshal)[6]
  • William de Morley, 3rd Baron Morley (died 1379)[6]
  • Thomas de Morley, 4th Baron Morley (died 1416)[6]
  • Thomas de Morley, 5th Baron Morley (died 1435)[6]

(The Barony of Morley was held by his descendants until it fell into abeyance in 1697)

See

Scotland

See Earl Marischal.

Lords Marshal of England, 1135–1386

William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
Depiction by Matthew Paris (d.1259) of the arms of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1194–1219): Party per pale or and vert, overall a lion rampant gules
BigodModernArms
Arms of "Bigod Modern": Party per pale or and vert, overall a lion rampant gules, adopted by Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk (1269–1306), after 1269 following his inheritance of the office of Marshal of England from the Marshal family

Earls Marshal of England, 1386–present

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Monarch
(Reign)
No image Thomas de Mowbray
1st Duke of Norfolk

KG
(1367/68–1399)
1386 1398 Richard II
Coat of Arms of Richard II of England (1377-1399)
(1377–1399)
No image Thomas Holland
1st Duke of Surrey

KG
(1374–1400)
1398 1399
Ralph Neville Ralph de Neville
1st Earl of Westmorland

KG PC
(c. 1364–1425)
1400 1412 Henry IV
Coat of Arms of Henry IV & V of England (1413-1422)
(1399–1413)
No image John de Mowbray
2nd Duke of Norfolk

KG
(1392–1432)
1412 1432
Henry V
(1413–1422)
Henry VI
Coat of Arms of Henry VI of England (1422-1471)

(1422–1461)
No image John de Mowbray
3rd Duke of Norfolk

KG
(1415–1461)
1432 1461
No image John de Mowbray
4th Duke of Norfolk

KG
(1444–1476)
1461 1476 Edward IV
(1461–1470)
Henry VI
(1470–1471)
Edward IV
Coat of Arms of Edward IV of England (1461-1483)

(1471–1483)
No image Jointly: 1476 1483
Edward V
Coat of Arms of Edward V of England (1483)

(1483–1483)
John-howard-1st-duke-of-norfolk John Howard
1st Duke of Norfolk

KG
(c. 1425–1485)
1483 1485 Richard III
Coat of Arms of Richard III of England (1483-1485)
(1483–1485)
No image William de Berkeley
1st Marquess of Berkeley

PC
(1426–1492)
1486 1492 Henry VII
Coat of Arms of England (1509-1554)
(1485–1509)
HenryVIII 1509 Lord Henry
Duke of York

KG PC
(1491–1547)
1494 1509
1 Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk Thomas Howard
2nd Duke of Norfolk

KG PC
(1443–1524)
1509 1524 Henry VIII
Coat of Arms of England (1509-1554)
(1509–1547)
Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk Charles Brandon
1st Duke of Suffolk

KG
(1484–1545)
1524 1533
Hans Holbein the Younger - Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (Royal Collection) Thomas Howard
3rd Duke of Norfolk

KG PC
(1473–1554)
1533 1547
Edward Seymour Edward Seymour
1st Duke of Somerset

KG
(c. 1500–1552)
1547 1551 Edward VI
Coat of Arms of England (1509-1554)
(1547–1553)
John Dudley (Knole, Kent) John Dudley
1st Duke of Northumberland

KG PC
(1504–1553)
1551 1553
Hans Holbein the Younger - Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (Royal Collection) Thomas Howard
3rd Duke of Norfolk

KG PC
(1473–1554)
1553 1554 Mary I
Coat of Arms of England (1554-1558)
(1553–1558)
ThomasHoward4HerzogvonNorfolk Thomas Howard
4th Duke of Norfolk

KG
(1536–1572)
1554 1572
Elizabeth I
Coat of Arms of England (1558-1603)

(1558–1603)
George Talbot 6th Earl of Shrewsbury 1580 George Talbot
6th Earl of Shrewsbury

KG
(1528–1590)
1572 1590
No image In commission:
1590 1597
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger Robert Devereux
2nd Earl of Essex

KG PC
(1565–1601)
1597 1601
No image In commission 1602 1603
4thEarlOfWorcester Edward Somerset
4th Earl of Worcester

KG
(c. 1550–1628)
1603 1603 James I
Coat of Arms of England (1603-1649)
(1603–1625)
No image In commission:[8] 1604 1616
No image In commission:[8] 1616 1622
Thomas-howard-rubensportrait Thomas Howard
Earl of Arundel and Surrey

