eBird

eBird is an online database of bird observations providing scientists, researchers and amateur naturalists with real-time data about bird distribution and abundance. Originally restricted to sightings from the Western Hemisphere, the project expanded to include New Zealand in 2008,[1] and again expanded to cover the whole world in June 2010.[2] eBird has been described as an ambitious example of enlisting amateurs to gather data on biodiversity for use in science.[3]

eBird is an example of crowdsourcing,[4] and has been hailed as an example of democratizing science, treating citizens as scientists, allowing the public to access and use their own data and the collective data generated by others.[5]

eBird
Logo ebird
Type of site
Wildlife database
Available inBulgarian, Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, German, English, Faroese, Finnish, French, Creole, Hebrew, Indonesian, Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Latvian, Malayalam, Mongolian, Norwegian (Bokmål), Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, Turkish, and Ukrainian
Created byCornell Lab of Ornithology
WebsiteeBird
Launched2002
Current statusActive

History and purpose

Launched in 2002 by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology at Cornell University and the National Audubon Society, eBird gathers basic data on bird abundance and distribution at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. It was mainly inspired by the ÉPOQ database, created by Jacques Larivée in 1975. As of November 2016, over 330,000 unique users have submitted over 100 million checklists,[6] from more than 250 countries and data for over 10,300 species to the program.[7][8] As of June 2018 there are now now over 500 million bird observations recorded through this global database.[9] In recent years there have been over 100 million bird observations recorded each year.[10]

eBird’s goal is to maximize the utility and accessibility of the vast numbers of bird observations made each year by recreational and professional bird watchers. The observations of each participant join those of others in an international network.[11] Due to the variability in the observations the volunteers make, AI filters observations through collected historical data to improve accuracy.[12] The data are then available via internet queries in a variety of formats.

Use of Database Information

The eBird Database has been used by scientists to determine the connection between bird migrations and monsoon rains in India validating traditional knowledge.[13] It has also been used to notice bird distribution changes due to climate change and help to define migration routes.[14] A study conducted found that eBird lists were accurate at determining population trends and distribution if there were 10,000 checklists for a given area.[15]

Features

eBird documents the presence or absence of species, as well as bird abundance through checklist data. A web interface allows participants to submit their observations or view results via interactive queries of the database. Internet tools maintain personal bird records and enable users to visualize data with interactive maps, graphs, and bar charts. All these features are available in 27 languages, including: Bulgarian, Chinese (Both Traditional and Simplified), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, German, English (A variety of 11 English dialects), Faroese, Finnish, French (4 French dialects), Creole, Hebrew, Indonesian, Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Latvian, Malayalam, Mongolian, Norwegian (Bokmål), Polish, Portuguese (Both Portugal and Brazilian Portuguese), Russian, Serbian, Spanish (10 Spanish dialects), Swedish, Thai, Turkish, and Ukrainian.[16]

It is a free service. Data are stored in a secure facility and archived daily, and is accessible to anyone via the eBird web site and other applications developed by the global biodiversity information community. For example, eBird data are part of the Avian Knowledge Network (AKN)[1], which integrates observational data on bird populations across the western hemisphere and is a data source for the digital ornithological reference Birds of North America. In turn, the AKN feeds eBird data to international biodiversity data systems, such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility.

Electronic kiosks

In addition to accepting records submitted from users' personal computers and mobile devices, eBird has placed electronic kiosks in prime birding locations, including one in the education center at the J. N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge on Sanibel Island in Florida.[17]

Integration in Cars

eBird is a part of Starlink on the new 2019 Subaru Ascent. It allows eBird to be integrated into the touch screen of the car.[18]

Extent of Information

eBird collects information throughout the globe.

