EFE

Agencia EFE, S.A. (Spanish: [ˈefe]) is a Spanish international news agency, the major multimedia news agency in Spanish language and the world's fourth largest wire service after the Associated Press, Reuters, and Agence France-Presse.[1] EFE was created in 1939 by Ramón Serrano Súñer,[2] then Spain's Interior Minister.

Agencia EFE is a news agency that covers all areas of information in the news media of the press, radio, television and Internet. It distributes around three million news per year, thanks to its 3,000 journalist from 60 nationalities. Operates 24/7 from more than 180 cities in 120 countries and with four editing tables in three continents: Madrid, Bogotá, Cairo (Arabic), and Rio de Janeiro (Portuguese).[3]

Employees in Spain are represented by several labor unions. EFE has about 40 employees in the United States who voted on 29 September 2005 to be represented by the News Media Guild. Workers ratified a first labor contract in December 2006, marking the first time the company had ever reached such an agreement outside Spain.

The agency organized the second News Agencies World Congress (NAWC) in 2007.[4]

Agencia EFE, S.A.
Sociedad Anónima
IndustryNews media
Predecessor
  • Centro de Corresponsales (1865–1919)
  • Fabra (1919–1936)
Founded3 January 1939
FounderRamón Serrano Súñer
Headquarters,
Area served
Worldwide
ProductsWire service
ParentSEPI
Websitewww.efe.com

History

Background

The origins of the agency dates back to 1865 when the «Correspondents Center» was born, the first news agency in Spain, promoted by journalist Nilo María Fabra, and in 1870 a cooperation agreement was signed with the French agency Havas. With this agreement, the "Corresponsales Center" reserved the distribution rights in Spain of Havas' international news.[5]

In 1919 the Fabra news agency was created, when Havas became part of the shareholding of the "Correspondents Center". Havas withdrew from the shareholding in 1926 at the same time that the Central Bank (a private entity), Santander Bank and Hispanic-American Bank entered into the partnership (these three banks merged at the end of the 20th century into Banco Santander Central Hispano).

Birth and early years

EFE was officially born in the city of Burgos in 1939 where was the headquarters of dictator Francisco Franco.[6] Its founder, Interior Minister Ramón Serrano Suñer,[7] brother-in-law of Franco asked journalist Vicente Gallego (first director of the extinct Ya newspaper) to initate the project.[8]

In January 3, 1939, the Marquis of Torrehoyos Celedonio de Noriega Ruiz and journalist Luis Amato de Ibarrola both legal representatives of the Fabra agency declare before the notary José María Hortelano, that they have agreed to set up a commercial company of an anonymous nature, with the name of Agencia EFE S.A. The Fabra agency contributed with its rights and its name. In this way, the new agency could be admitted to the Club of the Allied Agencies, constituted at that time by some thirty agencies and whose statutes showed that only one agency per country can be a member of the association.[8][9] In addition to the actions of the Fabra Agency to the new agency, technical and human elements of the missing agencies Faro and Febus were incorporated.[6]

Controversy over the origin of the name

On the grounds of the denomination "EFE" there is controversy. The former president and director of the agency Luis María Anson said in an article published in the Ya newspaper that the name of EFE (pronunciation of letter F in Spanish) was due to the participation of the old agencies Fabra, Febus and Faro in the new agency.