PC
(1586–1646)
1622 1646
Charles I
Coat of Arms of England (1603-1649)

(1625–1649)
22ndEarlOfArundel Henry Howard
Earl of Arundel and Surrey

PC
(1608–1652)
1646 1652
No image Vacant 1652 1661 Interregnum
Coat of Arms of the Protectorate (1653–1659)
(1649–1660)
No image James Howard
3rd Earl of Suffolk

(1606/07–1688)
1661 1662 Charles II
Coat of Arms of England (1660-1689)
(1660–1685)
No image In commission:[9]
1662 1672
Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk Henry Howard
6th Duke of Norfolk

(1628–1684)
1672 1684
7th Duke of Norfolk Henry Howard
7th Duke of Norfolk

KG PC
(1655–1701)
1684 1701
James II
(1685–1688)
Mary II
(1689–1694)
William III
(1689–1702)
Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk Thomas Howard
8th Duke of Norfolk

(1683–1732)
1701 1732
Anne
(1702–1714)
George I
(1714–1727)
George II
(1727–1760)
Coat of Arms of the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl Marshal Edward Howard
9th Duke of Norfolk

(1686–1777)
1732 1777
George III
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837)

(1760–1820)
Coat of Arms of the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl Marshal Charles Howard
10th Duke of Norfolk

(1720–1786)
1777 1786
Charles Howard (1746–1815), 11th Duke of Norfolk by James Lonsdale Charles Howard
11th Duke of Norfolk

(1746–1815)
1786 1815
Bernard-Fitzalan-Howard-12th-Duke-of-Norfolk Bernard Edward Howard
12th Duke of Norfolk

KG PC FRS
(1765–1842)
1815 1842
George IV
(1820–1830)
William IV
(1830–1837)
Victoria
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952)

(1837–1901)
Coat of Arms of the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl Marshal Henry Charles Howard
13th Duke of Norfolk

KG PC
(1791–1856)
1842 1856
Coat of Arms of the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl Marshal Henry Granville Fitzalan-Howard
14th Duke of Norfolk

(1815–1860)
1856 1860
Henry Fitzalan-Howard (1890) Henry Fitzalan-Howard
15th Duke of Norfolk

KG GCVO VD PC
(1847–1917)
1860 1917
Edward VII
(1901–1910)
George V
(1910–1936)
Player's cigarettes Earl Marshal.jpeg Bernard Marmaduke Fitzalan-Howard
16th Duke of Norfolk

KG GCVO GBE TD PC
(1908–1975)
1917 1975
Edward VIII
(1936)
George VI
(1936–1952)
Elizabeth II
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom

(1952–present)
17th Duke of Norfolk Allan Warren Miles Fitzalan-Howard
17th Duke of Norfolk

KG GCVO CB CBE MC DL
(1915–2002)
1975 2002
18th Duke of Norfolk 1 Allan Warren Edward William Fitzalan-Howard
18th Duke of Norfolk

DL
(born 1956)
2002 Incumbent

Deputy Earls Marshal

The position of Earl Marshal had a Deputy called the Knight Marshal from the reign of Henry VIII until the office was abolished in 1846.[10]

Deputy Earls Marshal have been named at various times, discharging the responsibilities of the office during the minority or infirmity of the Earl Marshal. Prior to an Act of Parliament in 1824, Protestant deputies were required when the Earl Marshal was a Roman Catholic.

Name Tenure Deputy to Ref(s)
Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle 1673–?
Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle 1701–1706
Henry Howard, 6th Earl of Suffolk, 1st Earl of Bindon 1706–1718
Henry Bowes Howard, 4th Earl of Berkshire 1718–1725
Talbot Yelverton, 1st Earl of Sussex 1725–1731
Francis Howard, 1st Earl of Effingham 1731–1743
Thomas Howard, 2nd Earl of Effingham 1743–1763
Henry Howard, 12th Earl of Suffolk, 5th Earl of Berkshire 1763–1765
Richard Lumley-Saunderson, 4th Earl of Scarbrough 1765–1777
Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Effingham 1777–1782
Charles Howard, Earl of Surrey 1782–1786
Lord Henry Howard-Molyneux-Howard 1816–1824 12th Duke of Norfolk
Lord Edward Fitzalan-Howard 1861–1868 15th Duke of Norfolk
Edmund Fitzalan-Howard, 1st Viscount Fitzalan of Derwent 1917–1929 16th Duke of Norfolk
Edward William Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey 2000–2002 17th Duke of Norfolk