Location Number of Bird Checklists
World 36,456,135[19]
Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere 32,227,905[20]
Central America 624,168[21]
North America 31,200,478[22]
South America 870,841[23]
West Indies 224,768[24]
Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere 4,224,227[25]
Africa 224,066[26]
Asia 1,560,406[27]
Australia and Territories 880,969[28]
Europe 1,394,823[29]

Notes

  1. ^ eBird New Zealand (2008). "About eBird". Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  2. ^ eBird (2010). "Global eBird almost there! -- 3 June update". Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Archived from the original on 3 June 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  3. ^ "The Role of Information Science in Gathering Biodiversity and Neuroscience Data" Archived 2009-03-03 at the Wayback Machine, Geoffrey A. Levin and Melissa H. Cragin, ASIST Bulletin, Vol. 30, No. 1, Oct. 2003
  4. ^ nytcrowdsource Robbins, Jim (19 Aug 2013). "Crowdsourcing, for the Birds". New York Times. Archived from the original on 2014-04-18. Retrieved 11 Dec 2013.
  5. ^ "Science Explicitly for Nonscientists" Archived 2009-01-08 at the Wayback Machine, Caren B. Cooper, Janis L. Dickinson, Tina Phillips, Rick Bonney, Ecology and Society, Vol. 13, No. 2, r1, 2008
  6. ^ https://www.cope.es/noticias/biodiversidad/espana-encabeza-lista-europea-registros-observaciones-aves_240778
  7. ^ "How many people eBird around the world and per country". ebird.org. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  8. ^ eBird, Team. "eBird Top100 goes global! - eBird". ebird.org. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  9. ^ http://smdp.com/saving-the-earth-with-artificial-intelligence-ai/167047
  10. ^ https://ebird.org/about
  11. ^ http://smdp.com/saving-the-earth-with-artificial-intelligence-ai/167047
  12. ^ http://smdp.com/saving-the-earth-with-artificial-intelligence-ai/167047
  13. ^ https://www.indiatimes.com/technology/news/how-pied-cuckoos-signal-monsoon-rains-in-india-tech-that-demystifies-its-ancient-folklore-347733.html
  14. ^ https://www.cope.es/noticias/biodiversidad/espana-encabeza-lista-europea-registros-observaciones-aves_240778
  15. ^ https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180312085117.htm
  16. ^ https://help.ebird.org/customer/portal/articles/1596582-common-name-translations-in-ebird
  17. ^ "eBirding, citizen science topic of ‘Ding’ presentation" Archived 2011-07-08 at the Wayback Machine, Cape Coral Daily Breeze Community News, Mar. 9, 2009
  18. ^ https://www.forbes.com/sites/dougnewcomb/2018/07/30/four-stand-out-tech-features-of-the-2019-subaru-ascent-limited/#224299e67225
  19. ^ https://ebird.org/region/world
  20. ^ https://ebird.org/region/wh
  21. ^ https://ebird.org/region/ca
  22. ^ https://ebird.org/region/na
  23. ^ https://ebird.org/region/sa
  24. ^ https://ebird.org/region/caribbean
  25. ^ https://ebird.org/region/eh
  26. ^ https://ebird.org/region/af
  27. ^ https://ebird.org/region/as
  28. ^ https://ebird.org/region/aut
  29. ^ https://ebird.org/region/eu

References

Research using eBird data

Below is an incomplete list of research that used the eBird data. A more complete list can be found here: eBird Publication [1]

Fink, Daniel; et al. (2010). "Spatiotemporal exploratory models for broad-scale survey data". Ecological Applications. 20 (8): 2131–2147. doi:10.1890/09-1340.1.

