EOKA

EOKA (/eɪˈoʊkə/; Greek: ΕΟΚΑ), acronym for Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston,[a] was a Greek Cypriot nationalist guerrilla organisation that fought a campaign for the end of British rule in Cyprus, for the island's self-determination and for eventual union with Greece.[3]

EOKA
ΕΟΚΑ
Participant in Cyprus Emergency and Cypriot intercommunal violence
EOKA
Active1955–1959
IdeologyAnti-imperialism
Greek nationalism
Enosis
Anti-communism
LeadersGeorgios Grivas (Digenis)
HeadquartersCyprus
Size250 regulars and 1000 active underground[1]
AlliesGreece
Opponent(s)British Empire
Turkish Resistance Organisation

Background

Cyprus, an island in eastern Mediterranean, inhabited mostly by Greek and Turkish populations, was part of the Ottoman Empire until 4 June 1878, when in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, it was handed to the British empire.[4] As nationalistic tendencies were growing in both communities of Cyprus, Greek Cypriots were leaning towards Enosis (Union with Greece) which was a part of Megali idea. The origins of Enosis date back to 1821, the year when the Greek War of Independence commenced, and the archbishop of Cyprus, his archdeacon, and three bishops were beheaded, amongst other atrocities. In 1828, Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, the first governor of Greece, asked for the union of Cyprus with Greece, while small-scale uprisings also occurred.[5] In 1878, when British general Wolsely came to Cyprus to formally establish British rule, he was met by the archbishop of Kition who, after welcoming him, requested that Britain cede Cyprus to Greece.[5] Initially, the Greek Cypriots welcomed British rule because they were aware that the British had returned the Ionian Islands to Greece in 1864, and they were also hoping for British investment in Cyprus.[6] In 1912 the British government offered Greece to exchange Cyprus for a naval base in Argostoli, Kefalonia, in order to gain control of the Ionian sea an offer which was repeated in 1913. In 1915, the British offered several times Cyprus to Greece, in exchange for Greece's participation in World War I. But while Greece was undecided whether it should enter the War, the British government withdrew its offer.[7] By 1915, the Greek Cypriots seeing that neither the British investment, nor Enosis, had materialised, increased their opposition to British rule.[6] In the beginning, the Enosis movement had only few supporters mainly from the upper classes.[8][9][10][11] But that was about to change as two groups of disappointed with the new ruler began to form: the Church and the Usurers. In the following years a growing number of Cypriots were studying in Greece, and upon their return, they became strong advocates of Enosis.[11][12] On the other hand, the Turkish Cypriot community started to develop its own nationalism in the early 20th century, as news arrived in the island about the persecutions faced by Muslims in the countries that formed after the collapse of Ottoman Empire.[13][14]

In the 1950s, EOKA was established with the specific aim of mounting a military campaign to end the status of Cyprus as a British crown colony and achieving the island's unification with Greece. The leadership of AKEL at the time, the island's communist party, opposed EOKA's military action, advocating a "Gandhiesque approach" of civil disobedience, such as workers' strikes and demonstrations.[15]

Initially, the struggle was political, as opposed to military. EOKA, in Grivas' words, wanted to attract the attention of the world through high-profile operations that would make headlines.[16]

Formation

Leadership

EOKA was headed by Georgios Grivas Greek Army officer, World War I and World War II veteran. During the Axis occupation of Greece in World War II, he led a small, anti-communist resistance[b] group, named Organization X.[17][18] During the anti-communist struggle of December 1944 in Athens after the Axis withdrawal he was saved due to Biritsh intervention.[19] Grivas assumed the nom de guerre Digenis in direct reference to the legendary Byzantine Digenis Akritas who repelled invaders from the Byzantine Empire.[20][21] Second in command in EOKA was Grigoris Afxentiou, also a former officer of the Greek army. Afxentiou had graduated from the reserves Officers Academy in 1950 without previous experience on battlefield.[22][23]

Objectives

The main objective of EOKA was Enosis: union of Cyprus with Greece. The organization adopted typical Greek national ideologies and displayed religious, conservative and anticommunist ideas.[24][25] This was in agreement with the ideologies cultivated in vaiours fileds of the Greek Cypriot society: education, religion, press and politics.[26][27] There was a widespread believe that leftists opposed national objectives and provided a certain support to the colonial regime[28] contrary to other contemporary anticolonial insurgencies in Africa or Asia, which where led by marxists.[29]

Grivas and Archbishop of Cyprus, Makarios III, disagreed about the way to overthrow British rule from the island. Grivas rejected Makarios attempt to limit the campaign to acts of sabotage, avoiding loss of life. Nevertheless he shared Makarios view that victory would be won by diplomatic means.[30] Grivas goal was to subject the British to continued relentless harassment, making them clear that occupation carries a price, while keeping Enosis on the international diplomatic agenda.[31] The British response to the EOKA campaign was crucial in this regard: repression would on the one hand alienate the Greek Cypriot population from British rule, and on the other hand provide Makarios and the Greek government with a stick to beat the British with before the United Nations. EOKA would ensure that there was a Cyprus problem and demonstrate to the world that the British could not resolve it.[31]

Preparations

Grivas carried out a first reconnaissance in Cyprus as early as July 1951.[32] Makarios was certainly sceptical, telling Grivas on one occasion that he would not find supporters for an armed struggle. The British shared the same view. Grivas finally arrived on the island in early November 1954 and set about establishing his underground network.[33] He recruited from the Cyprus Farmers' Union (PEK) in the villages and from the two main youth movements, the Church-controlled Christian Youth Movement (OHEN) and the nationalist Pancyprian Youth Movement (PEON) in the towns.[33][34] Grivas intended to turn the youth of Cyprus 'into the sedbed of EOKA'.[33] The backbone of EOKA were the mountain groups, a conventional guerrilla force living in hidden camps in the forests, and the town groups, often continuing their civilian job or schooling.[33] Supporting this armed wing was the much broader National Front of Cyprus (EMAK), which provided EOKA with intelligence, supplies, weapons, medicins, recruits and safe houses, confronted the British on the streets with demonstrations and riots and conducted the propaganda offensive.[33]

Armed campaign

From April 1955 to the dismissal of governor Armitage (October)

The armed struggle started on the night of March 29-April, 1955. A total of 18 bomb attacks occurred in various locations across the island. Most notable incidents were those of Nicosia by the group of Markos Drakos as well as the demolition of the Cyprus Broadcasting Station's transmitter.[35][36][37] The attacks were accompanied by a revolutionary proclamation signed by "The leader, Digenes". Grivas decided to keep his involvement secret at the moment and used the name of a Byzantine general who had defended Cyprus in the medieval era.[35] The British, not expecting this turn of events, reinforced their local military bases (Dhekelia and Akrotiri) by transferring troops from Egypt.[37]