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "The history of the Royal heralds and the College of Arms". The College of Arms website. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
  2. ^ Sliford 1782, p. 36
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ Companion to British History
  5. ^ a b c d Complete Peerage, 1st edition, Volume V, P266
  6. ^ a b c d Complete Peerage, 1st edition, Volume V, P371
  7. ^ Anne Mowbray Countess Marshal: Although Anne, Countess of Norfolk, Baroness Mowbray and Segrave is presumed to be the Countess Marshal, at the age of 7 on her marriage to the Duke of York, between 1476 and 1483 Sir Thomas Grey KT is said by Camden to have held the office of Earl Marshal. This hereditary claim to this office, probably descended from Sir Thomas Grey Kt (1359–1400), husband of Joan de Mowbray (1361–1410), daughter of John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray and Elizabeth de Segrave, 5th Baroness Segrave. Joan de Mowbray's son was also called Sir Thomas GREY (1384–1415) was the Sheriff of Northumberland and born at Alnwick Castle, seat of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. Thomas married Alice daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland. Another Sir John Grey KG (1386–1439) married Lady Margaret MOWBRAY (b.1388 or 1402–1459) eldest daughter of Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (1366–1399) [Earl Marshal] and Lady Elizabeth FitzAlan (1366–1425). REF Complete Peerage. Volume V, L-M (1893) page 262
  8. ^ a b Venning, Timothy (2005). Compendium of British Office Holders. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 480. ISBN 978-1-4039-2045-4.
  9. ^ Sliford 1782, p. 37
  10. ^ Money Barnes, Major R. The Soldiers of London Seeley, Service & Co 1963, p.288

References

1576 in Ireland

Events from the year 1576 in Ireland.

Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk

Bernard Marmaduke Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk, (30 May 1908 – 31 January 1975), styled Earl of Arundel and Surrey until 1917, was a British peer and politician. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 15th Duke of Norfolk, who died when Bernard was only 9 years old. His mother was Gwendoline Herries, 12th Lady Herries of Terregles, and he inherited her peerage when she died in 1945.

He was educated at the Oratory School and was commissioned into the Royal Horse Guards in 1931, but resigned his commission in 1933. He joined the 4th (Territorial Army) Battalion, Royal Sussex Regiment in 1934, and was promoted Major in 1939. He served briefly in World War II, in which he was wounded in action. He subsequently served as Agricultural Secretary in Winston Churchill's Cabinet from February 1940 until June 1945.

As hereditary Earl Marshal, he organised the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, the funeral of Winston Churchill, and the investiture of Prince Charles as Prince of Wales. He was a keen cricket fan and was the manager of the English cricket team in Australia in 1962–63, which excited much press interest.

Charles Howard, 10th Duke of Norfolk

Charles Howard, 10th Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal (1 December 1720 – 31 August 1786), was an English peer and politician. He was the son of Henry Charles Howard (d. 10 June 1730) and Mary Aylward (d. 7 October 1747). He married Catherine Brockholes (d. 21 November 1784), daughter of John Brockholes, on 8 November 1739, and succeeded to the title of Duke of Norfolk in 1777 after the death of his cousin Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk.

Charles Howard died on 31 August 1786, at age 65, and was succeeded by his son Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk.

College of Arms

The College of Arms, also known as the College of Heralds, is a royal corporation consisting of professional officers of arms, with jurisdiction over England, Wales, Northern Ireland and some Commonwealth realms. The heralds are appointed by the British Sovereign and are delegated authority to act on behalf of the Crown in all matters of heraldry, the granting of new coats of arms, genealogical research and the recording of pedigrees. The College is also the official body responsible for matters relating to the flying of flags on land, and it maintains the official registers of flags and other national symbols. Though a part of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom the College is self-financed, unsupported by any public funds.

Founded by royal charter in 1484 by King Richard III, the College is one of the few remaining official heraldic authorities in Europe. Within the United Kingdom, there are two such authorities, the Court of the Lord Lyon in Scotland and the College for the rest of the United Kingdom. The College has had its home in the City of London since its foundation, and has been at its present location, on Queen Victoria Street, since 1555. The College of Arms also undertakes and consults on the planning of many ceremonial occasions such as coronations, state funerals, the annual Garter Service and the State Opening of Parliament. Heralds of the College accompany the sovereign on many of these occasions.

