E number

E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union[1][2] and EFTA. The "E" stands for "Europe".[3] Commonly found on food labels, their safety assessment and approval are the responsibility of the European Food Safety Authority.[4]

Having a single unified list for food additives was first agreed upon in 1962 with food colouring. In 1964, the directives for preservatives were added, 1970 for antioxidants and 1974 for the emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickeners and gelling agents.[5]

Riboflavin solution
A solution of E101 riboflavin (also known as vitamin B2)
Monosodium glutamate crystals
Crystals of E621 monosodium glutamate, a flavour enhancer

Numbering schemes

The numbering scheme follows that of the International Numbering System (INS) as determined by the Codex Alimentarius committee[6], though only a subset of the INS additives are approved for use in the European Union as food additives. Outside the European continent plus Russia, E numbers are also encountered on food labelling in other jurisdictions, including the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand[7], Malaysia, and Israel. They are increasingly, though still rarely, found on North American packaging[8], especially on imported European products.

Colloquial use

In some European countries, "E number" is sometimes used informally as a pejorative term for artificial food additives, and products may promote themselves as "free of E numbers". This is incorrect, because many components of natural foods have assigned E numbers (and the number is a synonym for the chemical component), e.g. vitamin C (E300) and lycopene (E160d), found in carrots.

Classification by numeric range

E number range Subranges Description
100–199 (full list)
Colours
100–109 yellows
110–119 oranges
120–129 reds
130–139 blues & violets
140–149 greens
150–159 browns & blacks
160–199 gold and others
200–299 (full list)
Preservatives
200–209 sorbates
210–219 benzoates
220–229 sulphites
230–239 phenols & formates (methanoates)
240–259 nitrates
260–269 acetates (ethanoates)
270–279 lactates
280–289 propionates (propanoates)
290–299 others
300–399 (full list)
Antioxidants & acidity regulators
300–305 ascorbates (vitamin C)
306–309 Tocopherol (vitamin E)
310–319 gallates & erythorbates
320–329 lactates
330–339 citrates & tartrates
340–349 phosphates
350–359 malates & adipates
360–369 succinates & fumarates
370–399 others
400–499 (full list)
Thickeners, stabilisers & emulsifiers
400–409 alginates
410–419 natural gums
420–429 other natural agents
430–439 polyoxyethene compounds
440–449 natural emulsifiers
450–459 phosphates
460–469 cellulose compounds
470–489 fatty acids & compounds
490–499 others
500–599 (full list)
pH regulators & anti-caking agents
500–509 mineral acids & bases
510–519 chlorides & sulphates
520–529 sulphates & hydroxides
530–549 alkali metal compounds
550–559 silicates
570–579 stearates & gluconates
580–599 others
600–699 (full list)
Flavour enhancers
620–629 glutamates & guanylates
630–639 inosinates
640–649 others
700–799 (full list)
Antibiotics
700–713
900–999 (full list)
Glazing agents, gases and sweeteners
900–909 waxes
910–919 synthetic glazes
920–929 improving agents
930–949 packaging gases
950–969 sweeteners
990–999 foaming agents
1100–1599 (full list)
Additional additives
1100–1599 New chemicals that do not fall into standard classification schemes

NB: Not all examples of a class fall into the given numeric range. Moreover, many chemicals, particularly in the E400–499 range, have a variety of purposes.

Full list

The list shows all components that have or had an E-number assigned. Not all additives listed are still allowed in the EU, but are listed as they used to have an E-number. For an overview of currently allowed additives see information provided by the Food Standards Agency of the UK.

E100–E199 (colours)