At the end of April EOKA attacks temporarily paused, giving time to Grivas to organize the youth.[38] A second offensive was launched on June 19 with coordinated bomb and grenade attacks against police stations, military installations and the homes of army officers and senior officials.[39][40][41] One of those bombings demolished the building of the Famagusta Police headquarters.[39] Those attacks were usually followed by sporadic incidents: shootings, bombings and increased public disorder.[39] This second wave of EOKA attacks lasted until the end of June, totaling 204 attacks since the beginning of the insurgency.[42][43]

In August, two Special Branch members were assassinated in separate incidents. The raising of the Greek flag during demonstrations usually led to clashes with the colonial authorities, the latter removing it by force if necessary.[39] Another major EOKA success was the escape from Kyrenia castle prison of 16 EOKA members including a number of key figures, such as Markos Drakos and Grigoris Afxentiou.[39]

British reactions

The situation seemed to be deteriorating out of control and the British authorities attempted to safeguard their position in Cyprus by diplomatic manoeuvring and a counterinsurgency offensive. The first involved playing the Greek and Turkish governments off against each other. Eden saw Turkey as "the key protecting British interests" in Cyprus.[39] By the end of September, as the crisis was escalating, the British Government decided to replace governor Armitage.[44]

In Turkey, the public opinion was uneased. Rumours were spreading in Turkish media that a slaughter of the Turkish Cypriot community was likely to occur. Though they were unfounded they led to nationalist reactions in the country and the government-sponsored anti-Greek Istanbul pogrom of September 1955.[45]. At the same time, during the Trilatet Conference among Britain, Turkey and Greece held in London, an agreement couldn't being reached while Turkey adopted a stubborn position.[46][47]

In this fashion, British policy also aimed at the dramatic increase in recruitment of Turkish Cypriots. By the start of 1956, they had come to dominate the police force numbering 4,000 compared to less than 1,000 Greek Cypriots. The Turkish Cypriots were very much in the front line against EOKA. Inevitably, the use of Turkish Cypriot policemen against the Greek Cypriot community exacerbated relations between the two communities.[48]

From October 1955 to March 1956 (Operation Forward Victory, phase I)

The new British governor John Harding arrived at October 3.[49] Harding sought to meet Archbishop Makarios, and both agreed on commencing what became known as Harding-Makarios negotiations.[50][51] Increased security and stepping up military might was of Hardings priorities.[52] On November 26, Harding declared stated of Emergency- that meant among other, implementation of the death penalty for non-fatality crimes. [53] Repressive legislation and troop reinforcements were not the answer however. The Greek Cypriot population was hostile and the Special Branch was neutered.[54] The British response was large-scale cordon and search operations which rarely resulted in arrests or the discovery of arms caches, but which invariably alienated those whose houses were searched or who were roughed up and dragged off to be screened. Collective punishments, far from undermining support for EOKA, only succeeded in making the Greek Cypriots more hostile to British rule.[54] Moreover, Harding viewed Cyprus very much as a pawn in the Cold War global situation: on December 13 he banned AKEL and detained 128 of its leading members, effectively crippling the only political party in Cyprus that opposed EOKA.[54]

The inevitable result was to increase sympathy for EOKA and to assist its recruitment efforts. The problem was that the Greek Cypriot community was overwhelmingly in favour of Enosis. Far from moderates emerging with whom Britain could do a deal.[55] It was this popular support, enabling Grivas and his small band of guerrillas to take on the growing security apparatus that Harding was marshalling against him, that sustained the armed struggle.[55] It became clear that EOKA did have an effective intelligence apparatus and that the guerrillas were often forewarned of security intentions. Schoolchildren, domestic servants, civilian personnel on the military bases, the police, all were enlisted by Grivas in the intelligence war while the security forces were operating in the dark.[55]

Operation "Forward to Victory" (Greek name) was launched on November 18 and was accompanied by several bomb attacks.[56] In the urban areas schoolchildren had a prominent role in the EOKA struggle. The Battle of Flags, escalated during the Autumn of 1955 and peaked in January and February 1956- that kept British forces busy away from chasing down EOKA.[57][58] Schoolboys were not only participating in riots and stone-throwing against the police, but some of them were also trained to throw bombs and carry assassinations.[59] Bombs by guerrillas and youngsters were thrown at British personnel houses, police stations and army camps.[60][61] In some cases, EOKA members managed to steal some weaponry.[62] The British were never to succeed completely eliminating EOKA agents from the police force.[48]

Up in the mountains, the struggle continued as the guerrillas expanded their network in the Troodos mountains. However, due to harsh winter conditions in addition to certain British military pressure, the activity of EOKA temporarily eased.[63] By the end of February 1956 the British were involved in suppressing a veritable schoolchildren revolt that left one boy shot dead and the island's school system almost completely closed down.[48]

March 1956 to March 1957 (operation Victory, phase II)

After the failure of Makarios-Harding negotiations the British government in a sudden move, exiled Makarios to Seychelles on March 9, 1956.[64] This triggered a week long general strike followed by a dramatic increase in EOKA activity: 246 attacks until March 31 including an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Harding. The offensive continued into April and May and the British casualties averaged two killed every week.[65] While Harding's forces were making ground up in the mountains,[66] guerrillas and youngsters were trying to assassinate members of the security forces at their leisure time or alleged traitors.[67]

EOKA focused its activity to urban areas during this period. House bombings and riots, mostly by schoolboys, forced army to keep forces away from the mountains where EOKA's main fighters where hiding. Apart from individual citizens or soldiers in their leisure time, army and police facilities where attacked totaling 104 house bombings, 53 riots, 136 acts of Sabotage, 403 ambushes, 35 attacks on police, 38 attacks on soldiers and 43 raids on police stations.[c][72] But as the pressure of Harding mounted, Grivas began targeting Turkish Cypriot policemen effectively sparking inter-communal riots and a series of strikes[73][74]

Harding escalated his fight against EOKA organizing a series of operations in April-July[d] Harding also upgraded his intelligence network including the creation of the notorious X-platoon.[76] On May 10 the first two EOKA prisoners were hanged and Grivas responded with the execution of two British soldiers.[65] The British were concerned to counter EOKA's mountain units. Large scale operations were launched however Grivas managed to escape.[77] He decided to move to Limassol where he established his new headquarters. Although Grivas escaped, the Troodos operations had some success for the British: 20 guerrillas and 50 weapons were captured. However, they ended up with a disaster: at least 7 British soldiers were killed and additionally 21 were burned to death by accident. The last incident overshadowed the first real success against the EOKA guerrilla forces.[77]