However, Ramón Serrano Suñer acknowledged in a letter sent to Antonio Herrero Losada, director of the news agency Europa Press, that the EFE agency was named in this way because «F was the initial letter of Falange and Fe, which was the newspaper of Falange combat». He also added that «there was no mention that it was also a reason for the name of Efe that this letter was Franco's initial. This would come later.»[10]

Herrero Losada, linked to the Fabra agency, denied Ansón recalling that since 1938, in the middle of a civil war, EFE was transmitting news to the media on the Francoist side, where editors of the Fabra agency were being persecuted for their activity. Previously, and another one of those mentioned, Febus, continued his informative service in the republican sector. For his part, José Antonio Giménez Arnáu assured that it was he who provided Serrano Suñer with the idea of creating the agency and drafted its statutes, that EFE had nothing to do with the initial of Falange or Franco, since according to some sources it occupied the building of the Editorial Spanish Falange, from whose initials it took the name, and that it had a proof that will only be known after its death something that happened three years after the controversy without any revelation.[11]

First headquarters and services

The first headquarters of Agencia EFE was installed on a floor of a modern building of six heights, inaugurated the previous year, which currently corresponds to number 10 -the 9th in the old numbering- of Victoria Street, Burgos.[12] Its first President was Celedonio Noriega, Marquis of Torrehoyos and its first Managing Director Vicente Gállego Castro.

In 1940, EFE moved its headquarters to a house at number 5 on Ayala Street in Madrid and opened a delegation in Barcelona. The same year Jesús Pabón replaced Noriega as president and four years later, in 1944, the then-Deputy-Director Pedro Gómez Aparicio replaced Vicente Gállego in the direction of the agency.

In 1946, the Comtelsa economic service was created in collaboration, at 50%, with the US agency Reuters. It is known that, at least since this same year, Federico Vélez González, famous and prestigious photographer from Burgos, has been working as a graphic correspondent.

In 1951, EFE installed its first telephotography receiver. In 1958 Gómez Aparicio was replaced in his position by Manuel Aznar Zubigaray, who will leave office 2 years later. The direction was assumed by the president and the executives of the company for 3 years, until in 1963 the journalist and correspondent abroad, Carlos Sentís, is appointed Managing Director.

1960s to 1980s: Internationalization

In 1965 it was open the Buenos Aires delegation, the first delegation for the Americas and the next year starts the foreign informative service to distribute news through Ibero-America and more delegations were open in other South American countries. In 1967, Miguel Mateu Pla was appointed EFE President. In September of the following year Manuel Aznar will take care of the presidency and in 1969 Alexander Armesto is appointed Managing Director.

In 1968, EFE acquired the Fiel news agency and in 1969 started small news services in English and French. In 1972, EFE joined forces with several Central American media to create the Central American News Agency (ACAN), based in Panama. Its expansion through the Americas takes Agencia EFE in 1979 to enter like a full member in the Inter American Press Association.

In February 1976, José María Alfaro Polanco is named president of EFE and in September the presidency is assumed by Luis María Anson, who will also be Director-General. That same year the first Stylebook of Agencia EFE for the homogeneous writing of the information services of all the world is published, under the direction and advising of the professor and academic Fernando Lázaro Carreter.

In 1977, EFE moved its headquarters to number 32 Espronceda Street, Madrid. That same year, all the information services of the agency went on to use the name EFE, which until then was reserved for international information, so that the division of Cifra, Cifra-Gráfica and Alfil disappeared. That same year, the EFE Journalism Awards are also created, which in 1983 will be replaced by the King of Spain Awards.[13]

In 1981, Efe and the Institute for Ibero-American Cooperation will create the Department of Urgent Spanish (DEU) with the participation of philologists and prominent academics of the language, with the mission of ensuring the correct use of Spanish in its information services. In 1983, journalist Ricardo Utrilla was appointed President and CEO and an agreement was signed with the US agency UPI to promote the Radio department. The services "Great Signatures" and "End of Century Chronicles" are also created to distribute articles of outstanding intellectuals in Spain and Latin America.

In 1984, EFE formally joins the European Pressphoto Agency (EPA), the first European telephotography agency,[14] with 20% of the capital of the company. In 1986, EFE changed its logo[15] and journalist Alfonso Sobrado Palomares was named President-Director-General.