Code Name(s) Colour Status
E100 Curcumin (from turmeric) Yellow-orange Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E101 Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), formerly called lactoflavin Yellow-orange Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E101a Riboflavin-5'-Phosphate Yellow-orange Approved in the EU.[9]
E102 Tartrazine (FD&C Yellow 5) Yellow Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E103 Alkannin[11] Red-brown
E104 Quinoline Yellow WS Dull or greenish yellow Approved in the EU.[9] Undergoing a voluntary phase-out in the UK.
E105 Fast Yellow AB Yellow
E106 Riboflavin-5-Sodium Phosphate Yellow
E107 Yellow 2G Yellow
E110 Sunset Yellow FCF (Orange Yellow S, FD&C Yellow 6) Yellow-orange Approved in the EU.[9] Banned in Norway.[12] Products in the EU require warnings and its use is being phased out. Approved in the US.[10]
E111 Orange GGN Orange
E120 Cochineal, Carminic acid, Carmine (Natural Red 4) Crimson Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E121 Citrus Red 2 Dark red Approved in the United States only for use in colouring the skin of oranges.[13]
E122 Carmoisine (azorubine) Red to maroon Approved in the EU.[9] Undergoing a voluntary phase-out in the UK. Currently banned in Canada, Japan, Norway, USA . EU currently evaluating health risks.
E123 Amaranth (FD&C Red 2) Red Approved in the EU.[9] Banned in the United States.
E124 Ponceau 4R (Cochineal Red A, Brilliant Scarlet 4R) Red Approved in the EU.[9]
E125 Ponceau SX, Scarlet GN Red Only permitted for externally applied drugs and cosmetics in the US.[14][15][16]
E126 Ponceau 6R Red
E127 Erythrosine (FD&C Red 3) Red Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US except for lake variant.[10]
E128 Red 2G Red or pink
E129 Allura Red AC (FD&C Red 40) Red Approved in the EU.[9] Banned in Switzerland. Undergoing a voluntary phase out in the UK. Approved in the US.[10]
E130 Indanthrene blue RS Blue
E131 Patent Blue V Dark blue Approved in the EU.[9]
E132 Indigo carmine (indigotine, FD&C Blue 2) Indigo Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E133 Brilliant Blue FCF (FD&C Blue 1) Reddish blue Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E140 Chlorophylls and Chlorophyllins: (i) Chlorophylls (ii) Chlorophyllins Green Approved in the EU.[9]
E141 Copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllins (i) Copper complexes of chlorophylls (ii) Copper complexes of chlorophyllins Green Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E142 Green S Green Approved in the EU.[9]
E143 Fast Green FCF (FD&C Green 3) Green Approved in the US. Banned in the EU.
E150a Plain caramel Brown Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E150b Caustic sulphite caramel Brown Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E150c Ammonia caramel Brown Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E150d Sulphite ammonia caramel Brown Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E151 Black PN, Brilliant Black BN Black Approved in the EU.[9]
E152 Carbon black (hydrocarbon) Black
E153 Vegetable carbon Black Approved in the EU.[9]
E154 Brown FK (kipper brown) Brown Approved in the EU for dyeing kippers only, however appears to no longer be used.[17]
E155 Brown HT (chocolate brown HT) Brown Approved in the EU.[9]
E160a Alpha-carotene, Beta-carotene, Gamma-carotene Yellow-orange to brown Approved in the EU.[9]
E160b Annatto, bixin, norbixin Orange Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E160c Paprika oleoresin: (i) capsanthin, (ii) capsorubin Red Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E160d Lycopene Bright to deep red Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E160e Beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30) Orange-red to yellow Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E160f Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid (C 30) Orange-red to yellow Approved in the EU.[9]
E161a Flavoxanthin Golden-yellow and brownish
E161b Lutein Orange-red to yellow Approved in the EU.[9]
E161c Cryptoxanthin Orange-red
E161d Rubixanthin Orange-red
E161e Violaxanthin Orange
E161f Rhodoxanthin Purple
E161g Canthaxanthin Violet Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E161h Zeaxanthin Orange-red
E161i Citranaxanthin Deep violet
E161j Astaxanthin Red
E162 Beetroot Red, Betanin Red Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E163 Anthocyanins pH dependent(Red, green and purple ranges) Approved in the EU.[9]
E164 Saffron Orange-red[colour?] Approved in the US.[10]
E170 Calcium carbonate, Chalk White Approved in the EU.[9]
E171 Titanium dioxide White Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E172 Iron oxides and iron hydroxides Brown Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US for sausage casings.[10]
E173 Aluminium Silver to grey Approved in the EU.[9]
E174 Silver Silver Approved in the EU.[9]
E175 Gold Gold Approved in the EU.[9]
E180 Pigment Rubine, Lithol Rubine BK Red Approved in the EU.[9]
E181 Tannin Brown
E182 Orcein, Orchil Purple

E200–E299 (preservatives)

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E200 Sorbic acid preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E201 Sodium sorbate preservative
E202 Potassium sorbate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E203 Calcium sorbate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E209 Heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate preservative
E210 Benzoic acid preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E211 Sodium benzoate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E212 Potassium benzoate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E213 Calcium benzoate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E214 Ethylparaben (ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E215 Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E216 Propylparaben (propyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative
E217 Sodium propyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative
E218 Methylparaben (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E219 Sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E220 Sulphur dioxide preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E221 Sodium sulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E222 Sodium bisulphite (sodium hydrogen sulphite) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E223 Sodium metabisulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E224 Potassium metabisulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E225 Potassium sulphite preservative
E226 Calcium sulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite (preservative) firming agent Approved in the EU.[9]
E228 Potassium hydrogen sulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E230 Biphenyl, diphenyl preservative Not approved in the EU.[9]
E231 Orthophenyl phenol preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E232 Sodium orthophenyl phenol preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E233 Thiabendazole preservative
E234 Nisin preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E235 Natamycin, Pimaracin preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E236 Formic acid preservative
E237 Sodium formate preservative
E238 Calcium formate preservative
E239 Hexamine (hexamethylene tetramine) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E240 Formaldehyde preservative
E242 Dimethyl dicarbonate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E249 Potassium nitrite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E250 Sodium nitrite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E251 Sodium nitrate (Chile saltpetre) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E252 Potassium nitrate (Saltpetre) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E260 Acetic acid (preservative) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E261 Potassium acetate (preservative) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E262 Sodium acetates (i) Sodium acetate (ii) Sodium diacetate (sodium hydrogen acetate) preservative, acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E263 Calcium acetate (preservative) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E264 Ammonium acetate preservative Approved in Australia and New Zealand[19]
E265 Dehydroacetic acid preservative
E266 Sodium dehydroacetate preservative
E270 Lactic acid (preservative) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[18]
E280 Propionic acid preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E281 Sodium propionate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E282 Calcium propionate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E283 Potassium propionate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E284 Boric acid preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E285 Sodium tetraborate (borax) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E290 Carbon dioxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E296 Malic acid (acid) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E297 Fumaric acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]

E300–E399 (antioxidants, acidity regulators)