On August 9 the British authorities hanged three more EOKA prisoners, however Grivas did not retaliate this time. Widespread strikes held in protest.[78] On November 1956 due to the Suez Crisis large numbers of British troops were transferred off Cyprus allowing Grivas to launch a new offensive. EOKA launched a wave of attacks in what would became for the British "Black November" with a total of 416 attacks, 39 killed 21 of them British. After the Suez debacle the British military strength was increased to 20,000 and Harding managed to direct a new offensive.[78]

Although EOKA received a severe blow in the mountains its armed activity continued in the urban areas while the British forces were apparently impotent.[79][77][80] Grivas declared truce on the 14th of March 1957 which would last nearly one year.[80]

From March 1957 to November 1957

Harding continued to pressure EOKA despite the unilateral truce imposing security measures imposed to villagers. This bounced back at the British Forces as EOKA made gains in the field of propaganda.[81][82][83]

Meanwhile, PEKA[e] was continuing the struggle for Enosis with political means, while EOKA was trying to recruit new members. Priests and teachers, under strict secrecy, were the scouting for young men aged 14-24, and were mostly successful.[84] Grivas reorganized EOKA's structure.[85] By Autumn, Grivas was increasing his autonomy from Greece and Makarios and was planning to attack the Left and the Turkish Cypriot community. The Greek government and Makarios were unable to prevent those initiatives.[86]

Detention Camps and claims of torture

Detention of Persons Law, passed in 15th June 1955, gave the authority to the British authorities to enclose a suspect in a detention camp without a trial. [87] PEKA and later Makarios and Greek Government pointed to the unhuman conditions in those camps.[88][89] The situation of the inmates there was a matter of dispute [89] International Committee of the Red Cross visited the camps twice and found no problems.[90][91]. Harding declined the torture allegations, describing it as propaganda by EOKA.[92] Torture allegations had an impact in internal British politics.[93] The precise use of torture methods remains a matter of dispute. According to Heinz Richter, while police or army was generally lawful, the British turned a blind eye to interrogators many of whom were deliberately undereducated Turkish Cypriot who were against Enosis. Another aspect that Richter highlights is that many claims of torture were made as the alleged victims were afraid for their lives as it was punished by death to speak to the British.[94] David French on the other hand views that most - but not all- claims of torture were a propaganda tool of EOKA.[95] In general Harding failed to win over the Greek Cypriot population especially when his security forces resorted to this kind of measures.[96]

Campaign against Greek Cypriot groups

Initially, EOKA was intimidating the population not to co-operate with the security forces, but steadily the definition of traitor broadened as the security forces had some successes EOKA at the end of 1956.[97] EOKA members who had spoken to the security forces under interrogation were also considered as traitors and Grivas was in favor of the death penalty in such case. Incidences happened where EOKA guerrillas killed others by their own initiative and not solely based on accusations for treason. The killings took place in public.[98][99] Such activity peaked especially during summer-autumn 1956.[100] The Greek Cypriot Left and in particular the communist party (AKEL) were also targeted. The later aimed at a political role in the Greek Cypriot community challenging EOKA's claim that Makarios was the sole leader of the community. As AKEL was growing in numbers it was practically denying Makarios' role. The British delicately fueled this hostility and in August 1957 a second wave of intra-Greek violence broke out.[101] Due to intimidation methods and targeting civilians towards local population a number of scholars characterized EOKA as a terrorist organisation.[102] Another similar wave broke out in April- October 1958 when a peace agreement was imminent.[103][104] AKEL held massive demonstrations and sought the help of Makarios which he granted.[103][105]

End of truce

During this period the British were openly tolerating the Turkish Cypriot paramilitary organisations. The British had deliberately set out to use the Turkish Cypriot community on the island and the Turks government as a means of blocking the demand for Enosis.[106] They had effectively allied themselves with the Turkish minority and turned them as the overwhelming majority in the police force. This had now got out of control as far as the British were concerned, but nevertheless they still managed to exploit the situation.[106]

The truce against the collonial authorities lasted until the 28th of October 1957 (Ohi Day, Greek national holiday) when Harold Macmillan, British minister of foreign affairs, declined a proposal by Makarios.[107]

The Governorship of Hugh Foot and the Descent into Intercommunal violence, December 1957–August 1958

Sir Hugh Foot arrived in Cyprus December 1956, when was obvious that a military victory for the British was not imminent.[108][109] Grivas at that time was planning a gradual escalation of EOKA's attacks to the British forces but in mid-December, he called for a truce to give space to negotiations to take place. The truce broke at 4th March 1958 when a new wave of attacks was unleashed but this time, Grivas ordered his guerillas not attack turkish cypriots to avoid intercommunal violence that could lead to partition.[110]

EOKA and Turkish-cypriots

Turkish Cypriot community objected Enosis long before the 1950s of fear that unification with Greece would lead to their persecution and expulsion. Similarly nationalism among Turkish Cypriots was constructed from various events that led to the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.[111][112][113] Grass root paramilitary fighting groups appeared as early as of May 1955, such as Kitemb, KaraYilan (meaning Black Snake) and Volkan, all of them were absorbed later by TMT (Turk Mudya Teskilat/Turkish Resistance Organization)[114][115] TMT was Turkey's tool to fuel intercommunal violence in order to show that partition was the only possible arrangement.[116] Like EOKA, TMT was aggressive against members of its own community (ie leftists) that were not willing to stay in line with their cause.[117][118]

EOKA was not targeting the Turkish Cypriots at the beginning of the insurgency, but this approach was about to change in January 1957.[119][120] According to French, Grivas decided to attack Turkish Cypriot so to spark intercommunal tensions and rioting in the towns of Cyprus, forcing the British withdraw their troops from hunting EOKA up in the mountains and restore order in urban areas.[119] From 19 January 1957 to the end of March, EOKA's guerrillas attacked members of the Turkish community, starting with a Turkish Cypriot police officer that sparked riots lasting 3 days.[121][122]

Intercommunal (and intra-communal) violence escalated in the summer of 1958 with numerous killings. French counted fifty-five assassinations by Turks on Greeks, and fifty-nine assassinations by Greeks on Turks between 7 June and 7 August.[123][124] A substantial number of turkish cypriots fled from the southern parts of Cyprus and moved to the northern side due to the violence .[125] In order to tackle the intercommunal clash, Foot mounted Operations "Matchbox" and "Table Lighter".[126][127] A truce was called at August, backed by Greek and Turkish Governments.[128]

