Dystopia

A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- "bad" and τόπος "place"; alternatively, cacotopia,[1] kakotopia, or simply anti-utopia) is a community or society that is undesirable or frightening.[2][3] It is translated as "not-good place" and is an antonym of utopia, a term that was coined by Sir Thomas More and figures as the title of his best known work, Utopia, published 1516, a blueprint for an ideal society with minimal crime, violence and poverty.

Dystopian societies appear in many fictional works and artistic representations particularly in stories set in the future. Some of the most famous examples are George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxley's Brave New World. Dystopias are often characterized by dehumanization,[2] tyrannical governments, environmental disaster,[3] or other characteristics associated with a cataclysmic decline in society. Dystopian societies appear in many sub-genres of fiction and are often used to draw attention to society, environment, politics, economics, religion, psychology, ethics, science or technology. Some authors use the term to refer to existing societies, many of which are or have been totalitarian states or societies in an advanced state of collapse.

Some scholars, such as Gregory Claeys and Lyman Tower Sargent, make certain distinctions between typical synonyms of dystopias. For example, Claeys and Sargent define literary dystopias as societies imagined as substantially worse than the society in which the author writes, whereas anti-utopias function as criticisms of attempts to implement various concepts of utopia.[4]

Etymology

Though several earlier usages are known, dystopia was used as an antonym for Utopia by John Stuart Mill in one of his Parliamentary Speeches 1868 (Hansard Commons) by adding the prefix "dys" (Ancient Greek: δυσ- "bad"), reinterpreting the initial U as the prefix "eu" (Ancient Greek: ευ- "good") instead of "ou" (Ancient Greek: οὐ "not").[5][6] It was used to denounce the government's Irish land policy: "It is, perhaps, too complimentary to call them Utopians, they ought rather to be called dys-topians, or caco-topians. What is commonly called Utopian is something too good to be practicable; but what they appear to favour is too bad to be practicable".[7][8][9][10]

Decades before the first documented use of the word "dystopia" was "cacotopia" (using Ancient Greek: κακόs, "bad, wicked") originally proposed in 1818 by Jeremy Bentham, "As a match for utopia (or the imagined seat of the best government) suppose a cacotopia (or the imagined seat of the worst government) discovered and described".[11][12] Though dystopia became the most popular term, cacotopia finds occasional use; Anthony Burgess, author of A Clockwork Orange, said it was a better fit for Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four because "it sounds worse than dystopia".[13]

Common theme

Politics

In When the Sleeper Wakes, H. G. Wells depicted the governing class as hedonistic and shallow.[14] George Orwell contrasted Wells's world to that depicted in Jack London's The Iron Heel, where the dystopian rulers are brutal and dedicated to the point of fanaticism, which Orwell considered more plausible.[15]

The political principles at the root of fictional utopias (or "perfect worlds") are idealistic in principle and result in positive consequences for the inhabitants; the political principles on which fictional dystopias are based, while often based on utopian ideals, result in negative consequences for inhabitants because of at least one fatal flaw.[16][17]

Dystopias are often filled with pessimistic views of the ruling class or a government that is brutal or uncaring, ruling with an "iron fist". Dystopian governments are sometimes ruled by a fascist regime or dictator. These dystopian government establishments often have protagonists or groups that lead a "resistance" to enact change within their society, as is seen in Alan Moore's V for Vendetta.[18]

Dystopian political situations are depicted in novels such as We, Parable of the Sower, Darkness at Noon, Nineteen Eighty-Four, Brave New World, The Hunger Games, Divergent and Fahrenheit 451 and such films as Metropolis, Brazil, Battle Royale, FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions, Soylent Green and The Running Man.

Economics

The economic structures of dystopian societies in literature and other media have many variations, as the economy often relates directly to the elements that the writer is depicting as the source of the oppression. There are several archetypes that such societies tend to follow. A theme is the dichotomy of planned economies versus free market economies, a conflict which is found in such works as Ayn Rand's Anthem and Henry Kuttner's short story "The Iron Standard". Another example of this is reflected in Norman Jewison's 1975 film Rollerball.

