Any device that can display text on a screen may act as an e-reader, but specialized e-reader devices may optimize portability, readability (especially in sunlight), and battery life for this purpose. Their main advantages over printed books are portability since an e-reader is capable of holding thousands of books while weighing less than one and the convenience provided due to add-on features in these devices.
An e-reader is a device designed as a convenient way to read e-books. It is similar in form factor to a tablet computer, but features electronic paper rather than an LCD screen. This yields much longer battery life — the battery can last for several weeks — and better readability, similar to that of paper even in sunlight. Drawbacks of this kind of display include a slow refresh rate and (usually) a grayscale-only display, which makes it unsuitable for sophisticated interactive applications as those found on tablets. The absence of such apps may be perceived as an advantage, as the user may more easily focus on reading.
The Sony Librie, released in 2004 and the precursor to the Sony Reader, was the first e-reader to use electronic paper. The Ectaco jetBook Color was the first color e-reader on the market, but its muted colors were criticized.
Many e-readers can use the internet through Wi-Fi and the built-in software can provide a link to a digital Open Publication Distribution System (OPDS) library or an e-book retailer, allowing the user to buy, borrow, and receive digital e-books. An e-reader may also download e-books from a computer or read them from a memory card. However, the use of memory cards is decreasing as most of the 2010s era e-readers lack a card slot.
An idea similar to that of an e-reader is described in a 1930 manifesto written by Bob Brown titled The Readies, which describes "a simple reading machine which I can carry or move around, attach to any old electric light plug and read hundred-thousand-word novels in 10 minutes". His hypothetical machine would use a microfilm-style ribbon of miniaturized text which could be scrolled past a magnifying glass, and would allow the reader to adjust the type size. He envisioned that eventually words could be "recorded directly on the palpitating ether".
The establishment of the E Ink Corporation in 1997 led to the development of electronic paper, a technology which allows a display screen to reflect light like ordinary paper without the need for a backlight. The Rocket eBook was the first commercial e-reader and several others were introduced around 1998, but did not gain widespread acceptance. Electronic paper was incorporated first into the Sony Librie that was released in 2004 and Sony Reader in 2006, followed by the Amazon Kindle, a device which, upon its release in 2007, sold out within five and a half hours. The Kindle includes access to the Kindle Store for e-book sales and delivery.
As of 2009, new marketing models for e-books were being developed and a new generation of reading hardware was produced. E-books (as opposed to e-readers) had yet to achieve global distribution. In the United States, as of September 2009, the Amazon Kindle model and Sony's PRS-500 were the dominant e-reading devices. By March 2010, some reported that the Barnes & Noble Nook may be selling more units than the Kindle in the US.
Research released in March 2011 indicated that e-books and e-readers are more popular with the older generation than the younger generation in the UK. The survey carried out by Silver Poll found that around 6% of people over 55 owned an e-reader, compared with just 5% of 18- to 24-year-olds. According to an IDC study from March 2011, sales for all e-readers worldwide rose to 12.8 million in 2010; 48% of them were Amazon Kindles, followed by Barnes & Noble Nooks, Pandigital, and Sony Readers (about 800,000 units for 2010).
On January 27, 2010 Apple Inc. launched a multi-function tablet computer called the iPad and announced agreements with five of the six largest publishers that would allow Apple to distribute e-books. The iPad includes a built-in app for e-book reading called iBooks and had the iBookstore for content sales and delivery. The iPad, the first commercially profitable tablet, was followed in 2011 by the release of the first Android-based tablets as well as LCD tablet versions of the Nook and Kindle; unlike previous dedicated e-readers, tablet computers are multi-function, utilize LCD touchscreen displays, and are more agnostic to e-book vendor apps, allowing for installation of multiple e-book reading apps. The growth in general-purpose tablet use allowed for further growth in popularity of e-books in the 2010s.
In 2012, there was a 26% decline in sales worldwide from a maximum of 23.2 million in 2011. The reason given for this "alarmingly precipitous decline" was the rise of more general purpose tablets that provide e-book reading apps along with many other abilities in a similar form factor. In 2013, ABI Research claimed that the decline in the e-reader market was due to the aging of the customer base. In 2014, the industry reported e-reader sales worldwide to be around 12 million, with only Amazon.com and Kobo Inc. distributing e-readers globally and various regional distribution by Barnes & Noble (US/UK), Tolino (Germany), Icarus (Netherlands), PocketBook International (Eastern Europe and Russia) and Onyx Boox (China). At the end of 2015, eMarketer estimates that there are 83.4 million e-reader users in the US, with the number predicted to grow by 3.5% in 2016. In late 2014, PricewaterhouseCoopers predicted that by 2018 e-books will make up over 50% of total consumer publishing revenue in the U.S. and UK while at that time e-books were over 30% of the share of revenue.