In 1988, the Efe Data service was launched, the first Spanish news data bank, and in March of that same year the Efe Foundation was created to promote research, development and study of information and technology, as well as the granting of training scholarships for students in any of the branches of Information Sciences. In 1989, Efe began distributing its information services to its customers via satellites. This same year the 50th anniversary of the Agencia EFE was celebrated with an itinerant graphic exhibition called Ephemerides. The Press Association of Madrid awards the Rodríguez Santamaría Award to Efe for its work.

1990s and 21st century

Since the 1990s, subsidiaries will be created for specific topics. In 1990, the subsidiaries Efeagro (food industry) and Efecom (business) were created, in 1994 Euroefe (EU news - Euractiv) was created and in 2010 Efeverde (environment). In 2013, Efefuturo (science and technology), Efesalud (health), Efe-empresas (business), Efemotor (transport) and Efetur (tourism) were launched. Among them, Efeverde stands out as the most awarded subsidiary for its informative transparency. Efeverde has its own guide for environmental journalists and was one of the first subsidiaries to establish a broad presence in social networks. Since 2011 it has also Android, iPhone and iPad apps.

Awards will also be created. In 1990 EFE gave the first Silver Ball Award to the best Ibero-American football player and in 1998 together with UNICEF, they created the Ibero-American Communication Awards for the Rights of Children and Adolescents. In 2004, the Don Quixote Journalism Award was created, which is presented at the same time as the King of Spain Award.

In 1995, EFE was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Communication and Humanities in recognition of its work, independence and neutrality. It shared the award with the philosopher José Luis López Aranguren. In 1996, Miguel Ángel Gozalo is named President-Director-General of EFE.

In 1998, the agency's photo library began to function as a digital photographic archive. In 2000, the commercialization and digitization of graphic and press archives began and the Intranet "Entre Nosotros" (Among us) was created. In 2003, the International Graphic Service (SGI) was launched in partnership with EPA[14] and the Multimedia Coordination Unit was inaugurated in Madrid.

In 2001, a service was launched in Portuguese for Brazil. Likewise, that year EFE was transferred from the Directorate-General for State Property of the Ministry of the Treasury to the public holding SEPI. In 2002, an editing center was created in Miami that facilitates the adaptation of the information content to the American market.

In 2004, Álex Grijelmo is named president of EFE, the journalist of the Arturo Larena agency wins the National Environment Award in the form of Journalism. That same year the subsidiary ACAN-EFE (the service for Central America) is integrated into EFE.

In 2006, EFE changed its logo and the first Statute of the EFE Editorial Board was approved. In 2007, the Americas Editorial Board moved from Miami to Bogotá, aimed at product integration. In 2008, the EFE-Galicia news service in Galician was launched from Santiago de Compostela.

In March 2012, journalist José Antonio Vera Gil was appointed as the new president of Efe to replace Alex Grijelmo.[16]

In 2014, the agency moved to a new headquarters, inaugurated by the Prince and Princess of Asturias, in the Burgos Avenue of the city of Madrid.[17] This year, the 75th anniversary of the agency takes place. The Kings inaugurated the great commemorative exhibition of the 75th anniversary of EFE. On the occasion of this commemoration were held more than 30 traveling exhibitions in Spain and the Americas and the Congresses of the European News Agencies (EANA) and Mobile Information and News Data Services (MINDS) in Madrid, as well as the News Agencies of the Mediterranean (AMAN) in Alicante. Seminars were also given in El Escorial and Santander.

In 2015, Fundéu celebrates the 10th anniversary of its foundation. EFE increases its participation in the European Pressphoto Agency up to 49.9%. EFEAgro celebrates 25 years of its existence. It was held an exhibition of EFE in Buenos Aires and Caracas during the 50 years of EFE in the Americas. The 3rd anniversary of EFEsalud were also celebrated in 2015.

