E-services (electronic services) are services which use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The three main components of e-services are- service provider, service receiver and the channels of service delivery (i.e., technology). For example, as concerned to public e-service, public agencies are the service provider and citizens as well as businesses are the service receiver. The channel of service delivery is the third requirement of e-service. Internet is the main channel of e-service delivery while other classic channels (e.g. telephone, call center, public kiosk, mobile phone, television) are also considered.[1]

Since its inception in the late 1980s in Europe and formal introduction in 1993 by the US Government,[2] the term ‘E-Government’ has now become one of the recognized research domains especially in the context of public policy and now has been rapidly gaining strategic importance in public sector modernization.[3] E-service is one of the branches of this domain and its attention has also been creeping up among the practitioners and researchers.[4]

E-service (or eservice) is a highly generic term, usually referring to ‘The provision of services via the Internet (the prefix 'e' standing for ‘electronic’, as it does in many other usages), thus e-Service may also include e-Commerce, although it may also include non-commercial services (online), which is usually provided by the government.’ (Irma Buntantan & G. David Garson, 2004: 169-170; Muhammad Rais & Nazariah, 2003: 59, 70-71).

"E-Service constitutes the online services available on the Internet, whereby a valid transaction of buying and selling (procurement) is possible, as opposed to the traditional websites, whereby only descriptive information are available, and no online transaction is made possible." (Jeong, 2007).[5]

Importance of E-service

Lu (2001)[6] identifies a number of benefits for e-services, some of these are:

  • Accessing a greater customer base
  • Broadening market reach
  • Lowering of entry barrier to new markets and cost of acquiring new customers
  • Alternative communication channel to customers
  • Increasing services to customers
  • Enhancing perceived company image
  • Gaining competitive advantages
  • Enhancing transparency
  • Potential for increasing Customer knowledge

Importance and advantages of E-shopping

  • E-shops are open 24 hours a day.
  • There is no need to travel to the malls or wait at the checkout counters.
  • There is usually a wide selection of goods and services.
  • It is easy to compare prices and quality by using the E-shopping tool.
  • Price reduction and discounts are electronically conveyed.

E-service domain

The term ‘e-service’ has many applications and can be found in many disciplines. The two dominant application areas of e-services are

E-business (or e-commerce): e-services mostly provided by businesses or [NGO|non-government organizations] (NGOs) (private sector).

E-government: e-services provided by government to citizens or business (public sector is the supply side). The use and description of the e-service in this page will be limited to the context of e-government only where of the e-service is usually associated with prefix “public”: Public e-services. In some cases, we will have to describe aspects that are related to both fields like some conferences or journals which cover the concept of “e-Service” in both domains of e-government and e-business.[example:[1] www.eserviceforyou.com]


Depending on the types of services, there are certain functionalities required in the certain layers of e-service architectural framework, these include but are not limited to – Data layer (data sources), processing layers (customer service systems, management systems, data warehouse systems, integrated customer content systems), exchange layer (Enterprise Application Integration– EAI), interaction layer ( integrating e-services), and presentation layer (customer interface through which the web pages and e-services are linked).

E-service quality

Measuring service quality and service excellence are important in a competitive organizational environment. The SERVQUAL- service quality model is one of the widely used tools for measuring quality of the service on various aspects. The five attributes of this model are: reliability, responsiveness, assurance, tangibles, and empathy. The following table summarizes some major of these:

SERVQUAL[7] Kaynama & Black (2000)[8] Zeithaml (2002)[9] Janda et al. (2002)[10] Alawattegama & Wattegama (2008)[11]
Reliability Content Access Access Factual information
Responsiveness Access Ease of navigation Security Business information
Assurance Navigation Efficiency Sensation General information
Tangibles Design Flexibility Information/content Consumer‐ related information
Empathy Response Reliability
Background Personalization
Personalization Security/privacy
Site aesthetics
Price knowledge

The LIRNEasia study on benchmarking national telecom regulator websites focuses on content than on accessibility and ease of use, unlike the other studies mentioned here. Websites are increasingly important portals to government agencies, especially in the context of information society reforms. Stakeholders, including businesses, investors and even the general public, are interested in information produced by these agencies, and websites can help to increase their transparency and accountability. The quality of its website also demonstrates how advanced a regulatory agency is.

E-service cost factor

Some major cost factors are (Lu, 2001):[12]

  • Expense of setting up applications
  • Maintaining applications
  • Internet connection
  • Hardware/software
  • Security concerns
  • legal issues
  • Training; and
  • Rapid technology changes

Practical examples of e-services in the Developing World

Information technology is a powerful tool for accelerating economic development. Developing countries have focused on the development of ICT during the last two decades and as a result, it has been recognized that ICT is critical to economy and is as a catalyst of economic development. So, in recent years there seems to have been efforts for providing various e-services in many developing countries since ICT is believed to offer considerable potential for the sustainable development of e-Government and as a result, e-Services.[13]

Many government agencies in developed countries have taken progressive steps toward the web and ICT use, adding coherence to all local activities on the Internet, widening local access and skills, opening up interactive services for local debates, and increasing the participation of citizens on promotion and management of the territory(Graham and Aurigi, 1997).[14]

But the potential for e-government in developing countries remains largely unexploited, even though. ICT is believed to offer considerable potential for the sustainable development of e-government. Different human, organizational and technological factors, issues and problems pertain in these countries, requiring focused studies and appropriate approaches. ICT, in general, is referred to as an “enabler”, but on the other hand, it should also be regarded as a challenge and a peril in itself. The organizations, public or private, which ignore the potential value and use of ICT may suffer pivotal competitive disadvantages. Nevertheless, some e-government initiatives have flourished in developing countries too, e.g. Brazil, India, Chile, etc.[13] What the experience in these countries shows, is that governments in the developing world can effectively exploit and appropriate the benefits of ICT, but e-government success entails the accommodation of certain unique conditions, needs and obstacles. The adaptive challenges of e-government go far beyond technology, they call for organizational structures and skills, new forms of leadership, transformation of public-private partnerships (Allen et al., 2001).[15]

Following are a few examples regarding e-services in some developing countries:

E-services in Bangladesh

Bangladesh first e-service system is National E-Service System ([ NESS]) and 2nd e-Service For you [eserviceforyou.com].

