The Iron Curtain Trail (ICT), also known as EuroVelo 13 (EV13), is a partially complete long-distance cycling route which will run along the entire length of the former Iron Curtain. During the period of the Cold War (c. 1947-1991), the Iron Curtain delineated the border between the Communist East and the capitalist West, with the East being the Warsaw Pact countries of the Soviet bloc and the West being the countries of NATO.
The ICT can also, of course, be walked as a long-distance trail.
As of December 2013, many parts of the ICT are already complete, particularly in the central section, such as most of the German part and along the Czech border. When complete, the Iron Curtain Trail will run for 7,650 km (4,750 mi) from the Barents Sea down to the Black Sea.
The Iron Curtain Trail, which is closely related to the European Green Belt project, is being managed as three projects:
20 nations are part of the Iron Curtain Trail project, among them are 14 members of the European Union.
The ICT was lobbied for by the efforts of German Green Party politician Michael Cramer MEP. Trails have been created and made better suited to cycling with help and finance from the European Union, with historical signposts and markers erected.
The Iron Curtain was in the first place a non-physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The term symbolizes the efforts by the Soviet Union (USSR) to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the West and its allied states. On the east side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union, while on the west side were the countries that were allied to the United States or nominally neutral. Separate international economic and military alliances were developed on each side of the Iron Curtain.
Secondly, it refers to the 7.000 km. long physical barrier of fences, walls, minefields and watchtowers (an "Iron Curtain") that divided the "east" and "west". The Berlin Wall also was part of this physical barrier.
The nations behind the Iron Curtain were Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and the USSR; however, East Germany, Czechoslovakia and the USSR have since ceased to exist.
Countries that made up the USSR were Russia, Belarus, Latvia, Ukraine, Estonia, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Lithuania, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan.
The events that demolished the Iron Curtain started with peaceful opposition in Poland, and continued into Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia. Romania became the only communist state in Europe to overthrow its government with violence.The use of the term Iron Curtain as a metaphor for strict separation goes back at least as far as the early 19th century. It originally referred to fireproof curtains in theaters. Although its popularity as a Cold War symbol is attributed to its use in a speech Winston Churchill gave on the 5 March 1946 in Fulton, Missouri, Nazi German Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels had already used the term in reference to the Soviet Union.Iron Curtain (disambiguation)
The Iron Curtain was the boundary dividing Europe in the Cold War.
Iron Curtain may also refer to:
Safety curtain, in theatres
Iron Curtain (countermeasure), an active protection system
Iron Curtain (football), the defensive line of Rangers Football Club in the 1940s and 1950s
Iron Curtain (musical), a comedy musical about the Soviet Union
The Iron Curtain (film), a 1948 film
The Iron Curtain device, a fictional superweapon in the Red Alert series
Irumbu Thirai (Tamil for Iron Curtain), a 1960 film
Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, a book by Anne ApplebaumKirkenes
Kirkenes (Northern Sami: Girkonjárga, Finnish and Kven: Kirkkoniemi, Russian: Киркенес) is a town in Sør-Varanger Municipality in Finnmark county, in the far northeastern part of Norway. The town lies on a peninsula along the Bøkfjorden, an arm of the large Varangerfjorden. The main church for Kirkenes is Kirkenes Church, located in the Haganes area of the town.
The 2.14-square-kilometre (530-acre) town has a population (2018) of 3,529, which gives the town a population density of 1,649 inhabitants per square kilometre (4,270/sq mi). When the neighbouring suburban villages of Hesseng, Sandnes, and Bjørnevatn are all included with Kirkenes, the urban area reaches a total population of almost 8,000 people.