The College comprises thirteen officers or heralds: three Kings of Arms, six Heralds of Arms and four Pursuivants of Arms. There are also seven officers extraordinary, who take part in ceremonial occasions but are not part of the College. The entire corporation is overseen by the Earl Marshal, a hereditary office held by the Duke of Norfolk, currently Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk.

Duke of Norfolk

The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the peerage of England, and also, as Earl of Arundel, the premier earl. The Duke of Norfolk is, moreover, the Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England. The seat of the Duke of Norfolk is Arundel Castle in Sussex, although the title refers to the county of Norfolk. The current duke is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk. The dukes have historically been Catholic, a state of affairs known as recusancy in England.

All past and present dukes have been descended from Edward I (see Dukes of Norfolk family tree). The son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, was Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey; the earl was descended from both Edward I and Edward III.

Earl of Norfolk

Earl of Norfolk is a title which has been created several times in the Peerage of England. Created in 1070, the first major dynasty to hold the title was the 12th and 13th century Bigod family, and it then was later held by the Mowbrays, who were also made Dukes of Norfolk. Due to the Bigods' descent in the female line from William Marshal, they inherited the hereditary office of Earl Marshal, still held by the Dukes of Norfolk today. The present title was created in 1644 for Thomas Howard, 18th Earl of Arundel, the heir of the Howard Dukedom of Norfolk which had been forfeit in 1572. Arundel's grandson, the 20th Earl of Arundel and 3rd Earl of Norfolk, was restored to the Dukedom as 5th Duke upon the Restoration in 1660, and the title continues to be borne by the Dukes of Norfolk.

Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk

Edward William Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, (born 2 December 1956), styled Earl of Arundel between 1975 and 2002, is a British peer who holds the office of Earl Marshal.

Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk

Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk (5 June 1686 – 20 September 1777), Earl Marshal was a British peer and politician.

Edward Walker (officer of arms)

Sir Edward Walker (1611 – February 1677) was an officer of arms and antiquarian who served as Garter King of Arms.

Great Officer of State

In the United Kingdom the Great Officers of State are traditional ministers of The Crown who either inherit their positions or are appointed to exercise certain largely ceremonial functions or to operate as members of the government. Separate Great Officers of State exist for England and for Scotland, and formerly for Ireland. Many of the Great Officers became largely ceremonial because historically they were so influential that their powers had to be resumed by the Crown or dissipated.

Government in all the medieval monarchies generally comprised the king's companions, later becoming the Royal Household, from which the officers of state arose, initially having household and government duties. Later some of these officers split into two, in the Great Officer of the State and in the Royal Household, or were superseded by new officers or absorbed by existing officers. Many of the officers became hereditary and thus removed from practical operation of either the state or the household.

Herald Chancellor of Canada

The Herald Chancellor (Chancelier d'armes in French) is an officer at the Canadian Heraldic Authority. The office is always filled by the Secretary to the Governor General. The Herald Chancellor is responsible for the administration of the entire vice-regal office. In some ways, the position is analogous to the Earl Marshal in England, as it is the Herald Chancellor who issues the warrants permitting the Chief Herald of Canada to make grants of arms. The Herald Chancellor also signs each completed grant document, along with the Chief Herald.

The position of Deputy Herald Chancellor (Vice-chancelier d'armes in French) is held by the Deputy Secretary to the Governor General, who is also the head of the Chancellery of Honours, responsible for the administration of the Canadian honours system. When the Herald Chancellor is unavailable, the Deputy Herald Chancellor will issue the proper warrants for the Chief Herald of Canada to grant arms.

High Court of Chivalry

Her Majesty's High Court of Chivalry is a civil law (i.e., non common law) court in English and Welsh law with jurisdiction over matters of heraldry. The court has been in existence since the fourteenth century; however, it rarely sits. The sole judge is now the hereditary Earl Marshal of England, the Duke of Norfolk, though if not a professional lawyer, he normally appoints a professional lawyer as his lieutenant or surrogate.In Scotland, these types of cases are heard in the Court of the Lord Lyon, which is a standing civil and criminal court, with its own judge – the Lord Lyon King of Arms and its own procurator fiscal (public prosecutor) under the Scottish legal system.