Some dystopias, such as that of Nineteen Eighty-Four, feature black markets with goods that are dangerous and difficult to obtain or the characters may be at the mercy of the state-controlled economy. Kurt Vonnegut's Player Piano depicts a dystopia in which the centrally controlled economic system has indeed made material abundance plentiful but deprived the mass of humanity of meaningful labor; virtually all work is menial, unsatisfying and only a small number of the small group that achieves education is admitted to the elite and its work.[19] In Tanith Lee's Don't Bite the Sun, there is no want of any kind – only unabashed consumption and hedonism, leading the protagonist to begin looking for a deeper meaning to existence.[20] Even in dystopias where the economic system is not the source of the society's flaws, as in Brave New World, the state often controls the economy; a character, reacting with horror to the suggestion of not being part of the social body, cites as a reason that everyone works for everyone else.[21]

Other works feature extensive privatization and corporatism; both consequences of capitalism, where privately owned and unaccountable large corporations have replaced the government in setting policy and making decisions. They manipulate, infiltrate, control, bribe, are contracted by and function as government. This is seen in the novels Jennifer Government and Oryx and Crake and the movies Alien, Avatar, RoboCop, Visioneers, Idiocracy, Soylent Green, THX 1138, WALL-E and Rollerball. Corporate republics common in the cyberpunk genre, as in Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash and Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (as well as the film Blade Runner, influenced by Dick's novel).

Class

Dystopian fiction frequently draws stark contrasts between the privileges of the ruling class and the dreary existence of the working class. In the novel Brave New World, written in 1931 by Aldous Huxley, a class system is prenatally determined with Alphas, Betas, Gammas, Deltas and Epsilons, with the lower classes having reduced brain-function and special conditioning to make them satisfied with their position in life.[22] Outside of this society there also exist several human settlements that exist in the conventional way but which the class system describe as "savages".

In Ypsilon Minus by Herbert W. Franke, people are divided into numerous alphabetically ranked groups.

Family

Some fictional dystopias, such as Brave New World and Fahrenheit 451, have eradicated the family and keep it from re-establishing itself as a social institution. In Brave New World, where children are reproduced artificially, the concepts "mother" and "father" are considered obscene. In some novels, the State is hostile to motherhood; in Nineteen Eighty-Four, children are organized to spy on their parents and in We, by Yevgeny Zamyatin, the escape of a pregnant woman from One State is a revolt.[23]

Religion

Religious groups play the role of the oppressed and oppressors. In Brave New World the establishment of the state included lopping off the tops of all crosses (as symbols of Christianity) to make them "T"s, (as symbols of Henry Ford's Model T).[24] Margaret Atwood's novel The Handmaid's Tale takes place in a future United States under a Christian-based theocratic regime.[25] One of the earliest examples of this theme is Robert Hugh Benson's Lord of the World, about a futuristic world where the Freemasons have taken over the world and the only other religion left is a Roman Catholic minority.

Identity

In the Russian novel We by Yevgeny Zamyatin, first published in 1921, people are permitted to live out of public view twice a week for one hour and are only referred to by numbers instead of names. In some dystopian works, such as Kurt Vonnegut's Harrison Bergeron, society forces individuals to conform to radical egalitarian social norms that discourage or suppress accomplishment or even competence as forms of inequality.

Violence

Violence is prevalent in many dystopias, often in the form of war; urban crimes led by gangs (often of teenagers) (e.g. A Clockwork Orange) rampant crime met by blood sports (e.g. Battle Royale, The Running Man, The Hunger Games and Divergent). Also explained in Suzanne Berne's essay "Ground Zero", where she explains her experience of the aftermath of 11 September 2001.[26]

Nature

Fictional dystopias are commonly urban and frequently isolate their characters from all contact with the natural world.[27] Sometimes they require their characters to avoid nature, as when walks are regarded as dangerously anti-social in Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451, as well as within Bradbury's short story "The Pedestrian". In C. S. Lewis's That Hideous Strength, science coordinated by government is directed toward the control of nature and the elimination of natural human instincts. In Brave New World, the lower class is conditioned to be afraid of nature but also to visit the countryside and consume transport and games to promote economic activity.[28] Lois Lowry's "The Giver" shows a society where technology and the desire to create a utopia has led humanity to enforce climate control on the environment, as well as to eliminate many undomesticated species and to provide psychological and pharmaceutical repellent against human instincts. E. M. Forster's "The Machine Stops" depicts a highly changed global environment which forces people to live underground due to an atmospheric contamination.[29] As Angel Galdon-Rodriguez points out, this sort of isolation caused by external toxic hazard is later used by Hugh Howey in his series of dystopias of the Silo Series.[30]