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E300 Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E301 Sodium ascorbate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E302 Calcium ascorbate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E303 Potassium ascorbate antioxidant
E304 Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid (Ascorbyl palmitate) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E305 Ascorbyl stearate antioxidant
E306 Tocopherols (Vitamin E, natural) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E307 Alpha-Tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E308 Gamma-Tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E309 Delta-Tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E310 Propyl gallate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E311 Octyl gallate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E312 Dodecyl gallate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E313 Ethyl gallate antioxidant
E314 Guaiac resin antioxidant
E315 Erythorbic acid antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E316 Sodium erythorbate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E317 Erythorbin acid antioxidant
E318 Sodium erythorbin antioxidant
E319 tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E320 Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E321 Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E322 Lecithin emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E323 Anoxomer antioxidant
E324 Ethoxyquin antioxidant
E325 Sodium lactate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E326 Potassium lactate (antioxidant) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E327 Calcium lactate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E328 Ammonium lactate acidity regulator
E329 Magnesium lactate acidity regulator
E330 Citric acid acid, acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E331 Sodium citrates (i) Monosodium citrate (ii) Disodium citrate (iii) Sodium citrate (trisodium citrate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E332 Potassium citrates (i) Monopotassium citrate (ii) Potassium citrate (tripotassium citrate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E333 Calcium citrates (i) Monocalcium citrate (ii) Dicalcium citrate (iii) Calcium citrate (tricalcium citrate) acidity regulator, firming agent, sequestrant Approved in the EU.[18]
E334 Tartaric acid (L(+)-) (acid) Approved in the EU.[18]
E335 Sodium tartrates (i) Monosodium tartrate (ii), Disodium tartrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E336 Potassium tartrates (i) Monopotassium tartrate (cream of tartar) (ii) Dipotassium tartrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E337 Sodium potassium tartrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E338 Orthophosphoric acid acid Approved in the EU.[18]
E339 Sodium phosphates (i) Monosodium phosphate (ii) Disodium phosphate (iii) Trisodium phosphate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[18]
E340 Potassium phosphates (i) Monopotassium phosphate (ii) Dipotassium phosphate (iii) Tripotassium phosphate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[18]
E341 Calcium phosphates (i) Monocalcium phosphate (ii) Dicalcium phosphate (iii) Tricalcium phosphate anti-caking agent, firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E342 Ammonium phosphates: (i) monoammonium phosphate (ii) diammonium phosphate
E343 Magnesium phosphates (i) monomagnesium phosphate (ii) Dimagnesium phosphate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18] This additive is under discussion and may be included in a future amendment to the Directive on miscellaneous additives.
E344 Lecitin citrate acidity regulator
E345 Magnesium citrate acidity regulator
E349 Ammonium malate acidity regulator
E350 Sodium malates (i) Sodium malate (ii) Sodium hydrogen malate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E351 Potassium malate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E352 Calcium malates (i) Calcium malate (ii) Calcium hydrogen malate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E353 Metatartaric acid emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E354 Calcium tartrate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E355 Adipic acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E356 Sodium adipate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E357 Potassium adipate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E359 Ammonium adipate acidity regulator
E363 Succinic acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E365 Monosodium fumarate acidity regulator
E366 Potassium fumarate acidity regulator
E367 Calcium fumarate acidity regulator
E368 Ammonium fumarate acidity regulator
E370 1,4-Heptonolactone acidity regulator
E375 Niacin acidity regulator
E380 Triammonium citrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E381 Ammonium ferric citrate acidity regulator
E383 Calcium glycerylphosphate acidity regulator
E384 Isopropyl citrate acidity regulator
E385 Calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate, (Calcium disodium EDTA) sequestrant Approved in the EU.[18]
E386 Disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate (Disodium EDTA) sequestrant
E387 Oxystearin stabiliser
E388 Thiodipropionic acid
E389 Dilauryl thiodipropionate
E390 Distearyl thiodipropionate
E391 Phytic acid
E392 Extracts of rosemary Approved in 2010[22]
E399 Calcium lactobionate

E400–E499 (thickeners, stabilisers, emulsifiers)