Hurlbert, Allen H.; Liang, Zhongei (February 2012), "Spatiotemporal Variation in Avian Migration Phenology: Citizen Science Reveals Effects of Climate Change", PLoS ONE, 7 (2): e31662, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031662, PMC 3285173, PMID 22384050

External links

    American cliff swallow

    The American cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) is a member of the passerine bird family Hirundinidae, the swallows and martins. The scientific name is derived from Ancient Greek; Petrochelidon originates from the petros meaning "rock" and khelidon "swallow", pyrrhonota comes from purrhos meaning "flame-coloured" and -notos "-backed".American cliff swallows are extremely social song birds that can be found in large nesting colonies reaching over 2,000 nests. They are frequently seen flying overhead in large flocks during migration, gracefully foraging over fields for flying insects or perching tightly together on a wire preening under the sun.Cliff swallows build gourd-shaped nests made from mud with small entrance holes. They build their nests tightly together, on top of one another, under bridges or alongside mountain cliffs. Living in large populations, these aerial insectivores use extensive vocalizations to communicate warnings or food availability to the other individuals.

    Black-backed woodpecker

    The black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) also known as the Arctic three-toed woodpecker is a medium-sized woodpecker (23 cm (9.1 in) long) inhabiting the forests of North America.

    Black-headed gull

    The black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) is a small gull that breeds in much of Europe and Asia, and also in coastal eastern Canada. Most of the population is migratory and winters further south, but some birds reside in the milder westernmost areas of Europe. Some black-headed gulls also spend the winter in northeastern North America, where it was formerly known as the common black-headed gull. As is the case with many gulls, it was previously placed in the genus Larus.

    The genus name Chroicocephalus is from Ancient Greek khroizo, "to colour", and kephale, "head". The specific ridibundus is Latin for "laughing", from ridere "to laugh".

    Cornell Lab of Ornithology

    The Cornell Lab of Ornithology is a member-supported unit of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York which studies birds and other wildlife. It is housed in the Imogene Powers Johnson Center for Birds and Biodiversity in Sapsucker Woods Sanctuary. Approximately 250 scientists, professors, staff, and students work in a variety of programs devoted to the Lab's mission: interpreting and conserving the Earth's biological diversity through research, education, and citizen science focused on birds. Work at the Lab is supported primarily by its 75,000 members. The Cornell Lab publishes books under the Cornell Lab Publishing Group, a quarterly publication, Living Bird magazine, and a monthly electronic newsletter. It manages numerous citizen-science projects and websites, including the Webby Award-winning All About Birds.

    Coyote Point Park

    Coyote Point Park is a 670-acre (270 ha) park in San Mateo County, California, United States. Located on San Francisco Bay, it is south of San Francisco International Airport on the border of Burlingame and San Mateo.

    The distinctive point, covered by a grove of eucalyptus trees, can be seen from airplanes approaching San Francisco International Airport and is a good location for aircraft spotting and birdwatching.

    Currituck Banks North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve

    36.391756°N 75.834374°W / 36.391756; -75.834374

    Currituck Banks North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve is a component site of the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve on the Currituck Banks, north of Corolla, North Carolina. The reserve is an example of a low-salinity estuarine ecosystem, and contains a variety of habitats, including beach, sand dunes, grasslands, shrub thicket, maritime forest, brackish and freshwater marshes, tidal flats, and subtidal soft bottoms. The reserve is accessible by land and by water, but there is no boat launch.

    The reserve was described in the Boston Globe as being among the coast's most beautiful nature preserves; the review noted that the reserve and surrounding area is nearly empty of people during the off-season.The reserve is home to a wealth of birds and fish, including commercial and game fish species. The reserve allows hunting (with a registration form required), and is also listed as an eBird hotspot for birdwatching.

    Egyptian goose

    The Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiaca) is a member of the duck, goose, and swan family Anatidae. It is native to Africa south of the Sahara and the Nile Valley.

    Egyptian geese were considered sacred by the Ancient Egyptians, and appeared in much of their artwork. Because of their popularity chiefly as an ornamental bird, escapees are common and feral populations have become established in Western Europe. The Egyptian goose has escaped or been deliberately released in to Florida, USA. However Egyptian geese are also now present in many parts of Central and Southeastern Texas with more than 100 sightings just in 1Q 2018 as reported in ebird.org database.