E-services in Rwanda

Only a decade after emerging from the fastest genocide of the 20th Century, Rwanda, a small country in Eastern Central Africa, has become one of the continent’s leaders in, and model on, bridging the digital divide through e-government. Rwanda has undergone a rapid turnaround from one of the most technologically deficient countries only a decade ago to a country where legislative business is conducted online and wireless access to the Internet is available anywhere in the country. This is puzzling when viewed against the limited progress made in other comparable developing countries, especially those located in the same region, sub-Saharan Africa, where the structural and institutional constraints to e-government diffusion are similar.[16]

E-services in South Africa

In South Africa, there continues to be high expectations of government in respect to improved delivery of service and of closer consultation with citizens. Such expectations are not unique to this country, and in this regard there is a need for governments to recognise that the implementation of e-government systems and e-services affords them the opportunity to enhance service delivery and good governance.[17] The implementation of e-Government has been widely acclaimed in that it provides new impetus to deliver services quickly and efficiently (Evans & Yen, 2006:208).[18] In recognition of these benefits, various arms of the South African government have embarked on a number of e-government programmes for example the Batho Pele portal, SARS e-filing, the e-Natis system, electronic processing of grant applications from remote sites, and a large number of departmental information websites. Also a number of well publicised e-government ventures such as the latter, analysts and researchers consider the state of e-government in South Africa to be at rudimentary stages. There are various factors which collectively contribute to such an assessment. Amongst these, key factors relate to a lack of a clear strategy to facilitate uptake and adoption of e-government services as well as evaluation frameworks to assess expectations of citizens who are one of the primary user groups of these services.[17]

E-services in Malaysia

E-Services is one of the pilot projects under the Electronic Government Flagship within the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) initiative. With E-Services, one can now conduct transactions with Government agencies, such as the Road Transport Department (RTD) and private utility companies such as Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) and Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) through various convenient channels such as the eServices kiosks and internet. No more queuing, traffic jams or bureaucratic hassles and one can now conduct transaction at one’s own convenience. Also, Electronic Labour Exchange (ELX)is one stop-centre for labor market information, as supervised by the Ministry of Human Resource (MOHR), to enable employers and job seekers to communicate on the same platform.

e-Syariah is the seventh project under the Electronic Government flagship application of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). A case management system that integrates the processes related to management of cases for the Syariah Courts.

Examples of E-services in Established Countries

E-services in the United States of America

In America, citizens have many options and opportunities to follow and understand government actions through e-government. Government 2.0 (Gov. 2.0) is currently in place to bring the people and governments together to learn new information, increase government transparency, and better means for communicating to one another. Gov. 2.0 offers increased citizen participation through on-line applications such as social media and other apps.[19] Through the internet and websites such as USA.gov, an individual can perform actions such as contacting elected officials, find information about the work force such as retirement plans and labor laws, learn about money and consumer issues such as taxes, loans, and welfare, learn about citizenship and obtaining a visa or passport, and other topics such as health and welfare, education, and environmental issues.[20]

E-commerce is another growing E-service in the United States for both big and small businesses. E-commerce sales are projected to grow 10 to 12 percent annually. Amazon.com is the largest on-line marketplace in the country with annual sales of $79 billion. Wal-Mart is also a widely popular retailer. They have grown their business by having electronic services. Wal-Mart’s sales for E-commerce in 2015 was roughly $13 billion. Apple develops and sells a wide variety of technological goods and services such as cell phones, music players, and computers. Apple’s sales for E-commerce in 2015 was $12 billion.[21] E-services allows businesses to reach new clientele and offer new services. Companies such as eBay and Etsy have achieved great success, with eBay posting a net income in 2016 of nearly $9 billion and Esty claiming roughly $200 million in profits from nearly $2 billion sales.[22] The majority or eBay's business is conducted in the United States but it does a great deal of international business including the United Kingdom and Germany.[23] The global reach of Etsy is seen in nearly every country in the world with 31% of gross merchandise sales occurring outside of the United States.[24]

E-services in China

China’s recent realization of the continuing growth of internet usage has caused the government to recognize the need to expand their E-government services. Some steps the government wants to take in order to increase their E-government services are to develop more online functions, use government sites to integrate on-line services, have supplementary open data available to citizens to further government transparency, and to combine services from local and country-wide governments for convenience.[25] China’s plan of action to incorporate the internet into everyday business and grow the economy is known as “Internet Plus.” The government plans to have this plan in full effect by 2025 to be the main driving force for economic and social improvements. Internet Plus will help to grow the job market as the government plans to use local citizens for development, and to generate more areas dedicated to technological growth such as Zhongguancun.[26]