Until late 2013, use of an e-reader was not allowed on airplanes during takeoff and landing. In November 2013, the FAA allowed use of e-readers on airplanes at all times if it is set to be in Airplane Mode, which turns all radios off and Europe followed this guidance the following month.
Many of the major book retailers and third-party developers offer e-reader applications for desktops, tablets and mobile devices, to allow the reading of e-books and other documents independently of dedicated e-book devices. The e-reader applications are available for the Mac and PC computers as well as for Android, iOS and Windows devices.
The introduction of e-readers brought substantial changes to the publishing industry, also awakening fears and predictions about the possible disappearance of books and print periodicals.
The Amazon Kindle is a series of e-readers designed and marketed by Amazon. Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy, download, and read e-books, newspapers, magazines and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store. The hardware platform, developed by Amazon subsidiary Lab126, began as a single device in 2007 and now comprises a range of devices, including e-readers with E Ink electronic paper displays and Kindle applications on all major computing platforms. All Kindle devices integrate with Kindle Store content, and as of March 2018, the store has over six million e-books available in the United States.Baseball (1983 video game)
Baseball is a 1983 video game from Nintendo. Being a launch game for the Nintendo Entertainment System, and the universal appeal of its namesake sport, are said to have made Baseball a key to the system's overall success, and an important piece of Nintendo history.Blio
Blio is a free-to-download e-reader software platform created by Ray Kurzweil that was unveiled at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas in early January 2010. The Blio e-reader preserves typography and supports color illustrations, features that make it particularly effective for certain categories of books not well supported by E Ink, such as cookbooks and children's books. Blio also comes with text-to-speech integration, with support for both a computerized voice and synchronization with professionally recorded audiobooks.Blio iPhone app supports Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) mode which lets you read up to 1000 words per minute with each word presented individually. The reader controls the rate of presentation with a screen thumb dial.
Blio is available for download on Microsoft Windows, Google Android devices with a version optimized for Android 3.0 Honeycomb tablet computers, and Apple iOS devices.
Blio also has a bookstore, backed by Baker & Taylor. It offers thousands of full color books from hundreds of publishers, with reviews and ratings from Goodreads. Library borrowers may download Baker & Taylor ebooks and audiobooks borrowed from public libraries' Axis 360 platform via the Blio app.Comparison of Android e-reader software
The following tables detail e-book reader software for the Android operating system. Each section corresponds to a major area of functionality in an e-book reader software. The comparisons are based on the latest released version.Comparison of iOS e-reader software
The following tables compare general and technical features for a number of iOS e-book reader software. Each section corresponds to a major area of functionality in an e-book reader software. The comparisons are based on the latest released version.Donkey Kong 3
Donkey Kong 3 is the third video game in the original Donkey Kong series by Nintendo. It was released near simultaneously for the arcades and Family Computer, and later released in America on the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1986. The game was re-released on the Wii Virtual Console in North America on July 14, 2008 and in Europe on January 9, 2009. The gameplay departs from previous Donkey Kong games.E-book
An electronic book, also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but also on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones.
In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet, where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems. With print books, readers are increasingly browsing through images of the covers of books on publisher or bookstore websites and selecting and ordering titles online; the paper books are then delivered to the reader by mail or another delivery service. With e-books, users can browse through titles online, and then when they select and order titles, the e-book can be sent to them online or the user can download the e-book. At the start of 2012 in the U.S., more e-books were published online than were distributed in hardcover.The main reasons for people buying e-books online are possibly lower prices, increased comfort (as they can buy from home or on the go with mobile devices) and a larger selection of titles. With e-books, "[e]lectronic bookmarks make referencing easier, and e-book readers may allow the user to annotate pages." "Although fiction and non-fiction books come in e-book formats, technical material is especially suited for e-book delivery because it can be [electronically] searched" for keywords. In addition, for programming books, code examples can be copied. The amount of e-book reading is increasing in the U.S.; by 2014, 28% of adults had read an e-book, compared to 23% in 2013. This is increasing, because by 2014 50% of American adults had an e-reader or a tablet, compared to 30% owning such devices in 2013.Electronic publishing
Electronic publishing (also referred to as e-publishing or digital publishing or online publishing) includes the digital publication of e-books, digital magazines, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues. It also includes an editorial aspect, that consists of editing books, journals or magazines that are mostly destined to be read on a screen (computer, e-reader, tablet, smartphone).Golf (1984 video game)
Golf is a sports-simulation video game developed and released by Nintendo in 1984 for the NES in North America and Family Computer Disk System in Japan. The golfer has been indentified as Mario in supplement materials, albiet not wearing his traditional shirt and overalls. However, the game Captain Rainbow would instead identify the golfer as Ossan which happens to be the one of the generic internal name Mario had during the development of Donkey Kong. Additionally, the Game Boy conversion of this game would feature Mario on the Western cover art, but not the Japanese version.Years after the game's release it appeared in many ports for different Nintendo consoles. It also appeared as an easter egg in the Nintendo Switch firmware as a tribute to Satoru Iwata.Ice Climber
Ice Climber is a vertical platform video game developed and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985. In Ice Climber, the characters Popo and Nana, collectively known as the Ice Climbers, venture up 32 ice-covered mountains to recover stolen vegetables from a giant condor. In some European countries, the NES console was sold bundled with the game, increasing Ice Climber's familiarity outside Japan.