    Eutelsat 31A

    Eutelsat 31A, formerly e-Bird, Eurobird 3 and Eutelsat 33A, is a communications satellite that offers capacity for broadband and broadcast services in Europe. It is owned by Eutelsat.

    Positioned at 31° East - having been relocated from 33° East in May 2014 - Eutelsat 31A is optimised for interactive broadband services, and also valued by broadcasters for occasional use and professional video services, and data networks like Estar by Technologie Satelitarne service.

    Its 20 Ku band transponders are connected to four spot beams over Europe and Turkey. These four beams overlap to allow hubs located in the hot spots of each beam to communicate with each other, thus ensuring highly effective pan-European coverage.

    Frank Gill (ornithologist)

    Frank Bennington Gill (October 2, 1941 in New York City) is an American ornithologist with worldwide research interests and birding experience. He is perhaps best known as the author of the textbook Ornithology (4rd edition, 2019), the leading textbook in the field.

    Gill was raised in Teaneck, New Jersey. He reported that he became interested in birds at the age of seven, when his grandfather, Frank Rockingham Downing, showed him a song sparrow at a birdbath. This was the first time he had seen a bird through binoculars, "and I was hooked."After Gill received his PhD in zoology from the University of Michigan in 1969 (where he had also completed his undergraduate degree), he joined the ornithology department at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. From 1969-1995, Gill was a full-time staff member of the academy, where he held various positions throughout his tenure, including that of chairman for the Department of Ornithology and vice president for systematics and evolutionary biology. During his time at the academy, Gill was instrumental in reestablishing the academy's position as one of the leading centers of American ornithological research. This was manifested through Gill's work as the founding director of the VIREO program (Visual Resources for Ornithology) and his work as the editor of the encyclopedic series Birds of North America, Life Histories for the 21st Century. In 1988 he was awarded the Linnaean Society of New York's Eisenmann Medal. Since 1996, Gill has been affiliated with the academy as a research fellow.

    More recently, Gill was the president of the American Ornithologists' Union from 1998-2000. Besides his acclaimed textbook, Gill’s published works include over 150 scientific and popular articles. His worldwide research programs included field studies of island birds, hybridization by blue-winged and golden-winged warblers, flower-feeding strategies of sunbirds of Africa and of hermit hummingbirds of Middle America, and phylogeny through DNA of the chickadees of the world. For his contributions to ornithology, Gill was recognized with the William Brewster Award, the highest honor bestowed by the AOU. Additionally, Gill is an elected member of the International Ornithological Congress, as well as the co-author, with Minturn Wright, of Birds of the World: Recommended English Names (2006). Since 1994 he has led the international effort to use a consistent set of unique English names and authoritative species taxonomy of the birds of the world.Gill’s contributions include innovative program leadership combined with a personal commitment to engaging the public in ornithology through citizen science. He pioneered “cyberbirding”—the use of the internet for nationwide citizen science initiatives—including the conversion of classic Christmas Bird Count to modern technology. Frank and his colleagues at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology also were awarded US Patent No. 6,772,142 for their internet software application to translate online georeference data to an interactive database. With such tools, he and his colleagues created the Great Backyard Bird Count and then the eBird initiative of Audubon and the Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

    In 1996, Gill became senior vice president and director of science for the National Audubon Society, a position from which he retired in 2004. At Audubon, he championed the nationwide Important Bird Areas initiative in partnership with BirdLife International. In 2007, he was elected to the Board of Directors of the National Audubon Society and served as interim president and CEO (2010). He has been quoted in a number of news reports concerning birds.

    Lark

    Larks are passerine birds of the family Alaudidae. Larks have a cosmopolitan distribution with the largest number of species occurring in Africa. Only a single species, the horned lark, occurs in North America, and only Horsfield's bush lark occurs in Australia. Habitats vary widely, but many species live in dry regions.