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E400 Alginic acid (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E401 Sodium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E402 Potassium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E403 Ammonium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E404 Calcium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E405 Propane-1,2-diol alginate (Propylene glycol alginate) (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E406 Agar (thickener) (gelling agent) stabiliser Approved in the EU.[21]
E407 Carrageenan (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E407a Processed eucheuma seaweed (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E408 Bakers yeast glycan
E409 Arabinogalactan
E410 Locust bean gum (Carob gum) (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E411 Oat gum (thickener) stabiliser
E412 Guar gum (thickener) stabiliser Approved in the EU.[21]
E413 Tragacanth (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E414 Acacia gum (gum arabic) (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E415 Xanthan gum (thickener) stabiliser Approved in the EU.[21]
E416 Karaya gum (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E417 Tara gum (thickener) stabiliser Approved in the EU.[21]
E418 Gellan gum (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E419 Gum ghatti (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier
E420 Sorbitol (i) Sorbitol (ii) Sorbitol syrup (emulsifier) (sweetener) humectant Approved in the EU.[23]
E421 Mannitol (anti-caking agent) sweetener Approved in the EU.[23]
E422 Glycerol (emulsifier) sweetener Approved in the EU.[18]
E424 Curdlan gelling agent
E425 Konjac (i) Konjac gum (ii) Konjac glucomannane emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21] May not be used in confectionery owing to choking risk.
E426 Soybean hemicellulose Approved in the EU.[21]
E427 Cassia gum Approved in 2010[22]
E429 Peptones
E430 Polyoxyethene (8) stearate (emulsifier) stabiliser
E431 Polyoxyethene (40) stearate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E432 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (polysorbate 20) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E433 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monooleate (polysorbate 80) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E434 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate (polysorbate 40) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E435 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monostearate (polysorbate 60) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E436 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan tristearate (polysorbate 65) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E440 Pectins (i) pectin (ii) amidated pectin emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E441 Gelatine (emulsifier) gelling agent
E442 Ammonium phosphatides emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E443 Brominated vegetable oil emulsifier
E444 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate emulsifier
E445 Glycerol esters of wood rosins emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E446 Succistearin
E450 Diphosphates (i) Disodium diphosphate (ii) Trisodium diphosphate (iii) Tetrasodium diphosphate (iv) Dipotassium diphosphate (v) Tetrapotassium diphosphate (vi) Dicalcium diphosphate (vii) Calcium dihydrogen diphosphate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E451 Triphosphates (i) Sodium triphosphate (pentasodium triphosphate) (ii) Pentapotassium triphosphate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E452 Polyphosphates (i) Sodium polyphosphates (ii) Potassium polyphosphates (iii) Sodium calcium polyphosphate (iv) Calcium polyphosphates (v) Ammonium polyphosphate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E459 Beta-cyclodextrin emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E460 Cellulose (i) Microcrystalline cellulose (ii) Powdered cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E461 Methyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E462 Ethyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E464 Hypromellose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E465 Ethyl methyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E466 Carboxymethyl cellulose, Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E467 Ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose
E468 Crosslinked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Croscarmellose) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21] This additive is under discussion and may be included in a future amendment to the Directive on miscellaneous additives
E469 Enzymically hydrolysed carboxymethylcellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E470a Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids (emulsifier) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[21]
E470b Magnesium salts of fatty acids (emulsifier) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[21]
E471 Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E472a Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E472b Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E472c Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E472d Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E472e Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E472f Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E472g Succinylated monoglycerides emulsifier
E473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E474 Sucroglycerides emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E477 Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids, propylene glycol esters of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E478 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1 emulsifier
E479b Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E480 Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate emulsifier
E481 Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E482 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E483 Stearyl tartrate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E484 Stearyl citrate emulsifier
E485 Sodium stearoyl fumarate emulsifier
E486 Calcium stearoyl fumarate emulsifier
E487 Sodium laurylsulphate emulsifier
E488 Ethoxylated Mono- and Di-Glycerides emulsifier
E489 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester emulsifier
E490 Propane-1,2-diol
E491 Sorbitan monostearate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E492 Sorbitan tristearate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E493 Sorbitan monolaurate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E494 Sorbitan monooleate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E495 Sorbitan monopalmitate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[21]
E496 Sorbitan trioleate emulsifier
E497 Polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene polymers
E498 Partial polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oil
E499 Stigmasterol-rich plant sterols Approved in the EU.[21]

E500–E599 (acidity regulators, anti-caking agents)

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E500 Sodium carbonates: (i) Sodium carbonate (ii) Sodium bicarbonate (Sodium hydrogen carbonate) (iii) Sodium sesquicarbonate (acidity regulator) raising agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E501 Potassium carbonates: (i) Potassium carbonate (ii) Potassium bicarbonate (Potassium hydrogen carbonate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E503 Ammonium carbonates: (i) Ammonium carbonate (ii) Ammonium bicarbonate (Ammonium hydrogen carbonate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E504 Magnesium carbonates: (i) Magnesium carbonate (ii) Magnesium bicarbonate Magnesium hydrogen carbonate acidity regulator, anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E505 Ferrous carbonate acidity regulator
E507 Hydrochloric acid acid Approved in the EU.[18]
E508 Potassium chloride (gelling agent) seasoning Approved in the EU.[18]
E509 Calcium chloride (sequestrant) firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E510 Ammonium chloride, ammonia solution (acidity regulator) improving agent
E511 Magnesium chloride firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E512 Stannous chloride antioxidant Approved in the EU.[18]
E513 Sulphuric acid acid Approved in the EU.[18]
E514 Sodium sulphates (i) Sodium sulphate (ii) sodium bisulphate acid Approved in the EU.[18]
E515 Potassium sulphates (i) potassium sulphate (ii) potassium bisulphate Approved in the EU.[18]
E516 Calcium sulphate Approved in the EU.[18]
E517 Ammonium sulphate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E518 Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts), (acidity regulator) firming agent
E519 Copper(II) sulphate preservative
E520 Aluminium sulphate firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E521 Aluminium sodium sulphate firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E522 Aluminium potassium sulphate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E523 Aluminium ammonium sulphate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E524 Sodium hydroxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E525 Potassium hydroxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E526 Calcium hydroxide (acidity regulator) firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E527 Ammonium hydroxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E528 Magnesium hydroxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E529 Calcium oxide (acidity regulator) improving agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E530 Magnesium oxide (acidity regulator) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E535 Sodium ferrocyanide (acidity regulator) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E536 Potassium ferrocyanide anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E537 Ferrous hexacyanomanganate anti-caking agent
E538 Calcium ferrocyanide anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E539 Sodium thiosulphate antioxidant
E540 Dicalcium diphosphate (acidity regulator) emulsifier
E541 Sodium aluminium phosphate (i) Acidic (ii) Basic emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E542 Bone phosphate (Essentiale Calcium Phosphate, Tribasic) anti-caking agent
E543 Calcium sodium polyphosphate emulsifier
E544 Calcium polyphosphate emulsifier
E545 Ammonium polyphosphate emulsifier
E550 Sodium Silicates (i) Sodium silicate (ii) Sodium metasilicate anti-caking agent
E551 Silicon dioxide (Silica) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E552 Calcium silicate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E553a (i) Magnesium silicate (ii) Magnesium trisilicate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E553b Talc anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E554 Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium aluminium silicate) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E555 Potassium aluminium silicate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E556 Calcium aluminosilicate (calcium aluminium silicate) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E557 Zinc silicate anti-caking agent
E558 Bentonite anti-caking agent
E559 Aluminium silicate (Kaolin) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E560 Potassium silicate anti-caking agent
E561 Vermiculite
E562 Sepiolite
E563 Sepiolitic clay
E565 Lignosulphonates
E566 Natrolite-phonolite
E570 Fatty acids anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E572 Magnesium stearate, calcium stearate (emulsifier) anti-caking agent
E574 Gluconic acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E575 Glucono delta-lactone (acidity regulator) sequestrant Approved in the EU.[18]
E576 Sodium gluconate sequestrant Approved in the EU.[18]
E577 Potassium gluconate sequestrant Approved in the EU.[18]
E578 Calcium gluconate firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E579 Ferrous gluconate food colouring Approved in the EU.[18]
E580 Magnesium gluconate
E585 Ferrous lactate food colouring Approved in the EU.[18]
E586 4-Hexylresorcinol antioxidant Approved in the EU.[20]
E598 Synthetic calcium aluminates
E599 Perlite