Dissolution and legacy

A memorial museum dedicated to the EOKA campaign was created in 1960. It is located in the centre of Nicosia.[129]

EOKA lawsuits against the British government

In 2012, EOKA veterans announced that lawsuits were being planned against British authorities.[130] The veterans association alleged that at least 14 Cypriots died and hundreds more could have been "tortured during interrogations" by the British during the 1955–1959 campaign. Two of those who allegedly died during interrogation were aged 17. The legal action comes on the back of the uncovering of secret documents released in 2011 which present similar practices during the Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya, during the same period.[131][132]

In 2018, Cypriot veterans won the right to claim damages over UK torture claims at court. The presiding judge dismissed arguments by the British government that the case should be judged under Cypriot law, which, if true, would have meant that the statute of limitations applied in the case. The judge commented that "It seems to me that, in this case at any rate, where a state stands to be held to account for acts of violence against its citizens, it should be held to account in its own courts, by its own law and should not escape liability by reference to a colonial law it has itself made."[133]

Foreign Office declassified documents

In 2012, Foreign Office released highly classified documents which described claims of torture and abuse between 1955-1959. In the reports it is revealed that officers of the colonial administration admitted to torture and abuse. In the same papers, there are allegations against British soldiers and security personnel concerning the murder of a blind man, ordering a Greek Cypriot to dig his own grave, and hitting a pregnant woman who subsequently miscarried. Other allegations include the 1958 mass arrest and beating of 300 civilians by colonial forces. In the incident, it is alleged that the British forces left some civilians behind, thinking they were dead. A woman provided details of her rape in a forest by members of the British Special Forces, and her subsequent "brutal interrogation" regarding her connection to EOKA.[133]

Monuments

There are various monuments dedicated to the members of EOKA who died during the years of combat who are largely regarded as war-time heroes by Greek-Cypriots. Part of the central jail of Nicosia established by British governor Harding functions after the Cypriot independence as a museum. This includes the prisons cells, the gallows and the "Incarcerated Graves" of 13 EOKA fighters who were either executed or killed by the colonial authorities.[134]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ More specific, EOKA is the acronym of the organisation's full name in Greek, Εθνική Οργάνωσις Κυπρίων Αγωνιστών, Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston (National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters), sometimes expanded as Εθνική Οργάνωσις Κυπριακού Αγώνος, Ethnikí Orgánosis Kipriakoú Agónos ("National Organisation of Cypriot Struggle").[2]
  2. ^ There is some controversy surrounding the Xhi organization as some sources consider it or its members to be Nazi collaborators while others consider it patriotic and anti-communist
  3. ^ Some of the attacks of the attacks against civilians drew world attention and were used for propaganda purposes by the British authorities. Most notable attacks have been the killing of an army doctor while driving home,[68] the execution of Greek Cypriot Assistant Superintendent Kyriacos Aristotelous,[69][70] the killing of the son of a soldier in a beach near Dekelia base[71] a Maltese shop owner (fiance of a Greek Cypriot woman) was killed by shooting in the back. -the phot of the grieving wife reached mainstream media in UK- another couple, a British customs officer and his wife, was murdered while picnicked.[71]. On 16 June 1956, the bombing of a restaurant by EOKA led to the death of William P. Boteler, a CIA officer working under diplomatic cover. Grivas immediately issued a statement denying a deliberate attempt to target American citizens.[67]
  4. ^ These operations have been a) Operation ‘Kennett’b) Operation ‘Pepperpot’, c) Operation ‘Lucky Alphonse’ and d)Operation ‘Spread Eagle’. 21 soldiers died at a forest fire during Lucky Alphonse[75]
  5. ^ PEKA was the political branch of EOKA