    List of birds of Iceland

    This is a list of the bird species recorded in Iceland. The avifauna of Iceland include a total of 378 confirmed species as of April 2016 according to the Icelandic Birding Pages (IBP). An additional 16 species had been recorded by eBird users by early 2019. Of the 394 species listed here, 313 are accidental. The entire populations of two species have resulted from introductions by humans, and a few other species have individuals of both natural and human-assisted origin. One species on the list is extinct.

    This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence.

    (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Iceland

    (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Iceland as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions, and has become established

    List of birds of Manitoba

    .

    This list of birds of Manitoba includes all the bird species confirmed in the Canadian province of Manitoba as determined by the Manitoba Avian Research Committee (MARC). There were, as of 2009, 390 species on this list. Between that date and July 2018, seven additional species have been added through eBird. Of the 397 species, 71 are rare or accidental, 23 are classed as occasional, and eight have been introduced to Manitoba or elsewhere in North America. One species is extinct and two species have been extirpated; one of them might be extinct.

    This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

    The following codes are used to describe some categories of occurrence. The MARC Checklist provides abundance codes by region and season, and species may be abundant at one time and place and accidental in another. Therefore, an (A) or (O) code is used here only if the Checklist does not have a code for greater abundance anywhere.

    (A) Accidental - one to six records since 1 January 1960 per the MARC

    (O) Occasional - seven or more records since 1 January 1960 but not expected to occur annually per the MARC

    (I) Introduced - established solely as result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native and non-indigenous

    (E) Extinct – a recent species that no longer exists

    (Ex) Extirpated – a species that no longer occurs in Manitoba, but populations still exist elsewhere

    List of birds of New Brunswick

    This is a list of bird species confirmed in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The New Brunswick Bird Records Committee (NBBRC) Checklist of New Brunswick Birds contained 419 species as of April 2017. Eight additional species whose records have not been confirmed by the NBBRC have been added through eBird. Of the 427 species on this list, 80 are accidental and 49 are rare as defined below. Seven were introduced to North America, four are extinct, and one has been extirpated.

    Only birds that are considered to have established, self-sustaining, wild populations are included on this list. This means that birds that are considered probable escapees, although they may have been sighted flying free, are not included.

    This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

    The following tags are used to categorise some species:

    (A) Accidental - "Accidental (records in no more than 5 years of 50)" per the NBBRC

    (R) Rare - "Very rare (not expected annually)" per the NBBRC

    (O) Origin debatable - a species whose origin is unknown

    (I) Introduced - a species introduced to North America by humans

    List of birds of Newfoundland and Labrador

    This is a list of bird species confirmed in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Bird Records Committee of Nature Newfoundland & Labrador (Nature NL) lists 398 species as occurring in Newfoundland as of March 2016. Through eBird, seven additional species have been recorded in Labrador and five more in Newfoundland from when the Nature NL checklist was published through June 2018. Of these 410 species, 112 are rare and 82 are very rare as defined below. Two were introduced to North America. One species is possibly extinct. Another species formerly found in Labrador is known to be extinct but is not on the Nature NL checklist.

    Only birds that are considered to have established, self-sustaining, wild populations are included on this list. This means that birds that are considered probable escapees, although they may have been sighted flying free, are not included.

    This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

    The following codes are used to describe some categories of occurrence.

    (R) Rare - "not likely to be found annually, though apparently occurs regularly in very small numbers" per Nature NL

    (VR) Very rare - "recorded three times or less" per Nature NL

    List of birds of Yellowstone National Park

    This is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species recorded in Yellowstone National Park, which is mostly in the U.S. state of Wyoming and also extends into Idaho and Montana. This list is based on one published by the National Park Service (NPS). Additional species have been added through eBird.This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

    This list includes 298 species. Unless otherwise noted, all are considered to occur regularly in the park as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The tags below are used to designate the abundance of some species. Because the NPS checklist notes abundance by season, the tag for the highest abundance of the year is used. The quoted definitions are those of the NPS.