In 2016, an exposition is held in Lima for the 50 years of EFE in Peru. The EFE Museum is inaugurated by the Acting Prime Minister, Mariano Rajoy.[18] In July, the news agency and its president were awarded with the Eisenhower Award.[19] In 2017, the EFE-EPA multimedia service in English for Asia begins to function. The News 4 Europe line is put into service with EFE, EPA and ten other European news agencies.

In 2018, the State General Budget recognize for the first time the budget of EFE as a Service of General Economic Interest, increasing the public endowment of the agency. In July, journalist Fernando Garea is named the new president of Efe to replace José Antonio Vera Gil.[20]

Urgent Spanish Department

In 1980 it was created the Department of Urgent Spanish to combine criteria and norms, as well as to avoid linguistic dispersion and the indiscriminate use of neologisms in Spanish. The department is made up of linguists and philologists together with the Style Advisory Council, composed of members of the Spanish Royal Academy, professors of Philology and journalists. Its main tool is the Urgent Spanish Manual (MEU), the Agencia EFE style manual, which is a very popular Spanish user manual. It began to be published in 1976.

In 2005, the Urgent Spanish Department was replaced by the Urgent Spanish Foundation, commonly known as Fundéu BBVA.

See also

References

  1. ^ EFE. "The world from a Latin perspective". Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  2. ^ Olmos, Víctor (2014-04-06). "Cuando las noticias viajaban en bici". El Periódico.
  3. ^ "Efe cumple 70 años difundiendo su visión española de la actualidad". RTVE.es (in Spanish). 2009-01-02. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  4. ^ Hassan, Rashid (20 November 2013). "News agencies embrace information technology". Arab News. Riyadh. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  5. ^ "Historia de EFE". Agencia EFE (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  6. ^ a b "Desde el nacimiento en Burgos en 1939 hasta la era digital". RTVE.es (in Spanish). 2009-01-02. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  7. ^ "elmundo.es - Fallece Ramón Serrano Súñer, el ministro de Interior y de Asuntos Exteriores de Franco". www.elmundo.es. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  8. ^ a b "MEDIA - Prensa > 7 Las agencias de información > 7.5 Efe, primera agencia de habla hispana". recursos.cnice.mec.es. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  9. ^ Shrivastava, K. M. (2007). News Agencies from Pigeon to Internet. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 9781932705676.
  10. ^ País, Ediciones El (1982-12-27). "El nombre de la agencia Efe es la inicial de Falange, según Serrano Súñer". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  11. ^ País, Ediciones El (1985-01-30). "José Antonio Giménez-Arnau y Gran, diplomático y escritor". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  12. ^ EFE. "Burgos rinde homenaje a la Agencia EFE en el lugar donde nació hace 75 años". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  13. ^ País, Ediciones El (1983-05-12). "Convocados los Premios de Periodismo Rey de España". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  14. ^ a b ELPAÍS.com; EFE (2009-01-02). "Reportaje | Agencia Efe: 70 años de noticias". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  15. ^ País, Ediciones El (1986-01-17). "La agencia Efe estrena logotipo para hacer frente a su nueva etapa". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  16. ^ Internet, Unidad Editorial. "José Antonio Vera será el nuevo presidente de Efe". www.elmundo.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  17. ^ "Los Príncipes de Asturias inauguran la nueva sede de la agencia EFE". abc (in Spanish). 2014-02-14. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  18. ^ "Rajoy inaugura Museo de Efe: tesoro fotográfico y documental de la Agencia". www.efe.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  19. ^ "La Agencia EFE y su presidente galardonados con el premio Eisenhower". www.efe.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  20. ^ Política, eldiario es. "Fernando Garea será el nuevo presidente de la Agencia EFE". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-01-31.

External links

Atçalı Kel Mehmet

Atçalı Kel Mehmet Efe (1780–1830) was a Zeybek, who led a local revolt against Ottoman authority and established control of the Aydın region for a short period between 1829 and 1830 (in the reign of Mahmud II).

Efe, Şuhut

Efe is a village in the District of Şuhut, Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey.