References

  1. ^ Kraemer 1971, p. 146.
  2. ^ The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica 2015.
  3. ^ Karyos 2009.
  4. ^ Richter 2007, p. 23.
  5. ^ a b Mallinson & Mallinson 2005, p. 5.
  6. ^ a b Emerick 2014, p. 117-18.
  7. ^ Richter 2007, p. 157-194, chapter First World War.
  8. ^ Lange 2011, p. 93.
  9. ^ Bellingeri & Kappler 2005, p. 21.
  10. ^ Isachenko 2012, p. 37.
  11. ^ a b Richter 2007, p. 114-15.
  12. ^ French 2015, p. 17: French writes: "But Greek Cypriot teachers and parents insisted that education should follow a classical curriculum that promoted a Greek ethnic identity and preserved the Greek character of the island, a curriculum that also instilled into pupils a sense of historical awareness that supported their claims for Enosis.27"
  13. ^ Κτωρής 2013, p. 80.
  14. ^ Kizilyurek 2011, p. 198 - 199:Kizilyurek clearly states: "The Turkish Cypriot nationalism mainly developed in reaction to the Greek Cypriot national desire for union with Greece."
  15. ^ Mallinson & Mallinson 2005, p. 19.
  16. ^ Markides 1974.
  17. ^ Novo 2010, p. 66.
  18. ^ Ganser 2005, p. 213:The turn around of the British came as a shock to ELAS and its difficulties increased when former Nazi collaborators and right-wing special units, such as the fascist X Bands of Cypriot soldier George Grivas, with British support started to hunt and kill ELAS resistance fighters. Churchill, who observed the battle from a distance, noticed however that the X Bands, for complete lack of popular support, never numbered more than 600 Greeks and hence ELAS remained the strongest guerrilla on the territory
  19. ^ Newsinger 2016, p. 93.
  20. ^ Roderick Beaton; Koraes Professor of Modern Greek and Byzantine History Language and Literature Roderick Beaton (2003). George Seferis: Waiting for the Angel : a Biography. Yale University Press. p. 370. ISBN 978-0-300-10135-5.
  21. ^ Susan Sherratt; John Bennett (30 November 2016). Archaeology and the Homeric Epic. Oxbow Books. p. 161. ISBN 978-1-78570-298-3.
  22. ^ Martin Bell (30 July 2015). The End of Empire: Cyprus: A Soldier's Story. Pen and Sword. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4738-4821-4.
  23. ^ Newsinger 2016, p. 106.
  24. ^ Θρασυβούλου 2016, p. 298.
  25. ^ Novo 2012, p. 194.
  26. ^ Βαρνάβα 2000, p. 88-105, Church and EOKA youth.
  27. ^ Novo 2012, p. 195-196.
  28. ^ Θρασυβούλου 2016, p. 316.
  29. ^ Novo 2010, p. 64-65: While the antagonism between AKEL and EOKA was real and eventually bloody, the alleged ‘cooperation’ between AKEL and the British authorities did not happen.(...) EOKA’s right-wing ideology made it the exception to the rule of post-Second World War insurgencies. Such movements were most often led by communists who aimed at establishing new Marxist societies. This was the case in China, Malaya, Vietnam, and Cuba. As a nationalist and anti-communist movement, EOKA had far more in common with the Irgun and Stern Gang in late-1940s Palestine.
  30. ^ Newsinger, 2016, p. 96
  31. ^ a b Newsinger, 2016, p. 97
  32. ^ Newsinger, 2016, p. 93
  33. ^ a b c d e Newsinger, 2016, p. 94
  34. ^ French 2015, p. 64-65.
  35. ^ a b Newsinger 2016, p. 95.
  36. ^ French 2015, p. 71.
  37. ^ a b Richter 2011, p. 250.
  38. ^ Richter 2011, p. 254: ANE (Valiant Youth of EOKA), a pupil's group was created, ANE had a branch in every school.
  39. ^ a b c d e f Newsinger 2016, p. 97.
  40. ^ Richter 2011, p. 257-8.
  41. ^ French 2015, p. 72.
  42. ^ Richter 2011, p. 259.
  43. ^ French 2015, p. 76.
  44. ^ French 2015, p. 82.
  45. ^ Richter 2011, pp. 315-321.
  46. ^ Richter 2011, pp. 299 & 313.
  47. ^ Holland 1998, p. 73.
  48. ^ a b c Newsinger 2016, p. 101.
  49. ^ Holland 1998, p. 83-84.
  50. ^ Holland 1998, p. 84-85.
  51. ^ Richter 2011, p. 370.
  52. ^ Richter 2011, pp. 370-72.
  53. ^ Richter 2011, p. 373.
  54. ^ a b c Newsinger 2016, p. 99.
  55. ^ a b c Newsinger 2016, p. 100.
  56. ^ Richter 2011, p. 377: According to Richter, there were 50 bomb attacks that day.
  57. ^ French 2015, p. 86.
  58. ^ Richter 2011, p. 376.
  59. ^ Richter 2011, p. 383.
  60. ^ Richter 2011, p. 481-82.
  61. ^ French 2015, p. 86-88.
  62. ^ French 2015, p. 87.
  63. ^ French 2015, p. 88-89.
  64. ^ Richter 2011, p. 416-422.
  65. ^ a b Newsinger 2016, p. 102.
  66. ^ Richter 2011, pp. 501-512: In the subchapter "The British counter-attack"
  67. ^ a b Richter 2011, p. 496.
  68. ^ French 2015, p. 110.
  69. ^ French 2015, p. 111.
  70. ^ Richter 2011, pp. 489-491:Richter claims that the assassination took place in the hospital's ward, while Aristotelous was talking to the doctor. The doctor was injured, according to Richter
  71. ^ a b Richter 2011, p. 493.
  72. ^ French 2015, p. 109.
  73. ^ French 2015, p. 152.
  74. ^ Richter 2011, pp. 491-492
  75. ^ French 2015, p. 135.
  76. ^ French 2015, p. 145-46.
  77. ^ a b c Newsinger 2016, p. 103.
  78. ^ a b Newsinger 2016, p. 104.
  79. ^ French 2015, p. 136.
  80. ^ a b Richter 2011, p. 651.
  81. ^ Richter 2011, pp. 651-53.
  82. ^ French 2015, p. 169.
  83. ^ Holland 1998, p. 198.
  84. ^ Richter 2011, pp. 706-707.
  85. ^ French 2015, p. 246.
  86. ^ Richter 2011, p. 725.
  87. ^ Richter 2011, pp. 653-54.
  88. ^ French 2015, p. 196.
  89. ^ a b Richter 2011, p. 654.
  90. ^ French 2015, p. 220.
  91. ^ Richter 2011, p. 657-658.
  92. ^ Richter 2011, p. 659.
  93. ^ Richter 2011, p. 661-665.
  94. ^ Richter 2011, pp. 666-668.
  95. ^ French 2015, p. 222-24.
  96. ^ Newsinger 2016, p. 107.
  97. ^ French 2015, p. 158-59.
  98. ^ French 2015, p. 163-64.
  99. ^ Holland 1998, p. 148:According to Holland "In early August [1956] EOKA had unleashed a series of urban assassinations in which twenty-one Greek 'traitors' had been killed—the victims often sought out in cafes to accentuate the public ritual of the horror"
  100. ^ French 2015, p. 163.
  101. ^ Holland 1998, p. 203.
  102. ^ Other scholars that described EOKA as terrorist organization, or their members as terrorist are: (not all inclusive list}
    • Edwards, Aaron (February 28, 2018). "Securing the base : Defending the realm?". Home. Retrieved September 24, 2018. British military intervention in Cyprus reached a crescendo in the major counter-insurgency campaign fought by the island's Security Forces between 1955 and 1959. The terrorist group EOKA, led by Colonel George Grivas, immediately embarked on enosis (union with Greece) through an armed campaign. EOKA was backed politically by Archbishop Makarios III, leader of the Cyprus Orthodox Church, who, while not taking an active part in the terrorist campaign himself, ‘hinted that the Church would not shrink from violence if necessary’.
    • Shughart, William F. (July 21, 2006). "An analytical history of terrorism, 1945–2000". Public Choice. Springer Nature. 128 (1–2): 7–39. doi:10.1007/s11127-006-9043-y. ISSN 0048-5829. A series of similar events played out in Cyprus, where, by 1955, the EOKA had succeeded in throwing the island into complete chaos. Never more than 400 active terrorists strong, the Greek Cypriot organization employed hit-and-run tactics against the much larger British security force deployed on station...(...).... . Britain reacted to the terrorists’ “apparent ability to strike anywhere, anytime” and to the growing “public frustration caused by disruption to daily life” by interning and then exiling Makarios to the Seychelles in 1956.
    • Audrey Kurth Cronin (24 August 2009). "Chapter 3: Success, Achieving the objective". How Terrorism Ends: Understanding the Decline and Demise of Terrorist Campaigns. Princeton University Press. pp. 73–93. ISBN 1-4008-3114-8.
    • Abrahms, Max; Lula, Karolina (2012). "Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory". Perspectives on Terrorism. 6, no. 4/5: 46–62.
    • Arthur Mark Weisburd (25 April 1997). Use of Force: The Practice of States Since World War II. Penn State Press. p. 76. ISBN 0-271-04301-6.
    • Crenshaw, Martha; Pimlott, John (22 April 2015). "Terrorism in Cyprus". International Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-91966-5.
  103. ^ a b French 2015, p. 166-67.
  104. ^ Richter 2011, p. 710-212: in the subchapter "Grivas unleash attack against the Left
  105. ^ Richter 2011, p. 710-712b: in the subchapter "Grivas unleash attack against the Left". Richter also notes that AKEL approached Makarios who was antithetical to Grivas tactics. That was the beginning of a relationship that would last to time
  106. ^ a b Newsinger 2016, p. 109.
  107. ^ Richter 2011, p. 106.
  108. ^ French 2015, p. 241.
  109. ^ Holland 1998, p. 213.
  110. ^ French 2015, p. 246-47.
  111. ^ French 2015, p. 253.
  112. ^ Holland 1998, p. 12.
  113. ^ Kizilyurek 2011, p. 198 - 199:Niyazi Kızılyürek names the fear among turkish-cypriots as "Cretan Syndrome"
  114. ^ French 2015, p. 256-57.
  115. ^ Holland 1998, p. 216.
  116. ^ French 2015, p. 259-61.
  117. ^ French 2015, p. 260.
  118. ^ Holland 1998, p. 242.
  119. ^ a b French 2015, p. 258.
  120. ^ Holland 1998, p. 69: As Holland states: "EOKA violence was initially directed against British installations, and then against Greek 'traitors'; Grivas, indeed, explicitly forbade any victimizing of Turks. In this he was quite practical—EOKA could not fight everybody at once."
  121. ^ French 2015, p. 258-59.
  122. ^ Richter 2011, p. 491-92.
  123. ^ French 2015, p. 262.
  124. ^ Holland 1998, p. 263-64.
  125. ^ Richter 2011, p. 839.
  126. ^ French 2015, p. 265.
  127. ^ Holland 1998, p. 267.
  128. ^ French 2015, p. 267.
  129. ^ Leonidou, Leo (June 22, 2006). "The flag that marked the end of colonial rule". Cyprus Mail. Archived from the original on 2007-05-26. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
  130. ^ "Cypriots to sue U.K. for alleged torture in '50s" Archived 2018-11-04 at the Wayback Machine, Herald News, 1 November 2012
  131. ^ Theodoulou, Michael (13 April 2011). "Greek Cypriots intend to sue Britain over torture in 1950s uprising". The Times. Retrieved 2011-05-09.
  132. ^ Dewhurst, Patrick (14 April 2011). "EOKA fighters to sue Brits over torture". Cyprus Mail. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-09.
  133. ^ a b Eoka fighters win first historical torture battle in UK court
  134. ^ Brussel, Leen Van; Carpentier, Nico (2014). The Social Construction of Death: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Springer. p. 177. ISBN 9781137391919.