E600–E699 (flavour enhancer)

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E620 Glutamic acid flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E621 Monosodium glutamate (MSG) flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E622 Monopotassium glutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E623 Calcium diglutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E624 Monoammonium glutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E625 Magnesium diglutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E626 Guanylic acid flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E627 Disodium guanylate, sodium guanylate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E628 Dipotassium guanylate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E629 Calcium guanylate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E630 Inosinic acid flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E631 Disodium inosinate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E632 Dipotassium inosinate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E633 Calcium inosinate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E634 Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E635 Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E636 Maltol flavour enhancer
E637 Ethyl maltol flavour enhancer
E640 Glycine and its sodium salt flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E650 Zinc acetate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]

E700–E799 (antibiotics)

[24]

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E701 Tetracyclines antibiotic
E702 Chlortetracycline antibiotic
E703 Oxytetracycline antibiotic
E704 Oleandomycin antibiotic
E705 Penicillin G potassium antibiotic
E706 Penicillin G sodium antibiotic
E707 Penicillin G procaine antibiotic
E708 Penicillin G benzathine antibiotic
E710 Spiramycins antibiotic
E711 Virginiamycins antibiotic
E712 Flavomycin antibiotic
E713 Tylosin antibiotic
E714 Monensin A antibiotic
E715 Avoparcin antibiotic
E716 Salinomycin antibiotic
E717 Avilamycin antibiotic

E900–E999 (glazing agents, gases and sweeteners)

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E900 Dimethyl polysiloxane (anti-foaming agent) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E901 Beeswax, white and yellow glazing agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E902 Candelilla wax glazing agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E903 Carnauba wax glazing agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E904 Shellac glazing agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E905 Paraffins Approved in the EU.[18]
E905a Mineral oil anti-foaming agent
E905b Petrolatum
E905c Petroleum wax (i)Microcrystalline wax (ii) Paraffin wax glazing agent
E906 Gum benzoic flavour enhancer
E907 Crystalline wax glazing agent
E908 Rice bran wax glazing agent
E909 Spermaceti wax glazing agent
E910 Wax esters glazing agent
E911 Methyl esters of fatty acids glazing agent
E912 Montanic acid esters, Montan acid esters glazing agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E913 Lanolin, sheep wool grease glazing agent
E914 Oxidized polyethylene wax, oxidized polyethylene glazing agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E915 Esters of colophony glazing agent
E916 Calcium iodate
E917 Potassium iodate
E918 Nitrogen oxides
E919 Nitrosyl chloride
E920 L-cysteine improving agent Banned in the EU
E921 L-cystine improving agent
E922 Potassium persulphate improving agent
E923 Ammonium persulphate improving agent
E924 Potassium bromate improving agent Banned in the EU
E924b Calcium bromate improving agent
E925 Chlorine preservative, bleach, improving agent
E926 Chlorine dioxide (preservative) bleach
E927a Azodicarbonamide improving agent
E927b Carbamide (urea) improving agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E928 Benzoyl peroxide (improving agent) bleach
E929 Acetone peroxide
E930 Calcium peroxide (improving agent) bleach
E938 Argon packaging gas Approved in the EU.[18]
E939 Helium packaging gas Approved in the EU.[18]
E940 Dichlorodifluoromethane packaging gas Banned in all countries, in compliance with the Montreal Protocol.
E941 Nitrogen (packaging gas) propellant Approved in the EU.[18]
E942 Nitrous oxide propellant Approved in the EU.[18]
E943a Butane propellant Approved in the EU.[18]
E943b Isobutane propellant Approved in the EU.[18]
E944 Propane propellant Approved in the EU.[18]
E945 Chloropentafluoroethane propellant
E946 Octafluorocyclobutane propellant
E948 Oxygen packaging gas Approved in the EU.[18]
E949 Hydrogen packaging gas Approved in the EU.[18]
E950 Acesulfame potassium sweetener Approved in the EU.[23]
E951 Aspartame sweetener Approved in the EU.[23]
E952 Cyclamic acid and its sodium and calcium salts, also known as Cyclamate sweetener Approved in the EU.[23]
E953 Isomalt, Isomaltitol sweetener Approved in the EU.[23]
E954 Saccharin and its sodium, potassium and calcium salts sweetener Approved in the EU.[23]
E955 Sucralose (Trichlorogalactosucrose) sweetener Approved in the EU.[23]
E956 Alitame sweetener
E957 Thaumatin (sweetener) flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[23]
E958 Glycyrrhizin (sweetener) flavour enhancer
E959 Neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (sweetener) flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[23]
E960 Steviol glycosides sweetener Approved in the EU.[25]
E961 Neotame sweetener Approved in 2010[22]
E962 Aspartame-acesulfame salt (sweetener) stabiliser Approved in the EU.[23]
E965 Maltitol (i) Maltitol (ii) Maltitol syrup (sweetener) (stabiliser) humectant Approved in the EU.[23]
E966 Lactitol sweetener Approved in the EU.[23]
E967 Xylitol sweetener Approved in the EU.[23]
E968 Erythritol sweetener Approved in the EU.[23]
E999 Quillaia extract foaming agent Approved in the EU.[18]