Efe Ajagba

Efe Ajagba (born 22 April 1994) is a Nigerian professional boxer.

Efe Ambrose

Efetobore Ambrose Emuobo (born 18 October 1988) is a Nigerian footballer who plays as a centre back or a right back for EFL Championship side Derby County. Ambrose has previously played for Kaduna United, Bayelsa United, Israeli club Ashdod and Scottish clubs Celtic and Hibernian.

He also plays in the Nigeria national football team. Ambrose has represented Nigeria at the FIFA Under-20 World Cup, the Summer Olympics, the Africa Cup of Nations and the FIFA World Cup.

Efe Obada

Efe Obada (born April 13, 1992) is a Nigerian-born, English American football defensive end for the Carolina Panthers of the National Football League (NFL). He did not play college football and became the first international player to go straight from an American football European league to the NFL.

Efe Sodje

Efetobore Peter "Efe" Sodje (born 5 October 1972) is a former professional footballer of Nigerian origin who played as a central defender for several English football league clubs. He also represented Nigeria in the 2000 African Cup of Nations and the 2002 World Cup.

Sodje began his career at Stevenage Borough and later played for Luton Town, Colchester United, Crewe Alexandra, Huddersfield Town, Yeovil Town, Southend United, Gillingham, Bury, Barrow and Macclesfield Town in two spells.

In 2017, Sodje was jailed for 18 months for his part in defrauding a charity.

Efé people

The Efé are a group of part-time hunter-gatherer people living in the Ituri Rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo. In the depths of the forest they do not wear much clothing, using only leaf huts as shelter for their bodies in the intense heat. The Efé are Pygmies, and one of the shortest peoples in the world. The men grow to an average height of 142 cm (4 ft. 8 in.), and women tend to be about 5 cm (2 in.) shorter.

Dr. Jean-Pierre Hallet was very involved with the Efé, from raising awareness to the plight of the tribe, to the introduction of new foods and methods previously unknown (such as a legume called the "winged bean" of New Guinea). He also introduced new methods of farming to the Efé, who likely had been a hunter-gatherer society for many thousands of years.

Einstein field equations

The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as Einstein's equations) comprise the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass and energy. First published by Einstein in 1915 as a tensor equation, the EFE relate local spacetime curvature (expressed by the Einstein tensor) with the local energy and momentum within that spacetime (expressed by the stress–energy tensor).Similar to the way that electromagnetic fields are determined using charges and currents via Maxwell's equations, the EFE are used to determine the spacetime geometry resulting from the presence of mass–energy and linear momentum, that is, they determine the metric tensor of spacetime for a given arrangement of stress–energy in the spacetime. The relationship between the metric tensor and the Einstein tensor allows the EFE to be written as a set of non-linear partial differential equations when used in this way. The solutions of the EFE are the components of the metric tensor. The inertial trajectories of particles and radiation (geodesics) in the resulting geometry are then calculated using the geodesic equation.

As well as obeying local energy–momentum conservation, the EFE reduce to Newton's law of gravitation where the gravitational field is weak and velocities are much less than the speed of light.Exact solutions for the EFE can only be found under simplifying assumptions such as symmetry. Special classes of exact solutions are most often studied as they model many gravitational phenomena, such as rotating black holes and the expanding universe. Further simplification is achieved in approximating the actual spacetime as flat spacetime with a small deviation, leading to the linearized EFE. These equations are used to study phenomena such as gravitational waves.

Endocardial fibroelastosis

Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is a rare heart disorder usually occurring in children two years old and younger. It may also be considered a reaction to stress, not necessarily a specific disease.It should not be confused with endomyocardial fibrosis.