    B "Breeding: Confirmed as breeding in Yellowstone" (150 species)

    b "Unconfirmed breeding: Suspected of breeding, but not confirmed by eggs or young" (five species)

    U "Uncommon: Found in small numbers and usually, but not always, found with some effort in appropriate habitat" (63 species)

    R "Rare: Occurs annually in very small numbers or in a very restricted habitat. Difficult to find" (74 species)

    O "Occasional: Occurs in some years, but not every year" (four species)

    A "Accidental: accidental, vagrant, or species with few observations" (77 species)

    + "species for which documentation is requested to improve the park’s bird database" (69 species)(see note)

    I Introduced - a species introduced to North America by humans (six species)

    Mount Auburn Cemetery

    Mount Auburn Cemetery is the first rural, or garden, cemetery in the United States, located on the line between Cambridge and Watertown in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, 4 miles (6.4 km) west of Boston. It is the burial site of many prominent members of the Boston Brahmins, as well being a National Historic Landmark.

    Dedicated in 1831 and set with classical monuments in a rolling landscaped terrain, it marked a distinct break with Colonial-era burying grounds and church-affiliated graveyards. The appearance of this type of landscape coincides with the rising popularity of the term "cemetery," derived from the Greek for "a sleeping place," instead of graveyard. This language and outlook eclipsed the previous harsh view of death and the afterlife embodied by old graveyards and church burial plots.The 174-acre (70 ha) cemetery is important both for its historical aspects and for its role as an arboretum. It is Watertown's largest contiguous open space and extends into Cambridge to the east, adjacent to the Cambridge City Cemetery and Sand Banks Cemetery. It was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 2003 for its pioneering role in 19th-century cemetery development.

    Santa Catalina Island (California)

    Santa Catalina Island (Tongva: Pimugna or Pimu) is a rocky island off the coast of the U.S. state of California in the Gulf of Santa Catalina. The island name is often shortened to Catalina Island or just Catalina. The island is 22 mi (35 km) long and 8 mi (13 km) across at its greatest width. The island is located about 29 mi (47 km) south-southwest of Long Beach, California. The highest point on the island is 2,097 ft (639 m) Mount Orizaba. Santa Catalina is part of the Channel Islands of California archipelago and lies within Los Angeles County.

    Catalina was originally settled by the Tongva, who called the island Pimugna or Pimu and referred to themselves as Pimugnans or Pimuvit. The first Europeans to arrive on Catalina claimed it for the Spanish Empire. Over the years, territorial claims to the island transferred to Mexico and then to the United States. During this time, the island was sporadically used for smuggling, otter hunting, and gold-digging, before successfully being developed into a tourist destination by chewing gum magnate William Wrigley, Jr. beginning in the 1920s. Since the 1970s, most of the island has been administered by the Catalina Island Conservancy.

    Its total population in the 2010 census was 4,096 people, 90 percent of whom live in the island's only incorporated city, Avalon. The second center of population is the unincorporated village of Two Harbors at the island's isthmus. Development occurs also at the smaller settlements of Rancho Escondido and Middle Ranch. The remaining population is scattered over the island between the two population centers.

    The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World

    The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World is a book by Jim Clements which presents a list of the bird species of the world.

    The most recent printed version is the sixth edition (2007), which was published by Cornell University Press. Previous editions were published by the author's own imprint, Ibis Publishing. The Cornell Lab of Ornithology has provided annual updates since then, usually in August, and the most recent version is available online in several formats. These updates reflect the ongoing changes to bird taxonomy based on published research.

    Clements is the official list used by the American Birding Association for birds globally. eBird also uses the Clements checklist as the base list for its eBird taxonomy, which in addition to species includes hybrids and other non-species entities reported by birders.

    Tufted duck

    The tufted duck (Aythya fuligula) is a small diving duck with a population of close to one million birds, found in northern Eurasia. The scientific name is derived from Ancient Greek aithuia an unidentified seabird mentioned by authors including Hesychius and Aristotle, and Latin, fuligo "soot" and gula "throat".

    This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
    Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
    Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.