E1000–E1599 (additional additives)

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E1000 Cholic acid emulsifier
E1001 Choline salts emulsifier
E1100 Amylase stabiliser, flavour enhancer
E1101 Proteases ((i)Protease, (ii)Papain, (iii)Bromelain, (iv)Ficin) stabiliser, flavour enhancer
E1102 Glucose oxidase antioxidant
E1103 Invertase stabiliser Approved in the EU.[21]
E1104 Lipases
E1105 Lysozyme preservative
E1200 Polydextrose stabiliser, thickening agent, humectant, carrier Approved in the EU.[18]
E1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone stabiliser Approved in the EU.[18]
E1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (carrier) stabiliser Approved in the EU.[18]
E1203 Polyvinyl alcohol Approved in 2010[22]
E1204 Pullulan Approved in the EU.[18]
E1400 Dextrin (Dextrins, roasted starch white and yellow) (stabiliser) thickening agent
E1401 Modified starch ((Acid-treated starch) stabiliser) thickening agent
E1402 Alkaline modified starch (stabiliser) thickening agent
E1403 Bleached starch (stabiliser) thickening agent
E1404 Oxidized starch (emulsifier) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1405 Enzyme treated starch
E1410 Monostarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1411 Distarch glycerol (thickening agent) emulsifier
E1412 Distarch phosphate esterified with sodium trimetasphosphate; esterified with phosphorus oxychloride (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate (emulsifier) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1420 Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1421 Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetate (stabiliser) thickening agent
E1422 Acetylated distarch adipate (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1423 Acetylated distarch glycerol thickening agent
E1430 Distarch glycerine (stabiliser) thickening agent
E1440 Hydroxy propyl starch (emulsifier) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1441 Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerine (stabiliser) thickening agent
E1442 Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1443 Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerol
E1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate (emulsifier) (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1451 Acetylated oxidised starch (emulsifier) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1452 Starch aluminium octenyl succinate Approved in the EU.[18]
E1501 Benzylated hydrocarbons
E1502 Butane-1, 3-diol
E1503 Castor oil resolving agent
E1504 Ethyl acetate flavour solvent
E1505 Triethyl citrate foam stabiliser Approved in the EU.[18]
E1510 Ethanol
E1516 Glyceryl monoacetate flavour solvent
E1517 Glyceryl diacetate or diacetin flavour solvent
E1518 Glyceryl triacetate or triacetin humectant and flavour solvent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1519 Benzyl alcohol
E1520 Propylene glycol humectant and flavour solvent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1521 Polyethylene glycol 8000[26] Approved in 2010[22]
E1525 Hydroxyethyl cellulose thickening agent

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Food labels". Live Well. NHS Choices. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  2. ^ European Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners
  3. ^ Snelson, Matthew. "Explainer: what are E numbers and should you avoid them in your diet?". The Conversation. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  4. ^ Food Additives and Ingredients Association, no date, Frequently Asked Questions, accessed 6 March 2010
  5. ^ Food Additives in the European Union
  6. ^ Codex Alimentarius. "Class Names and the International Numbering System for Food Additives (Ref: CAC/GL #36 publ. 1989, revised 2009, amended 2011)" (PDF). Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  7. ^ Food Standards Australia New Zealand Archived 6 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine, website
  8. ^ See also "Food Additives", Food and Drug Administration website
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz "Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers". United Kingdom: Food Standards Agency. 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Summary of Color Additives for Use in United States in Foods, Drugs, Cosmetics, and Medical Devices". United States Food and Drug Administration.
  11. ^ Additives Archived 6 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Food Standards Australia New Zealand
  12. ^ "Food additives". CBC News. 29 September 2008. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013.
  13. ^ 21 C.F.R. 74.302
  14. ^ 21 C.F.R. 81.10
  15. ^ 21 C.F.R. 81.30
  16. ^ 21 C.F.R. 82.304
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers, Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010
  19. ^ Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code "Standard 1.2.4 - Labelling of ingredients". Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers, Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers, Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010
  22. ^ a b c d e New additives approved for use, Food Standards Agency, Friday 26 November 2010
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers, Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010
  24. ^ "E700-E799 (antibiotics)". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  25. ^ Stevia EU approval
  26. ^ New Zealand Food Safety Authority. "Identifying Food Additives" (PDF). Retrieved 6 December 2017.