An alternate version was released in the arcades as part of the Vs. series, known as Vs. Ice Climber. It includes gameplay features not found in the home console release, such as an animated title screen, a stage select menu which appears at the start of the game and after completing each level, 16 additional mountains, occasional blizzard and wind effects, more enemy characters, and bonus multiplier items.
The inclusion of Nana and Popo as playable characters in the 2001 GameCube title Super Smash Bros. Melee brought the game renewed attention. Nintendo released a version of the game for the Nintendo e-Reader in 2002.Kobo eReader
The Kobo eReader is an e-reader produced by Toronto-based Kobo Inc. The company's name is an anagram of "book". The original version was released in May 2010 and was marketed as a minimalist alternative to the more expensive e-book readers available at the time. Like most e-readers, the Kobo uses an electronic ink screen (but for the Arc 10HD tablet, released between 2011 and 2013, based on LCD technology instead).Mario Bros.
Mario Bros. is a platform game published and developed for arcades by Nintendo in 1983. It was created by Shigeru Miyamoto. It has been featured as a minigame in the Super Mario Advance series and numerous other games. Mario Bros. has been re-released for the Wii's, Nintendo 3DS's, and Wii U's Virtual Console services in Japan, North America, Europe and Australia.
In the game, Mario is portrayed as an Italian-American plumber who, along with his brother Luigi, has to defeat creatures that have been coming from the sewers. The gameplay focuses on Mario and Luigi exterminating the creatures by flipping them on their backs and kicking them away. The original versions of Mario Bros.—the arcade version and the Family Computer/Nintendo Entertainment System (FC/NES) version—were received positively by critics.Nintendo e-Reader
The e-Reader (カードeリーダー, Kādo-Ī-Rīdā, Card-e-Reader) is an add-on made by Nintendo for its Game Boy Advance portable video game system. It was released in Japan in December 2001, with a North American release following in September 2002. It has an LED scanner that reads "e-Reader cards", paper cards with specially encoded data printed on them.
Depending on the card and associated game, the e-cards are typically used in a key-like function to unlock secret items, levels, or play mini-games when swiped through the reader. The cards themselves contain data, as opposed to unlocking data already on the device itself.Pinball (video game)
Pinball is a 1983 pinball video game developed and released by Nintendo for their Nintendo Entertainment System. It is based on a Game & Watch unit of the same name. In 1985, it reached North America as one of 18 launch titles.PocketBook International
PocketBook is a multinational company which produces e-book readers based on E Ink technology (an electronic paper technology) under the PocketBook brand.
The company was founded in 2007 in Kyiv, Ukraine by Oleg Naumenko. Its headquarters is located at Lugano in Switzerland.Rocket eBook
The Rocket eBook is an early commercial handheld e-reader that was produced by NuvoMedia in late 1998; it uses a LCD screen and can store up to ten e-books. E-books are loaded on the device by connecting it to a computer and the device has two page turn buttons. Rocket-compatible e-books were sold online at Barnes & Noble and Powell's Bookstore. It had a retail price of $499.
The Rocket eBook was manufactured by NuvoMedia until 2000, when it was purchased by Gemstar-TV Guide International for $187 million. After purchasing NuvoMedia and merging it with SoftBook, Gemstar released an e-reader called the RCA eBook Reader.Tennis (1984 video game)
Tennis is a sports game developed and released by Nintendo for the NES. In North America and Europe, Tennis was one of 18 launch games for the NES. The game was also later released for the Game Boy as a launch title in North America.Tolino
Tolino is a brand name of e-readers and tablets marketed by leading booksellers in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland in cooperation with Deutsche Telekom. Since 2014, the e-reader has also been available in Belgium, Netherlands, and Italy.It was purchased in January 2017 by Rakuten Kobo Inc.