Because of the large population, China has the most internet and cell phone users in the world.(consider rewording) This causes a need for technological growth and a demand for increased E-services. In 2016, Chinese consumers spent more money for on-line goods and services than the United States and United Kingdom combined.[27] There is(are) a wide variety of reasons as to why E-commerce flourishes in China including easy access to mobile internet, low cost of shipping, and a vast selection of cheap, unbranded products.[28] Alibaba is China’s largest on-line marketplace with an annual revenue stream of $16 billion. Its services are globally available in Russia and Brazil through AliExpress. Tencent is another internet company with an annual revenue income of $16 billion. Tencent is used mainly for instant messaging but has other applications as well including mobile games and other digital content. By the end of 2015, Tencent’s WeChat messaging app reached around 700 million users. The biggest competitor for Tencent is Facebook’s WhatsApp. Baidu Is the most visited website in the country and it is used as a search engine and has an annual revenue of $10 billion. In March 2016, there were roughly 663 million users. Google challenges Baidu as the major internet search engines in the world. Huawei is a tech company that produces phones, tablets, and develops the equipment used in fixed-line networks. Huawei has an annual revenue income of $61 billion. It is currently located throughout 100 countries worldwide and in 2015, it filed 3,898 patent applications, more than any other country in the world. The biggest competitors to Huawei is Apple and Samsung.[29]

Challenges to e-services in the Developing World

The future of e-service is bright but some challenges remain. There are some challenges in e-service, as Sheth & Sharma (2007)[30] identify, are:

  • Low penetration of ICT especially in the developing countries;
  • Fraud on the internet space which is estimated around 2.8billion USD
  • Privacy due the emergence of various types of spyware and security holes, and
  • intrusive characteristics of the service (e.g. mobile phones based) as customers may not like to be contacted with the service providers at any time and at any place.

The first challenge and primary obstacle to the e-service platform will be penetration of the internet. In some developing countries, the access to the internet is limited and speeds are also limited. In these cases firms and customers will continue to use traditional platforms. The second issue of concern is fraud on the internet. It is anticipated that the fraud on the e-commerce internet space costs $2.8 billion. Possibility of fraud will continue to reduce the utilization of the internet. The third issue is of privacy. Due to both spyware and security holes in operating systems, there is concern that the transactions that consumers undertake have privacy limitations. For example, by stealthily following online activities, firms can develop fairly accurate descriptions of customer profiles. Possibility of privacy violations will reduce the utilizations of the internet. The final issue is that e-service can also become intrusive as they reduce time and location barriers of other forms of contract. For example, firms can contact people through mobile devices at any time and at any place. Customers do not take like the intrusive behavior and may not use the e-service platform. (Heiner and lyer, 2007)[31]

Major e-service keywords

A considerable amount of research efforts already exists on the subject matter exploring different aspects of e-service and e-service delivery ; one worth noting effort is Rowley’s study (2006)[1] who did a review study on the e-service literature. The key finding of his study is that there is need to explore dimensions of e-service delivery not focusing only on service quality “In order to understand e-service experiences it is necessary to go beyond studies of e-service quality dimensions and to also take into account the inherent characteristics of e-service delivery and the factors that differentiate one service experience from another.”

Some of the major keywords of e-service as found in the e-government research are as follows:


User acceptance of technology is defined according to Morris (1996, referred by Wu 2005, p. 1)[32] as “the demonstrable willingness within a user group to employ information technology for the tasks it is designed to support”. This definition can be brought into the context of e-service where acceptance can be defined as the users’ willingness to use e-service or the willingness to decide when and how to use the e-service.


Users’ ability to access to the e-service is important theme in the previous literature. For example, Huang (2003)[33] finds that most of the websites in general fail to serve users with disabilities. Recommendation to improve accessibility is evident in previous literature including Jaeger (2006)[34] who suggests the following to improve e-services’ accessibility like: design for accessibility from the outset of website development, Involve users with disabilities in the testing of the site …Focus on the benefits of an accessible Web site to all users.

Administrative literacy

According to Grönlund et al. (2007),[35] for a simple e-service, the needs for knowledge and skills, content and procedures are considerably less. However, in complicated services there are needed to change some prevailed skills, such as replacing verbal skills with skill in searching for information online.


This theme is concerned with establishing standards for measuring e-services or the best practices within the field. This theme also includes the international benchmarking of e-government services (UN reports, EU reports); much critic has been targeting these reports being incomprehensive and useless. According to Bannister (2007)[36] “… benchmarks are not a reliable tool for measuring real e-government progress. Furthermore, if they are poorly designed, they risk distorting government policies as countries may chase the benchmark rather than looking at real local and national needs”

Digital divide

Digital divide is considered one of the main barriers to implementing e-services; some people do not have means to access the e-services and some others do not know how to use the technology (or the e-service). According to Helbig et al. (2009),[37] “we suggest E-Government and the digital divide should be seen as complementary social phenomena (i.e., demand and supply). Moreover, a serious e-government digital divide is that services mostly used by social elites."