Gude Crest

Gude Crest - The Emblem of Gude (女戦士エフェ&ジーラ グーデの紋章, Onna Senshi Efe & Jīra: Gūde no Monshō, "Female Soldiers Efe & Jira: Crest of Gude") is a 1990 one-shot anime. The anime, based on a fantasy novel by Reiko Hikawa (ひかわ 玲子 Hikawa Reiko), runs for 45 minutes and was produced by J.C.Staff and by Tairiku Shobu (大陸書房). It was published in English by ADV Films. Enoki Films USA licensed the series as Jun and Sarah: Sacrifice of the Evil Spirit.

Jonathan Clements and Helen McCarthy, authors of The Anime Encyclopedia, Revised & Expanded Edition: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since 1917, described the work as being "in the spirit of the later Slayers".

Gẹlẹdẹ

The Gẹlẹdẹ spectacle of the Yoruba is a public display by colorful masks which combines art and ritual dance to amuse, educate and inspire worship. Gelede celebrates “Mothers” (awon iya wa), a group that includes female ancestors and deities as well as the elderly women of the community, and the power and spiritual capacity these women have in society. However, this power may also be destructive and take the form of witchcraft; therefore, Gelede serves the function of appeasing this power, as well.

Karagöz and Hacivat

Karagöz (literally Blackeye in Turkish) and Hacivat (shortened in time from "Hacı İvaz" meaning "İvaz the Pilgrim", and also sometimes written as Hacivad) are the lead characters of the traditional Turkish shadow play, popularized during the Ottoman period and then spread to most nation states that comprised the Ottoman Empire and most prominently in Turkey and Greece. In Greece, Karagöz is known by his local name Karagiozis; in Bosnia-Herzegovina, he is known by his local name Karađoz or Karadjoz.

Lese language

Lese is a Central Sudanic language of northeastern Congo-Kinshasa, as well as a name for the people who speak this language. The Lese people, who live in association with the Efé Pygmies, share their language, which is also occasionally known as Lissi or Efe.

Although Efe is given a separate ISO code, Bahuchet (2006) notes that it is not even a distinct dialect, though there is dialectical variation in the language of the Lese (Dese, Karo).

Malgaç Raid

The Malgaç Raid, was a raid conducted by Yörük Ali Efe and his men on 16 June 1919. The target of the raid was the Malgaç railway bridge, which was used by the Greeks to transport military equipment to Nazilli and beyond. It was one of the first organized civil resistance attacks against the invading Greek forces in western Anatolia.

Mamvu language

Mamvu is a Central Sudanic language of northeastern Congo. It is quite similar to Lese.

Mangbutu–Lese languages

The Mangbutu–Lese languages of the Central Sudanic language family, also known as Mangbutu–Efe or simply Mangbutu (e.g. Starostin 2016), are a cluster of closely related languages spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda.

The languages are:

Mangbutu, Mvuba, Ndo, Mamvu, Lese, Bendi.Efe (the language of the Efe Pygmies) is often counted as another, but appears to be a dialect of Lese. Ndo (Membitu) is the most populous language and is spoken by a caste of blacksmiths.

Trofeo EFE

Trofeo EFE is an annual football award given by the EFE news agency since the 1990–91 season to the best Latin-American player. Recipients are selected based on assessments from the agency's sports editors.The inaugural winner was Rommel Fernández and the most recent recipient is Keylor Navas. Iván Zamorano and Ronaldo Nazário have won the award twice. Fernando Redondo received a special distinction as the best player of the 1990s decade. Cristiano Ronaldo is the only winner not hailing from Ibero-America. He succeeded in attaining the trophy in 2013.Lionel Messi won the award a record five times, more than any other player in the history of Trofeo EFE.

Yörük Ali Efe

Yörük Ali Efe (1895 – September 23, 1951) was a Turkish warlord in the Ottoman Empire, and an officer in the Turkish Army during the Turkish War of Independence. He was an important leader in Kuva-yi Milliye of the Aegean Region. After the declaration of republic he resigned from his office and worked as a farmer and industrialist. He was one of the last Zeybeks in Turkish history.

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