External links

Acetic acid

Acetic acid , systematically named ethanoic acid , is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2). When undiluted, it is sometimes called glacial acetic acid. Vinegar is no less than 4% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water. Acetic acid has a distinctive sour taste and pungent smell. In addition to household vinegar, it is mainly produced as a precursor to polyvinyl acetate and cellulose acetate. It is classified as a weak acid since it only partially dissociates in solution, but concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and can attack the skin.

Acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid (after formic acid). It consists of a methyl group attached to a carboxyl group. It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical, used primarily in the production of cellulose acetate for photographic film, polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, and synthetic fibres and fabrics. In households, diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents. In the food industry, acetic acid is controlled by the food additive code E260 as an acidity regulator and as a condiment. In biochemistry, the acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A, it is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

The global demand for acetic acid is about 6.5 million metric tons per year (Mt/a), of which approximately 1.5 Mt/a is met by recycling; the remainder is manufactured from methanol. Vinegar is mostly dilute acetic acid, often produced by fermentation and subsequent oxidation of ethanol.

Butane

Butane () is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms. Butane is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The term may refer to either of two structural isomers, n-butane or isobutane (also called "methylpropane"), or to a mixture of these isomers. In the IUPAC nomenclature, however, "butane" refers only to the n-butane isomer (which is the isomer with the unbranched structure). Butanes are highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gases that quickly vaporize at room temperature. The name butane comes from the roots but- (from butyric acid, named after the Greek word for butter) and -ane. It was discovered by the chemist Edward Frankland in 1849. It was found dissolved in crude petroleum in 1864 by Edmund Ronalds, who was the first to describe its properties.

Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone, which is a type of sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcite) and is the main component of pearls and the shells of marine organisms, snails, and eggs. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime and is created when calcium ions in hard water react with carbonate ions to create limescale. It is medicinally used as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous.

Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic, alkaline, crystalline solid at room temperature. The broadly used term lime connotes calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, aluminium, and iron predominate. By contrast, quicklime specifically applies to the single chemical compound calcium oxide. Calcium oxide that survives processing without reacting in building products such as cement is called free lime.Quicklime is relatively inexpensive. Both it and a chemical derivative (calcium hydroxide, of which quicklime is the base anhydride) are important commodity chemicals.

Cellulose

Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C6H10O5)n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units. Cellulose is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%.Cellulose is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper. Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under development as a renewable fuel source. Cellulose for industrial use is mainly obtained from wood pulp and cotton.Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms that live in their guts, such as Trichonympha. In human nutrition, cellulose is a non-digestible constituent of insoluble dietary fiber, acting as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces and potentially aiding in defecation.

Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in the mesosomes of cyanobacteria, as well as in the chloroplasts of algae and plants. Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρός, chloros ("green") and φύλλον, phyllon ("leaf"). Chlorophyll is essential in photosynthesis, allowing plants to absorb energy from light.

Chlorophylls absorb light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as the red portion. Conversely, it is a poor absorber of green and near-green portions of the spectrum, which it reflects, producing the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues. Two types of chlorophyll exist in the photosystems of green plants: chlorophyll a and b.

Citric acid

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C6H8O7. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.

More than a million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. It is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring and chelating agent.A citrate is a derivative of citric acid; that is, the salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion found in solution. An example of the former, a salt is trisodium citrate; an ester is triethyl citrate. When part of a salt, the formula of the citrate ion is written as C6H5O3−7 or C3H5O(COO)3−3.

Cysteine

Cysteine (symbol Cys or C; ) is a semiessential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH. The thiol side chain in cysteine often participates in enzymatic reactions, as a nucleophile. The thiol is susceptible to oxidation to give the disulfide derivative cystine, which serves an important structural role in many proteins. When used as a food additive, it has the E number E920. It is encoded by the codons UGU and UGC.

Cysteine has the same structure as serine, but with one of its oxygen atoms replaced by sulfur; replacing it with selenium gives selenocysteine. (Like other natural proteinogenic amino acids cysteine has L chirality in the older D/L notation based on homology to D- and L-glyceraldehyde. In the newer R/S system of designating chirality, based on the atomic numbers of atoms near the asymmetric carbon, cysteine (and selenocysteine) have R chirality, because of the presence of sulfur (or selenium) as a second neighbor to the asymmetric carbon. The remaining chiral amino acids, having lighter atoms in that position, have S chirality.)

Glycerol

Glycerol (; also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. The glycerol backbone is found in many lipids which are known as glycerides. It is widely used in the food industry as a sweetener and humectant in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature.

Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium (gold tellurides).

Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to refine gold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects, giving rise to the term acid test. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction.

A relatively rare element, gold is a precious metal that has been used for coinage, jewelry, and other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was often implemented as a monetary policy, but gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, and the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971.

A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2015. The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. Gold's high malleability, ductility, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices (its chief industrial use). Gold is also used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, and tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes per year.

Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid or muriatic acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula H2O:HCl. Hydrochloric acid has a distinctive pungent smell. It is classified as strongly acidic and can attack the skin over a wide composition range, since the hydrogen chloride completely dissociates in aqueous solution.

Hydrochloric acid is the simplest chlorine-based acid system containing water. It is a solution of hydrogen chloride and water, and a variety of other chemical species, including hydronium and chloride ions. It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical, used in the production of polyvinyl chloride for plastic. In households, diluted hydrochloric acid is often used as a descaling agent. In the food industry, hydrochloric acid is used as a food additive and in the production of gelatin. Hydrochloric acid is also used in leather processing.

Hydrochloric acid was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan around the year 800 AD. It was historically called acidum salis and spirits of salt because it was produced from rock salt and "green vitriol" (Iron(II) sulfate) (by Basilius Valentinus in the 15th century) and later from the chemically similar common salt and sulfuric acid (by Johann Rudolph Glauber in the 17th century). Free hydrochloric acid was first formally described in the 16th century by Libavius. Later, it was used by chemists such as Glauber, Priestley, and Davy in their scientific research. Unless pressurized or cooled, hydrochloric acid will turn into a gas if there is around 60% or less of water. Hydrochloric acid is also known as hydronium chloride, in contrast to its anhydrous parent known as hydrogen chloride, or dry HCl.

Monosodium glutamate

Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids. Glutamic acid is found naturally in tomatoes, grapes, cheese, mushrooms and other foods.MSG is used in the food industry as a flavor enhancer with an umami taste that intensifies the meaty, savory flavor of food, as naturally occurring glutamate does in foods such as stews and meat soups. It was first prepared in 1908 by Japanese biochemist Kikunae Ikeda, who was trying to isolate and duplicate the savory taste of kombu, an edible seaweed used as a base for many Japanese soups. MSG as a flavor enhancer balances, blends, and rounds the perception of other tastes.MSG has been used for over a hundred years and today is commonly found in stock cubes (Bouillon cube), soups, ramen, gravy, stews, condiments, savoury snacks etc.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given MSG its generally recognized as safe (GRAS) designation. A popular misconception is that MSG can cause headaches and other feelings of discomfort, known as "Chinese restaurant syndrome," but double-blind tests fail to find evidence of such a reaction. The European Union classifies it as a food additive permitted in certain foods and subject to quantitative limits. MSG has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621.

Riboflavin

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. Food sources include eggs, green vegetables, milk and other dairy product, meat, mushrooms, and almonds. Some countries require its addition to grains. As a supplement it is used to prevent and treat riboflavin deficiency and prevent migraines. It may be given by mouth or injection.It is nearly always well tolerated. Normal doses are safe during pregnancy. Riboflavin is in the vitamin B group. It is required by the body for cellular respiration.Riboflavin was discovered in 1920, isolated in 1933, and first made in 1935. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Riboflavin is available as a generic medication and over the counter. In the United States a month of supplements costs less than 25 USD.

Saffron

Saffron (pronounced or ) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus". The vivid crimson stigmata and styles, called threads, are collected and dried to be used mainly as a seasoning and colouring agent in food. Saffron was long among the world's most costly spices by weight. Although some doubts remain on its origin, it is believed that saffron originated in Iran. However, Greece and Mesopotamia have also been suggested as the possible region of origin of this plant. C. sativus is possibly a triploid form of Crocus cartwrightianus. Saffron crocus slowly propagated throughout much of Eurasia and was later brought to parts of North Africa, North America, and Oceania.

Saffron's taste and iodoform- or hay-like fragrance result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. It also contains a carotenoid pigment, crocin, which imparts a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. Its recorded history is attested in a 7th-century BC Assyrian botanical treatise compiled under Ashurbanipal, and it has been traded and used for over four millennia. Iran now accounts for approximately 90% of the world production of saffron.

Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms. In many parts of the world, silica is the major constituent of sand. Silica is one of the most complex and most abundant families of materials, existing as a compound of several minerals and as synthetic product. Notable examples include fused quartz, fumed silica, silica gel, and aerogels. It is used in structural materials, microelectronics (as an electrical insulator), and as components in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Inhaling finely divided crystalline silica is toxic and can lead to severe inflammation of the lung tissue, silicosis, bronchitis, lung cancer, and systemic autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Inhalation of amorphous silicon dioxide, in high doses, leads to non-permanent short-term inflammation, where all effects heal.

Sodium bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3−). Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.

Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na+ and hydroxide anions OH−.

Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·nH2O. The monohydrate NaOH·H2O crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students.Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula SO2. It is a toxic gas with a burnt match smell. It is released naturally by volcanic activity and is produced as a by-product of the burning of fossil fuels contaminated with sulfur compounds and copper extraction.

Turmeric

Turmeric (Curcuma longa; or variously ) is a flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, the roots of which are used in cooking. The plant is rhizomatous, herbaceous, and perennial, and is native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, and requires temperatures between 20 and 30 °C (68 and 86 °F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered each year for their rhizomes, some for propagation in the following season and some for consumption.

When not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled in water for about 30–45 minutes and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a coloring and flavoring agent in many Asian cuisines, especially for curries, as well as for dyeing. Turmeric powder has a warm, bitter, black pepper-like flavor and earthy, mustard-like aroma.Although long used in Ayurvedic medicine, where it is also known as haridra, no high-quality clinical evidence exists for use of turmeric or its constituent, curcumin, as a therapy.

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