Most of the reports and the established criteria focus on assessing the services in terms of infrastructure and public policies ignoring the citizen participation or e-readiness. According to by Shalini (2009),[38] “the results of the research project reveal that a high index may be only indicating that a country is e-ready in terms of ICT infrastructure and info-structure, institutions, policies, and political commitment, but it is a very poor measure of the e-readiness of citizens. To summarize the findings, it can be said that Mauritius is ready but the Mauritians are not”

``E-readiness, as the Economist Intelligence Unit defines, is the measure of a country’s ability to leverage digital channels for communication, commerce and government in order to further economic and social development. Implied in this measure is the extent to which the usage of communications devices and Internet services creates efficiencies for business and citizens, and the extent to which this usage is leveraged in the development of information and communications technology (ICT) industries. In general terms, the definition of e-readiness is relative, for instance depending on a country in question's priorities and perspective.[39]


As opposed to effectiveness, efficiency is focused on the internal competence within the government departments when delivering e-services. There is a complaint that researchers focus more on effectiveness “There is an emerging trend seemingly moving away from the efficiency target and focusing on users and governance outcome. While the latter is worthwhile, efficiency must still remain a key priority for eGovernment given the budget constraints compounded in the future by the costs of an ageing population. Moreover, efficiency gains are those that can be most likely proven empirically through robust methodologies”[40]


Security is the most important challenge that faces the implementation of e-services because without a guarantee of privacy and security citizens will not be willing to take up e-government services. These security concerns, such as hacker attacks and the theft of credit card information, make governments hesitant to provide public online services. According to the GAO report[41] of 2002 “security concerns present one of the toughest challenges to extending the reach of e-government.The rash of hacker attacks, Web page defacing, and credit card information being posted on electronic bulletin boards can make many federal agency officials—as well as the general public—reluctant to conduct sensitive government transactions involving personal or financial data over the Internet.” By and Large, Security is one of the major challenges that faces the implementation and development of electronic services. people want to be assured that they are safe when they are conducting online services and that their information will remain secure and confidential


Axelsson et al. (2009)[42] argue that the stakeholder concept-which was originally used in private firms-, can be used in public setting and in the context of e-government. According to them, several scholars have discussed the use of the stakeholder theory in public settings.[43] The stakeholder theory suggests that need to focus on all the involved stakeholder s when designing the e-service; not only on the government and citizens.


Compared to Accessibility, There is sufficient literature that addresses the issue of usability; researchers have developed different models and methods to measure the usability and effectiveness of eGovernment websites. However, But still there is call to improve these measures and make it more compressive[44]

``The word usability has cropped up a few times already in this unit. In the context of biometric identification, usability referred to the smoothness of enrollment and other tasks associated with setting up an identification system. A system that produced few false matches during enrollment of applicants was described as usable. Another meaning of usability is related to the ease of use of an interface. Although this meaning of the term is often used in the context of computer interfaces, there is no reason to confine it to computers.[45]´´

Social, cultural and ethical implications of e-services

The perceived effectiveness of e-service can be influenced by public’s view of the social and cultural implications of e-technologies and e-service.

Impacts on individuals’ rights and privacy – as more and more companies and government agencies use technology to collect, store, and make accessible data on individuals, privacy concerns have grown. Some companies monitor their employees' computer usage patterns in order to assess individual or workgroup performance.[46] Technological advancements are also making it much easier for businesses, government and other individuals to obtain a great deal of information about an individual without their knowledge. There is a growing concern[47] that access to a wide range of information can be dangerous within politically corrupt government agencies.

Impact on Jobs and Workplaces - in the early days of computers, management scientists anticipated that computers would replace human decision-makers. However, despite significant technological advances, this prediction is no longer a mainstream concern. At the current time, one of the concerns associated with computer usage in any organization (including governments) is the health risk – such as injuries related to working continuously on a computer keyboard. Government agencies are expected to work with regulatory groups in order to avoid these problems.

Potential Impacts on Society – despite some economic benefits of ICT to individuals, there is evidence that the computer literacy and access gap between the haves and have-nots may be increasing. Education and information access are more than ever the keys to economic prosperity, yet access by individuals in different countries is not equal - this social inequity has become known as the digital divide.

Impact on Social Interaction – advancements in ICT and e-Technology solutions have enabled many government functions to become automated and information to be made available online. This is a concern to those who place a high value on social interaction.

Information Security - technological advancements allow government agencies to collect, store and make data available online to individuals and organizations. Citizens and businesses expect to be allowed to access data in a flexible manner (at any time and from any location). Meeting these expectations comes at a price to government agencies where it concerns managing information – more specifically, ease of access; data integrity and accuracy; capacity planning to ensure the timely delivery of data to remote (possibly mobile) sites; and managing the security of corporate and public information.[47]

E-service awards

The benefits of e-services in advancing businesses efficiency and in promoting good governance are huge; recognizing the importance of these benefits has resulted in number of international awards that are dedicated to recognize the best designed e-services. In the section, we will provide description of some international awards

Best online e-service in Europe

European eGovernment Awards program started 2003 to recognize the best online public service in Europe. The aim of Awards is to encourage the deployment of e-services and to bring the attention to best practices in the field. The winners of the |4th European eGovernment Awards were announced in the award ceremony that took place at the 5th Ministerial eGovernment Conference on 19 November 2009 (Sweden); the winners in their respective categories are:

  • Category 1. eGovernment supporting the Single Market: EU-OPA, the European Order for Payment Application ( Austria and  Germany)
  • Category 2a. eGovernment empowering citizens: Genvej ( Denmark)
  • Category 2b. eGovernment empowering businesses: MEPA, the Public Administration eMarketplace ( Italy)
  • Category 3. eGovernment enabling administrative efficiency and effectiveness: Licensing of Hunters via the “Multibanco” ATM Network ( Portugal)
  • Public prize: SMS Information System ( Turkey)

Other awards

Sultan Qaboos Award for excellence in eGovernance  Oman(Started 2009) The award has five categories: Best eContent, Best eService, Best eProject, eEconomy, eReadiness.

eGovernment Excellence Awards  Bahrain(Started 2007) The program has three categories: Government Awards: Best eContent, Best eService, Best eProject, eEconomy, eEducation, eMaturity Business Awards: Best ICT solution Provider, eEconomy, eEducation Citizen Awards: Best eContent, eCitizen.