Sources

Sources in Greek
  • Βαρνάβα, Αντρέας (2000). Η νεολαία στον απελευθερωτικό αγώνα της ΕΟΚΑ. Συμβούλιο Ιστορικής Μνήμης ΕΟΚΑ.
  • Θρασυβούλου, Μάριος (2016). Ο εθνικισμός των Ελληνοκυπρίων, από την αποικιοκρατία στην Ανεξαρτησία. Θεσσαλονίκη: επίκεντρο. ISBN 978-960-458-686-8.
  • Κτωρής, Σώτος (2013). Τουρκοκύπριοι: από το περιθώριο στο συνεταιρισμό, 1923-196. Αθήνα: Παπαζήσης. ISBN 9789600228984.
  • Richter, Heinz (2007). Ιστορία της Κύπρου, τόμος πρώτος (1878-1949). Αθήνα: Εστία. ISBN 9789600512946. translated from the original Heinz Richter (2006). Geschichte der Insel Zypern. Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05975-6.
  • Richter, Heinz (2011). Ιστορία της Κύπρου, τόμος δεύτερος(1950-1959). Αθήνα: Εστία.
Sources in English

Further reading

Primary sources
Secondary sources
Battle of Spilia

The Battle of Spilia was fought on 12 December 1955 in the EOKA campaign against the British in Cyprus.Acting on information provided by an informant, 700 soldiers of the British Army attempted to encircle the headquarters of EOKA General Georgios Grivas on the Troodos mountains near the village of Spilia. As they ascended the mountain, EOKA guerrillas spotted them. Grivas divided his troops in two, keeping half with himself to fight the units coming from the north side while sending his second-in-command Grigoris Afxentiou to fight the rest of the British who were ascending on the south side. Both EOKA units retreated to the summit of the mountain after engaging the enemy and then proceeded, in heavy fog, to escape towards the west. Soon, the British units from the north and the ones from the south reached the summit and, unable to see clearly in the fog, and in the belief that they were surrounded by EOKA fighters, started shooting and calling in airstrikes at each other for eight hours with 50 casualties — 4 deaths and 46 injuries.

This was a renowned battle in the EOKA campaign to unite Cyprus with Greece (1955–1959). It was significant in that a British victory at Spilia would have ended the campaign in its very first year since General Grivas had concentrated his guerrilla fighters, nearly thirty of them, there. Instead, the struggle went on and led, if not to union (Enosis), to the independence of Cyprus.

Cyprus Emergency

The Cyprus Emergency was a military confrontation in British Cyprus between 1955 and 1959. It was characterised by a confrontation between the British and the ethnic Greek National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters (EOKA) which sought the end of colonial rule and the unification of Cyprus and Greece (enosis). This was also opposed by Turkish Cypriots who formed the Turkish Resistance Organisation (TMT). The period of conflict ended in 1959 with the signature of the London-Zürich Agreements which established Cyprus as an independent state, but separate from Greece.

Cyprus crisis (1955–64)

There was a period of political and violent conflict in Cyprus, also known as the Cyprus crisis and EOKA period, between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, between 1955 and 1964.

EOKA B

EOKA-B () was a Greek Cypriot paramilitary organisation formed in 1971 by General Georgios Grivas ("Digenis"). It followed an ultra right-wing nationalistic ideology and had the ultimate goal of achieving the Enosis (union) of Cyprus with Greece. During its short history, the organisation's chief aim was to block any attempt to enforce upon the Cyprus people what the organisation considered to be an unacceptable settlement to the Cyprus issue. In addition the organisation drafted various plans to overthrow President Makarios. The organisation continued its activities until it officially declared its dissolution and disbanded on February 11th 1978.Due to its attacks on civilians, it was considered a terrorist organization and was outlawed by the Republic of Cyprus, led by Makarios III. Among the attacks it is responsible for is the Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda massacre. EOKA-B members were also arrested for the kidnapping of the son of president Spyros Kyprianou. and for being involved in the assassination of US ambassador Rodger Paul Davies. Homicide charges were dropped on June 4th 1977 by a Cypriot court against the two men accused of killing the ambassador. According to the Washington Post's renowned 1970s Cyprus correspondent, Joseph W Fitchett, EOKA B members were motivated by a mixture of patriotism, money and macho.