John Marshal (Marshal of England)

John FitzGilbert the Marshal of the Horses (c. 1105 – 1165) was a minor Anglo-Norman nobleman during the reign of King Stephen, and fought in the 12th century civil war on the side of Empress Matilda.

Lord High Constable of England

The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal. His office is now called out of abeyance only for coronations. The Lord High Constable was originally the commander of the royal armies and the Master of the Horse. He was also, in conjunction with the Earl Marshal, president of the Court of Chivalry or Court of Honour. In feudal times, martial law was administered in the court of the Lord High Constable.The constableship was granted as a grand serjeanty with the Earldom of Hereford by the Empress Matilda to Miles of Gloucester, and was carried by his heiress to the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford and Essex. They had a surviving male heir, and still have heirs male, but due to the power of the monarchy the constableship was irregularly given to the Staffords, Dukes of Buckingham; and on the attainder of Edward Stafford, the third Duke, in the reign of King Henry VIII, it became merged into the Crown. Since that point it has not existed as a separate office, except as a temporary appointment for the Coronation of a monarch; in other circumstances the Earl Marshal exercises the traditional duties of the office.The Lacys and Verduns were hereditary constables of Ireland from the 12th to the 14th century; and the Hays, Earls of Erroll, have been hereditary Lord High Constables of Scotland from early in the 14th century.

Maltravers Herald Extraordinary

Maltravers Herald of Arms Extraordinary is a current officer of arms extraordinary in England. As such, Maltravers is a royal herald, but is not a member of the College of Arms in London. The present office was created in 1887 by the Earl Marshal, who was also the Duke of Norfolk and Baron Maltravers. The office is known to have been held by a pursuivant to Lord Maltravers when he was deputy of Calais from 1540 to 1544. The badge is blazoned as A Fret Or. It was officially assigned in 1973, though it had been assumed by two Maltravers Heralds in the 1930s. It derives from the coat of arms of Maltravers Sable a Fret Or and a Label of the points Ermine, and was the badge of John, Earl of Arundel through which family the barony passed to the Howard dukes of Norfolk.The current Maltravers Herald of Arms Extraordinary is John Martin Robinson, MA (St Andrews) DPhil (Oxford) FSA.

Richard Lumley-Saunderson, 4th Earl of Scarbrough

Richard Lumley-Saunderson, 4th Earl of Scarbrough PC (May 1725 – 12 May 1782) was a British peer, styled Viscount Lumley from 1740 to 1752.He was appointed a deputy lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire on 4 August 1757. On 27 October 1759, he was appointed colonel of the North Lincolnshire battalion of militia, and was made a deputy lieutenant of Lincolnshire on 30 November 1761.Scarbrough was Cofferer of the Household and deputy Earl Marshal from 1765 to 1766, and was sworn of the Privy Council in 1765.

Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey

Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey, 3rd Earl of Kent, KG, Earl Marshal (8 September 1372 – 7 January 1400) was an English nobleman and courtier.

Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk

Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal (11 December 1683 – 23 December 1732) was an English peer and politician. He was the son of Lord Thomas Howard and Mary Elizabeth Savile. Upon the death of his uncle Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk, he inherited the titles of 17th Baron Furnivall and 8th Duke of Norfolk. He married Maria Shireburn, daughter of Sir Nicholas Shireburn, 1st and last Bt., of Stonyhurst Hall, on 26 May 1709, when she was age 16 and a half, with a fortune of more than £30,000.At the time of the Jacobite Rising of 1715 he used his influence to secure the acquittal of his brother Edward on the charge of high treason. The Duke himself was arrested on 29 October 1722 under suspicion of involvement in a Jacobite plot, and was imprisoned in the Tower of London. His wife, refused permission to visit, prevailed upon the Earl of Carlisle to act as surety for his bail in May 1723. Howard was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England from 1729-30.His marriage is said to have been unhappy, and his wife, a staunch Catholic and Jacobite, separated from him when he—in her words—"truckled to the Usurper".The Duke died childless on 23 December 1732 at age 49. Upon his death, the title passed to his brother Edward.

Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk

Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 3rd Earl of Norfolk, 6th Baron Mowbray, 7th Baron Segrave, KG, Earl Marshal (22 March 1366 – 22 September 1399) was an English peer. As a result of his involvement in the power struggles which led up to the fall of Richard II, he was banished and died in exile in Venice.

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