Philippines e-Service Awards  Philippines(Started 2001) Categories: Outstanding Client Application of the Year, Outstanding Customer Application of the year, Groundbreaking Technology of the Year, Most Progressive Homegrown Company of the Year.

Major journals focusing on e-services

There are some journals particularly interested for “e-Service “. Some of these are:

Major conferences focusing on e-services

Major conferences considering e-service as one of the themes are:

See also


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  2. ^ Alasem, A. (2009). An Overview of e-Government Metadata Standards and Initiatives based on Dublin Core. Electronic Journal of e-Government, 7(1), 1 – 10
  3. ^ Wimmer, M., Codagnone, C. and Janssen, M. (2008) “Future of e-Government Research: 13 research themes identified in the eGovRTD2020 project’. Proceedings of the 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, USA
  4. ^ Lӧfstedt, U. (2005) ‘Assessment of current research and some proposals for future direction’, International Journal of Public IS
  5. ^ Jeong Chun Hai @Ibrahim. (2007). Fundamental of Development Administration. Selangor: Scholar Press. ISBN 978-967-5-04508-0
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  7. ^ Jiang, J.J.; Klein, G. and Crampton, S.M. (2000). A note on SERVQUAL reliability and validity in information system service quality measurement. Decision Sciences. Atlanta: Summer 2000. Vol. 31, Iss. 3; p. 725
  8. ^ Kaynama, S. A., and Black, C. I. (2000). A Proposal to assess the Service Quality of Online Travel Agencies: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Professional Services Marketing (21:1), 63-88
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  13. ^ a b Ndou, V.(2004)E-Government for developing countries: Opportunities and Challenges, EJISDC 18, 1, 1-24
  14. ^ Graham, S. and Aurigi, A. (1997) Virtual Cities, Social Polarisation, and the Crisis in Urban Public Space, Journal of Urban Technology, 4, 1, 19-52
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  41. ^ GAO.(2002). E-Government: Proposal addresses Critical Challenges. U.S General Accounting Office, Govt of the USA
  42. ^ Axelsson, K, Melin, f, Lindgren, I, (2009) DEVELOPING PUBLIC E-SERVICES FOR SEVERAL STAKEHOLDERS – A MULTIFACETED VIEW OF THE NEEDS FOR AN E-SERVICE. 17th European Conference on Information Systems
  43. ^ Scholl, H. J. (2001). Applying stakeholder theory to e-government: Benefits and Limits. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Massachusetts
  44. ^ Kaylor, C., Deshazo, R. & Eck, D. V. (2001) "Gauging e-government: A report on implementing services among American cities". Government Information Quarterly (GIQ), 18(4), 293 - 307
  45. ^ Open Learning - OpenLearn - Open University
  46. ^ Asgarkhani, M. (2002). Strategic Management of Information systems and Technology in an e-World”, Proceedings of the 21st IT Conference, Sri Lanka, pp103-111.
  47. ^ a b Asgarkhani, M. (2002b) “e-Governance in Asia Pacific”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Governance in Asia, Hong Kong.

External links

Brick and mortar

Brick and mortar (also bricks and mortar or B&M) refers to a physical presence of an organization or business in a building or other structure. The term brick-and-mortar business is often used to refer to a company that possesses or leases retail shops, factory production facilities, or warehouses for its operations. More specifically, in the jargon of e-commerce businesses in the 2000s, brick-and-mortar businesses are companies that have a physical presence (e.g., a retail shop in a building) and offer face-to-face customer experiences.

This term is usually used to contrast with a transitory business or an Internet-only presence, such as fully online shops, which have no physical presence for shoppers to visit, talk with staff in person, touch and handle products and buy from the firm in person. However, such online businesses normally have non-public physical facilities from which they either run business operations (e.g., the company headquarters and back office facilities), and/or warehouses for storing and distributing products. Concerns such as foot traffic, shopfront visibility, and appealing interior design apply to brick-and-mortar businesses rather than online ones. An online-only business needs to have an attractive, well-designed website, a reliable e-commerce system for payment, a good delivery or shipping service and effective online marketing tactics to drive web traffic to the site. Governments are also adopting e-government approaches, which is the use of online services for citizens to enable them to fill in government forms, pay tax bills and register for government programs online; these services aim to cut bricks and mortar costs (building leasing/purchase and staff costs) and improve services to citizens (by offering 24/7 access to information and services).

Comparison of temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Below is a chronological list of temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) with sortable columns. In the LDS Church, a temple is a building dedicated to be a House of the Lord, and considered by church members to be the most sacred structures on earth. Upon completion, temples are usually open to the public for a short period of time (an "open house"), and then each is dedicated as a "House of the Lord," after which only members in good standing are permitted to enter. Thus, they are not churches or meetinghouses, but rather specialized places of worship. There are 161 dedicated temples (151 currently open; and 10 previously dedicated, but closed for renovation), 12 under construction, and 28 announced (not yet under construction). Within temples, members of the church make covenants, receive instructions, and perform rituals and ordinances. Additionally, members consider the temple a place to commune with God, seek God’s aid, understand His will, and receive personal revelation.

The sortable columns used in this list allow easy comparisons of the different facts and features of each temple. For a list that includes pictures see this list of temples. There is also a list by geographic region with maps.