Enosis

Enosis (Greek: Ένωσις, IPA: [ˈenosis], "union") is the movement of various Greek communities that live outside Greece, for incorporation of the regions they inhabit into the Greek state. Widely known is the case of the Greek-Cypriots for union of Cyprus into Greece. The idea of enosis is related to the Megali Idea, an irredentist concept of a Greek state which dominated Greek politics following the creation of the modern Greek state in 1830. The Megali Idea was a project which called for the annexation of all ethnic Greek lands, parts of which had participated in the Greek War of Independence in the 1820s but which were unsuccessful and remained under foreign rule.

Evagoras Paphos

Evagoras Paphos (Greek: Ευαγόρας Πάφου) was a Cypriot football club based in the city of Paphos. Founded in 1961, was playing sometimes in First and sometimes in the Second Division. It has adopted its name from Evagoras Pallikarides, who was a hero from Paphos who was hanged by British Colonists, as he was an EOKA guerrilla, fighting for the freedom of Cyprus. The club's badge was a green shield with the figure of Evagoras Pallikarides's as a face in a circle.

Georgios Grivas

Georgios Grivas (Greek: Γεώργιος Γρίβας; 6 July 1897 – 27 January 1974), also known by his nom de guerre Digenis (Διγενής), which he adopted while in EOKA, was a Cyprus-born general in the Greek Army, leader of the EOKA guerrilla organisation.

Glafcos Clerides

Glafcos Ioannou Clerides (Greek: Γλαύκος Ιωάννου Κληρίδης; 24 April 1919 – 15 November 2013) was a Greek Cypriot politician and barrister who served as the fourth President of Cyprus from 1993 to 2003. At the time of his death, he was the oldest living former President of Cyprus.

Grigoris Afxentiou

Grigoris Pieris Afxentiou (Greek: Γρηγόρης Πιερής Αυξεντίου; February 22, 1928 – March 3, 1957) was a Greek Cypriot guerrilla fighter who fought against the British rule of Cyprus and is considered a national hero. In the hierarchy of EOKA, he was second in command to general Georgios Grivas. His nom-de-guerre was Zidhros or Zēdros (Ζήδρος).

Kissonerga

Kissonerga is a village in South West Cyprus, about 8 km north of Paphos, in a region notable for the cultivation of banana plantations, an area known as the Ktima Lowlands. In 1980 the population of the village was 700 people.Kissonerga is about eight kilometres down the main road from Paphos towards Coral Bay. Along the coast road are several hotels, mini-markets, numerous bars and taverns, as well as small complexes of shops mainly catering for tourists. The village is located 112 metres above sea level.Away from the coast road, Kissonerga village has a main street where there are restaurants, several mini-markets, two banks, two coffee shops (one of which also operates as a sub post office), a bookshop, florist, chemist and hairdressers. There is also an internet café near the playground. Kissonerga has a collection of holiday homes named Juliepapas Gardens which is in the suburbs and is signposted off the coastal road.

At the far end of the main street, opposite the school, which caters for children from nursery age to 11 years old, there is a communal area which is mainly used as a playground. Bordering this area is a monument dedicated to two young men of the village, Christos Miltiadous Kkelis (23) and Georgios Michalis (17) who were members of EOKA (National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters) and who died for their cause. The inscriptions read - ΑΓΩΝΙΣΤΗΣ ΤΗΣ ΕΟΚΑ 1955-59 ΕΠΕΣΕ ΜΑΧΟΜΕΝΟΣ ΥΠΕΡ ΠΙΣΤΕΩΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΤΡΙΔΟΣ (EOKA FIGHTER OF 1955-59 - FELL FIGHTING FOR FAITH AND HOMELAND).

The main street that runs through Kissonerga is named after Kkelis.EOKA started a guerrilla campaign against British colonial rule and aimed at union with Greece (Enosis) on 1 April 1955. The campaign lasted until 1959 and caused the deaths of more Greek Cypriot civilians than British colonialists. It created civil strife and mistrust between the two Cypriot communities. The first British soldier to be killed in the conflict, Lance Corporal A. R. L. Milne, was killed in Kissonerga when a bomb was thrown into his vehicle.Across the road from the playground is the Church of the Transfiguration (also known as Metamorphosis) and not far from this church are the ruins of a tiny chapel dedicated to Saints Zinovia and Filonilli. Although of modern architecture, the church the icons from the church of 1775 are preserved. These two saints accompanied St Paul to Paphos to help spread Christianity. They died and were buried in Kissonerga.

To the north of Kissonerga a new football stadium has recently been built in amongst the numerous plantations of bananas. Before the advent of European Union directives, Kissonerga was awash with these thriving plantations, but now many of them have fallen into decay as the bananas produced did not fit the exacting criteria that allowed them to be exported to other parts of the EU.

Among the establishments to be found in Kissonerga, are a horse-riding centre and the boat yard which sells, repairs and services boats of all shapes and sizes.

Construction of Paphos Marina was long planned for the Potima Bay area, located to the north of Kissonerga. The marina will be the largest in the Eastern Mediterranean and will have a capacity to accommodate 1.000 vessels. Construction began in 2009.

Kyrenia Castle Escape

The Kyrenia Castle Escape took place early in the Cyprus Emergency. A number of the EOKA were being held prisoner at Kyrenia Castle and on 23 September 1955, sixteen of them escaped by climbing down sheets tied to be a rope.The escapees were: Marcos Drakos, Christakis Eleftheriou, Evangelos Evangelakis, Mikis Fyrillas, Lambros Kafkallides, Constantinos Loizou, Pavlos Nikitas, Petros Papaioannou, Panayiotis Papanastasiou, Andreas Polyviou, Michalakis Rossides, Lefkios Rodosthenous, Stelios Siamisis, Petros Stylianou, Demos Vryonides, Charilaos Xenofontos.

Seven were caught but the other nine - Evangelakis, Xenofontos, Kafkalides, Drakos, Rodosthenous, Fyrillas, Polyviou, Eleftheriou, and Nikitas - joined EOKA guerrilla outfits. The incident was extremely embarrassing to the British government.Evangelakis was recaptured in February 1957. Firillas was recaptured in April 1957.

Liopetri

Liopetri (Greek: Λιοπέτρι [ʎoˈpetri]) is a village in southern Famagusta District, in Cyprus. It is close to the communities of Frenaros, Sotira, Avgorou and Xylofagou (Larnaca District). In 2011, Liopetri had a population of 4,591.