E-government (short for electronic government) is the use of electronic communications devices, computers and the Internet to provide public services to citizens and other persons in a country or region. According to Jeong, 2007 the term consists of the digital interactions between a citizen and their government (C2G), between governments and other government agencies (G2G), between government and citizens (G2C), between government and employees (G2E), and between government and businesses/commerces (G2B). E-government delivery models can be broken down into the following categories: This interaction consists of citizens communicating with all levels of government (city, state/province, national, and international), facilitating citizen involvement in governance using information and communication technology (ICT) (such as computers and websites) and business process re-engineering (BPR). Brabham and Guth (2017) interviewed the third party designers of e-government tools in North America about the ideals of user interaction that they build into their technologies, which include progressive values, ubiquitous participation, geolocation, and education of the public.Other definitions are more away from technology as an object, to see them simply as facilitators or instruments and focus on specific changes in Public Administration issues, and in the internal transformation of a Government, is the case of the definition that established the specialist technologist Mauro D. Ríos in the paper "In search of a definition of Electronic Government", he says: "Digital Government is a new way of organization and management of public affairs, introducing positive transformational processes in management and the structure itself of the organization chart, adding value to the procedures and services provided, all through the introduction and continued appropriation of information and communication technologies as a facilitator of these transformations."


Estonia (Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsʲti] (listen)), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second most spoken Finnic language.

The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This culminated in independence from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I. Initially democratic, after the Great Depression Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II (1939–1945), Estonia was repeatedly contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany, ultimately being incorporated into the former as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991.

The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union since joining in 2004, the economic monetary Eurozone, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Schengen Area, and of the Western military alliance of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that has been among the fastest-growing in the EU. Estonia ranks very high in the Human Development Index, and performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, education, and press freedom (third in the world in 2012 and 2007). Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care, free education, and the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD. One of the world's most digitally advanced societies, in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, and in 2014 the first state to provide e-residency.


Excavators (hydraulic) are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, dipper (or stick), bucket and cab on a rotating platform known as the "house". The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels. They are a natural progression from the steam shovels and often mistakenly called power shovels. All movement and functions of a hydraulic excavator are accomplished through the use of hydraulic fluid, with hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors. Due to the linear actuation of hydraulic cylinders, their mode of operation is fundamentally different from cable-operated excavators which use winches and steel ropes to accomplish the movements.


Frenchay is a village and suburb of Bristol, England, to the north east of the city, but located mainly in South Gloucestershire and the Civil Parish of Winterbourne.

Frenchay was first recorded in 1257 as Fromscawe and later as Fromeshaw, meaning the wood on the Frome.The village is situated between the B4058 road, which runs parallel to the M32 motorway, and the wooded River Frome valley.

Frenchay's largest place of worship is the Anglican Church of St John the Baptist, adjacent to the large village common, which is overlooked by a number of 18th Century houses principally built by wealthy Quaker families. These include the very fine former Rectory, Bradford's House and the adjacent Frenchay Common House. Also overlooking the common is the village school which dates from 1842. The village also contains a Catholic church, a Quaker Meeting House and a Unitarian chapel.

Cricket was played on Frenchay Common from early in the nineteenth century, apparently on the initiative of the Wadham family who lived at Frenchay Manor House, owned farms locally at Doynton, Pomfrey, Mangotsfield, Downend and Frenchay, and many of whom are buried in the graveyard of St John the Baptist Church.W.G. Grace, the famous Victorian cricketer, whose family lived in the next village of Downend, was captain of the village cricket team. The Frenchay Cricket Club, which is said to have been the first village club in the county, was established in 1846.Frenchay gives its name to the Frenchay Campus of the University of the West of England, though the campus itself is situated in the neighbouring parish of Stoke Gifford.

Frenchay was the home to Frenchay Hospital, greatly expanded during World War II for the US Army, which treated wounded soldiers returning from the D-Day landings in Normandy. Facilities merged with Southmead Hospital, further towards the centre of the city in 2014. A&E services closed on 19 May 2014. The closure of Frenchay Hospital will make way for a new housing development.Frenchay village has lots of green space, including the common, walks along the River Frome, and a moor owned by The National Trust. One of the hubs of the village is the Village Hall, and there is an annual village flower show.Frenchay's earliest place of worship was the Quaker Meeting House. The present one dates from 1809, and it replaced an earlier one of 1670.

Many Quaker merchants from nearby Bristol made their homes here, including Joseph Storrs Fry, the Quaker chocolate manufacturer, who styled his company J S Fry & Sons, which manufactured the first ever commercially available chocolate bar in the world. He moved to Grove House (now Riverwood House) in 1800. He died in 1835 and is buried in the burying ground behind the Meeting House along with his wife and daughter, Pricilla.

John Wadham (1762-1843) of Frenchay Manor House, was from 1789, a co-owner and director of Wadham, Ricketts & Co, later Wadham, Ricketts, Fry & Co, which manufactured Bristol blue glass at the Phoenix Glassworks near Temple Gate, Bristol, examples of which can be seen in Bristol Museum, and was a director of the Bristol Floating Harbour Company in 1820.

His son Thomas Wadham (1797-1849)

was High Sheriff of Bristol in 1843, the year that Isambard Kingdom Brunel launched his ship SS Great Britain in

Bristol Harbour. Thomas Wadham and his son the Rev. John Wadham were active in setting up the Winterbourne National School and his daughters were involved on the school's women's committee.