On September 2, 1958, a Battle was fought here between the British and four EOKA fighters, Fotis Pittas, Andreas Karios, Elias Papakyriakou and Christos Samaras, who were from Liopetri. The barn where this took place is now a National Memorial.

Makarios III

Makarios III (Greek: Μακάριος Γ΄; born Michael Christodoulou Mouskos (Greek: Μιχαήλ Χριστοδούλου Μούσκος); 13 August 1913 – 3 August 1977) was a Greek Cypriot clergyman and politician, who served as the Archbishop and Primate of the autocephalous Church of Cyprus (1950–1977) and as the first President of Cyprus (1960–1977). In his three terms as president he survived four assassination attempts and a coup d'état. He is widely regarded by Greek Cypriots as the Father of the Nation or "Ethnarch".

Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda massacre

Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda massacre (Turkish: Muratağa, Sandallar ve Atlılar katliamı) refers to the massacre of Turkish Cypriots by EOKA B on 14 August 1974 during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in the villages of Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda. 89 (or 84) people from Maratha and Santalaris were killed, and a further 37 people were killed in the village of Aloda. In total, 126 people were killed during the massacre.

Nikos Sampson

Nikos Sampson (Greek: Νίκος Σαμψών; 16 December 1935 – 9 May 2001) was the de facto president of Cyprus who succeeded Archbishop Makarios, appointed as President of Cyprus by the Greek military leaders of the coup d'état against Makarios, on July 15 1974. Sampson was a journalist and a member of EOKA, which rose against the British colonial administration, seeking Enosis (Union) of the island of Cyprus with Greece. He was eventually arrested and sentenced to death, but was imprisoned in Britain after the sentence was commuted, returning after Cyprus gained independence.

Upon his return upon the formation of the Republic of Cyprus, he entered politics, becoming a member of Parliament. Following the coup of 1974 by the Greek Junta, he was appointed President by the leaders of the coup Kombokis and Georgitsis as a solution of necessity because nobody else accepted, and remained in the position for eight days. Following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July he resigned. He was later sentenced to twenty years in prison for abuse of power, the only person convicted vis-à-vis the coup, maintaining there had been a setup and cover up.According to Cyprus-based Polish-American journalist, Andrew Borowiec, several members of the US embassy in Nicosia had been on friendly terms with Sampson and he had even toured the USA at the US government's invitation. Three years into his sentence, he was allowed to go to France on medical grounds, and subsequently settled in France. He returned to Cyprus in 1990 to resume his sentence, and was pardoned for the remainder of his sentence in 1993. Following his release, he went into the newspaper publishing business. He died of cancer in 2001.

Sotiris Moustakas

Sotiris Moustakas (Greek: Σωτήρης Μουστάκας) (17 September 1940 – 4 June 2007) was a Greek comedy actor born in Cyprus.

Tsada

Tsada (earlier (before 1985) written Tsadha) is a relatively big village 8 km North of Paphos city center. Although the proximity between them, the 600 m elevation difference gives to the Tsada area a totally different identity. The climate is much cooler all year long (during the hot and humid summers in Paphos the temperature gap can reach 6 °C) and it also is one of the few areas in the Paphos District that snows almost every year by the end of January. Tsada was the home village of EOKA national hero Evagoras Pallikarides. Although the history of the village can be counted 500 years ago, there is no significant architectural character, and only a few residences were reconstructed in the traditional way. It can be said that the only thing that makes the village special is the astonishing view towards Paphos and its sea. Currently mass developing is taking place in nearby hills, with high-end luxurious villas with panoramic views of Paphos and the Mediterranean sea being constructed over the last 5 years. The "Mellisovouno" hill between Tsada and Koili village hosts Paphos television and radio antenna. In Tsada, the climate is warm and temperate. The winter months are much rainier than the summer months in Tsada. This location is classified as Csa by Köppen and Geiger.

Turkish Resistance Organisation

The Turkish Resistance Organisation (Turkish: Türk Mukavemet Teşkilatı, TMT) was a Turkish Cypriot pro-taksim paramilitary organisation formed by Rauf Denktaş and Turkish military officer Rıza Vuruşkan in 1958 as an organisation to counter the Greek Cypriot Fighter's Organization "EOKA"(later "EOKA-B"). The name of the organization was changed twice. In 1967 to "Mücahit", and in 1976 to "Güvenlik Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı"(Security Forces Command Center).

Turkish invasion of Cyprus

The Turkish invasion of Cyprus (Turkish: Kıbrıs Barış Harekâtı, lit. 'Cyprus peace operation' and Greek: Τουρκική εισβολή στην Κύπρο), code-named by Turkey as Operation Attila, (Turkish: Atilla Harekâtı) was a Turkish military invasion of the island country of Cyprus. It was launched on 20 July 1974, following the Cypriot coup d'état on 15 July 1974.

The coup had been ordered by the military Junta in Greece and staged by the Cypriot National Guard in conjunction with EOKA-B. It deposed the Cypriot president Archbishop Makarios III and installed the pro-Enosis Nikos Sampson. The aim of the coup was the Union of Cyprus with Greece, and the Hellenic Republic of Cyprus to be declared.In July 1974, Turkish forces invaded and captured 3% of the island before a ceasefire was declared. The Greek military junta collapsed and was replaced by a democratic government. In August 1974 another Turkish invasion resulted in the capture of approximately 40% of the island. The ceasefire line from August 1974 became the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus and is commonly referred to as the Green Line.

Around 150,000 people (amounting to more than one-quarter of the total population of Cyprus, and to one-third of its Greek Cypriot population) were expelled from the occupied northern part of the island, where Greek Cypriots constituted 80% of the population. A little over a year later in 1975, roughly 60,000 Turkish Cypriots, amounting to half the Turkish Cypriot population, were displaced from the south to the north. The Turkish invasion ended in the partition of Cyprus along the UN-monitored Green Line, which still divides Cyprus, and the formation of a de facto autonomous Turkish Cypriot administration in the north. In 1983 the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) declared independence, although Turkey is the only country that recognizes it. The international community considers the TRNC's territory as Turkish-occupied territory of the Republic of Cyprus. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of European Union territory since Cyprus became its member.The invasion's Turkish Armed Forces code name was Operation Atilla. Among Turkish speakers the operation is also referred as "Cyprus Peace Operation" (Kıbrıs Barış Harekâtı) or "Operation Peace" (Barış Harekâtı) or "Cyprus Operation" (Kıbrıs Harekâtı), as they claim that Turkey took military action on the pretext of a peacekeeping operation.

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