Thomas's son Edward Wadham (1828-1913), Mineral Agent to Walter Montagu Douglas Scott, 5th Duke of Buccleuch took his skills as a civil engineer who had worked under Brunel and his love of cricket to Barrow-in-Furness where, from 1851 until his death in 1913, he played an important part in the development of what had been a tiny hamlet into the biggest iron and steel centre in the world, and a major ship-building force, in just forty years Frenchay Park, an adjacent suburb, is situated within Bristol city limits.


Haryana (IPA: [ɦərɪˈjaːɳaː]), carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on linguistic as well as on cultural basis, is one of the 29 states in India. Situated in North India with less than 1.4% (44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi)) of India's land area, it is ranked 22nd in terms of area. Chandigarh is the state capital, Faridabad in National Capital Region is the most populous city of the state and Gurugram is a leading financial hub of NCR with major Fortune 500 companies located in it. Haryana has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,848 villages and 6222 villages panchayats.As the largest recipient of investment per capita since 2000 in India, and among one of the wealthiest and most economically developed regions in South Asia, Haryana has the fifth highest per capita income among Indian states and union territories at ₹180,174 (US$2,500) against the national average of ₹112,432 (US$1,600) for year 2016–17. Haryana's 2017-18 estimated state GSDP of US$95 billion (52% services, 34% industries and 14% agriculture) is growing at 12.96% 2012-17 CAGR and placed on the 13th position behind only much bigger states, is also boosted by 30 SEZs (mainly along DMIC, ADKIC and DWPE in NCR), 7% national agricultural exports, 65% of national Basmati rice export, 67% cars, 60% motorbikes, 50% tractors and 50% refrigerators produced in India. Faridabad has been described as eighth fastest growing city in the world and third most in India by City Mayors Foundation survey. In services, Gurugram ranks number 1 in India in IT growth rate and existing technology infrastructure, and number 2 in startup ecosystem, innovation and livability (Nov 2016).Among the world's oldest and largest ancient civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are 9,000 years old. Rich in history, monuments, heritage, flora and fauna, human resources and tourism with well developed economy, national highways and state roads, it is bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north-east, by river Yamuna along its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh, by Rajasthan to the west and south, and Ghaggar-Hakra River flows along its northern border with Punjab. Since Haryana surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides (north, west and south), consequently a large area of Haryana is included in the economically-important National Capital Region for the purposes of planning and development.

Hong Kong Baptist Hospital

Hong Kong Baptist Hospital (HKBH) is a private hospital in Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong. Founded in 1963, it was the first private hospital in Hong Kong. It does not provide accident and emergency (A&E) services. HKBH has more than 860 beds and approximately 2200 staff.HKBH is one of the social service institutions of the Baptist Church Convention of Hong Kong. It is wholly self-financing and non-profit. It provides a wide range of inpatient and outpatient services and is well regarded not only in Hong Kong but also in China. As an example, among Hong Kong's private sector hospitals, HKBH has the most mainland expectant mothers giving birth.HKBH has an active nursing school and is committed to educational development. It is affiliated with the Open University of Hong Kong, which enables nurses to be trained up to the university degree standard Hong Kong Baptist Hospital is involved in international healthcare accreditation, and for many years it has been subjected to rigorous bi-annual survey by the UK's QHA Trent Accreditation Scheme which is a variant of the Trent Accreditation Scheme.

ISO 13567

ISO 13567 is an international Computer-aided design (CAD) layer standard.

List of diplomatic missions in Tunisia

This is a list of diplomatic missions in Tunisia. There are currently 63 embassies in Tunis, and many countries maintain consulates in other Tunisian cities (not including honorary consulates).

List of temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are buildings dedicated to be a House of the Lord, and they are considered by church members to be the most sacred structures on earth. Upon completion, temples are usually open to the public for a short period of time (an "Open House"). During the Open House, the church conducts tours of the temple with missionaries and members from the local area serving as tour guides, and all rooms of the temple are open to the public. The temple is then dedicated as a "House of the Lord," after which only members twelve years of age and older who hold a current temple recommend are permitted entrance; temples are not churches but are places of worship. There are 161 dedicated temples (151 currently open; and 10 previously dedicated, but closed for renovation), 12 under construction, and 28 announced (not yet under construction).

Within temples, members of the church make covenants, receive instructions, and perform sacred ordinances, such as: baptism for the dead, washing and anointing (or "initiatory" ordinances), the "endowment," and eternal marriage sealings. Ordinances are a vital part of the theology of the church, which teaches that they were practiced by the Lord's covenant people in all dispensations. Additionally, members consider the temple a place to commune with God, seek His aid, understand His will, and receive personal revelation.

Manohar Lal Khattar

Manohar Lal Khattar (born 5 May 1954) is a Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) politician, is the 10th Chief Minister of Haryana. He is a former RSS pracharak. He represents Karnal constituency in Haryana Legislative Assembly, and was sworn-in as Chief Minister of Haryana after BJP's win in the Haryana Legislative Assembly election, 2014.

Nordhavn station

Nordhavn station is an S-train station served by the A, H, B, C, and E services in Copenhagen, Denmark. The station opened on 15 May 1934.

In 2013, its underground is being rebuilt to accommodate the City Circle Line metro to Nordhavnen, while maintaining the train traffic.

Participatory media

Participatory media is media where the audience can play an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating content. Citizen / Participatory journalism, citizen media and democratic media are related principles.

Participatory media includes community media, blogs, wikis, RSS, tagging and social bookmarking, music-photo-video sharing, mashups, podcasts, participatory video projects and videoblogs. All together they can be described as "e-services, which involve end-users as active participants in the value creation process". However, "active [...] uses of media are not exclusive to our times". "In the history of mediated communication we can find many variations of participatory practices. For instance, the initial phase of the radio knew many examples of non-professional broadcasters".Marshall MacLuhan discussed the participatory potential of media already in the 1970s but in the era of digital and social media, the theory of participatory culture becomes even more acute as the borders between audiences and media producers are blurring.

Smart city

A smart city is an urban area that uses different types of electronic data collection sensors to supply information which is used to manage assets and resources efficiently. This includes data collected from citizens, devices, and assets that is processed and analyzed to monitor and manage traffic and transportation systems, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, law enforcement, information systems, schools, libraries, hospitals, and other community services. The smart city concept integrates information and communication technology (ICT), and various physical devices connected to the network (the Internet of things or IoT) to optimize the efficiency of city operations and services and connect to citizens. Smart city technology allows city officials to interact directly with both community and city infrastructure and to monitor what is happening in the city and how the city is evolving.

ICT is used to enhance quality, performance and interactivity of urban services, to reduce costs and resource consumption and to increase contact between citizens and government.

Smart city applications are developed to manage urban flows and allow for real-time responses. A smart city may therefore be more prepared to respond to challenges than one with a simple "transactional" relationship with its citizens. Yet, the term itself remains unclear to its specifics and therefore, open to many interpretations.Other terms that have been used for similar concepts include cyberville, digital city, electronic communities, flexicity, information city, intelligent city, knowledge-based city, MESH city, telecity, teletopia, Ubiquitous city, wired city.

Major technological, economic and environmental changes have generated interest in smart cities, including climate change, economic restructuring, the move to online retail and entertainment, ageing populations, urban population growth and pressures on public finances. The European Union (EU) has devoted constant efforts to devising a strategy for achieving 'smart' urban growth for its metropolitan city-regions. The EU has developed a range of programmes under 'Europe's Digital Agenda". In 2010, it highlighted its focus on strengthening innovation and investment in ICT services for the purpose of improving public services and quality of life. Arup estimates that the global market for smart urban services will be $400 billion per annum by 2020. Examples of Smart City technologies and programs have been implemented in Singapore, Dubai, Milton Keynes, Southampton, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Madrid, Stockholm, China and New York.

Television advertisement

A television advertisement (also called a television commercial, commercial, ad, TV advert or simply an advert) is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization. It conveys a message, aimed to market a product or service. Advertisers and marketeers may refer to television commercials as TVCs.Advertising revenue provides a significant portion of the funding for most privately owned television networks. During the 2010s, the number of commercials has grown steadily, while at the same time, the length of each commercial has diminished. Advertisements of this type have promoted a wide variety of goods, services and ideas from early times in the history of television.

The viewership of television programming, as measured by companies such as Nielsen Media Research in the United States, or BARB in the UK, is often used as a metric for television advertisement placement, and consequently, for the rates which broadcasters charge to advertisers to air within a given network, television program, or time of day (called a "daypart").

In many countries, including the United States, television campaign advertisements are considered indispensable for a political campaign. In other countries, such as France, political advertising on television is heavily restricted, while some countries, such as Norway, completely ban political advertisements.

The first official, paid television advertisement came out in the United States on July 1, 1941, over New York station WNBT (subsequently WNBC) before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies. The announcement for Bulova watches, for which the company paid anywhere from $4.00 to $9.00 (reports vary), displayed a WNBT test pattern modified to look like a clock with the hands showing the time. The Bulova logo, with the phrase "Bulova Watch Time", appeared in the lower right-hand quadrant of the test pattern while the second hand swept around the dial for one minute. The first TV ad broadcast in the UK went on air on ITV on September 22, 1955, advertising Gibbs SR toothpaste. In Asia, the first TV ad broadcast appeared on Nippon Television in Tokyo on August 28, 1953, advertising Seikosha (subsequently Seiko); it also displayed a clock with the current time.The television market has grown to such an extent that it is estimated to reach $69.87 billion for TV ad spending in the United States for 2018.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Mexico

Mexico is home to the largest body of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) outside of the United States. The Church claimed 1,197,573 individuals in 2010. In the 2010 census, 314,932 individuals reported belonging to the LDS Church.

Web content

Web content is the textual, visual, or aural content that is encountered as part of the user experience on websites. It may include—among other things—text, images, sounds, videos, and animations.

In Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, Lou Rosenfeld and Peter Morville write, "We define content broadly as 'the stuff in your Web site.' This may include documents, data, applications, e-services, images, audio and video files, personal Web pages, archived e-mail messages, and more. And we include future stuff as well as present stuff."

Web service

The term web service is either

(generic) a service offered by an electronic device to another electronic device, communicating with each other via the World Wide Web, or

(specific) a web service implemented in the particular technology or brand, e.g W3C Web Services.In a web service, the Web technology such as HTTP—originally designed for human-to-machine communication—is utilized for machine-to-machine communication, more specifically for transferring machine-readable file formats such as XML and JSON.

In practice, a web service commonly provides an object-oriented web-based interface to a database server, utilized for example by another web server, or by a mobile app, that provides a user interface to the end user. Many organizations that provide data in formatted HTML pages will also provide that data on their server as XML or JSON, often through a web service to allow syndication, for example Wikipedia's Export. Another application offered to the end user may be a mashup, where a web server consumes several web services at different machines, and compiles the content into one user interface.

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