Excessive pollution that destroys nature is common in many dystopian films, such as The Matrix, RoboCop, WALL-E, and Soylent Green. A few "green" fictional dystopias do exist, such as in Michael Carson's short story "The Punishment of Luxury", and Russell Hoban's Riddley Walker. The latter is set in the aftermath of nuclear war, "a post-nuclear holocaust Kent, where technology has reduced to the level of the Iron Age".[31]

Science and technology

Contrary to the technologically utopian claims, which view technology as a beneficial addition to all aspects of humanity, technological dystopia concerns itself with and focuses largely (but not always) on the negative effects caused by new technology.[32]

Typical dystopian claims

1. Technologies reflect and encourage the worst aspects of human nature.[32] Jaron Lanier, a digital pioneer, has become a technological dystopian. “I think it’s a way of interpreting technology in which people forgot taking responsibility,” he says.

“‘Oh, it’s the computer that did it, not me.’ ‘There’s no more middle class? Oh, it’s not me. The computer did it’” (Lanier). This quote explains that people begin to not only blame the technology for the changes in lifestyle but also believe that technology is an omnipotence. It also points to a technological determinist perspective in terms of reification.[33]

2. Technologies harm our interpersonal communication, relationships, and communities.[34]

  • decrease in communication within family members and friend groups due to increased time in technology use
  • virtual space misleadingly heightens the impact of real presence; people resort to technological medium for communication nowadays

3. Technologies reinforce hierarchies - concentrate knowledge and skills; increase surveillance and erode privacy; widen inequalities of power and wealth; giving up control to machines). Douglas Rushkoff, a technological utopian, states in his article that the professional designers “re-mystified” the computer so it wasn’t so readable anymore; users had to depend on the special programs built into the software that was incomprehensible for normal users.[32]

4. New technologies are sometimes regressive (worse than previous technologies).[32]

5. The unforeseen impacts of technology are negative.[32] “ ‘The most common way is that there’s some magic artificial intelligence in the sky or in the cloud or something that knows how to translate, and what a wonderful thing that this is available for free. But there’s another way to look at it, which is the technically true way: You gather a ton of information from real live translators who have translated phrases… It’s huge but very much like Facebook, it’s selling people back to themselves… [With translation] you’re producing this result that looks magical but in the meantime, the original translators aren’t paid for their work… You’re actually shrinking the economy.’”[34]

6. More efficiency and choices can harm our quality of life (by causing stress, destroying jobs, making us more materialistic).[35] In his article “Prest-o! Change-o!,” technological dystopian James Gleick mentions the remote control being the classic example of technology that does not solve the problem “it is meant to solve.” Gleick quotes Edward Tenner, a historian of technology, that the ability and ease of switching channels by the remote control serves to increase distraction for the viewer. Then it is only expected that people will become more dissatisfied with the channel they are watching.[35]

7. New technologies cannot solve problems of old technologies or just create new problems.[32] The remote control example explains this claim as well, for the increase in laziness and dissatisfaction levels was clearly not a problem in times without the remote control. He also takes social psychologist Robert Levine’s example of Indonesians “‘whose main entertainment consists of watching the same few plays and dances, month after month, year after year,’ and with Nepalese Sherpas who eat the same meals of potatoes and tea through their entire lives. The Indonesians and Sherpas are perfectly satisfied.” Because of the invention of the remote control, it merely created more problems.[35]

8. Technologies destroy nature (harming human health and the environment). The need for business replaced community and the “story online” replaced people as the “soul of the Net.” Because information was now able to be bought and sold, there was not as much communication taking place.[32]

In society

Zbigniew Libera - Wyjście ludzi z miast (2010)
People Leaving the Cities, artwork by Zbigniew Libera picturing a dystopian future in which people leave dying metropolises

Dystopias typically reflect contemporary sociopolitical realities and extrapolate worst-case scenarios as warnings for necessary social change or caution.[36] Dystopian fictions invariably reflect the concerns and fears of its contemporaneous culture.[37] Due to this they are a subject of social studies. Syreeta McFadden notes that contemporary dystopian literature and films increasingly pull their inspiration from the worst imaginings of ourselves and present reality, making it often hard to distinguish between entertainment and reality.[36]

In a 1967 study Frank Kermode suggests that the failure of religious prophecies led to a shift in how society apprehends this ancient mode. Christopher Schmidt notes that while the world goes to waste for future generations we distract ourselves from disaster by passively watching it as entertainment.[38]

In recent years there has seen a surge of popular dystopian young adult literature and blockbuster films.[39][38] Theo James, actor in Divergent, notes that "young people in particular have such a fascination with this kind of story", saying "It's becoming part of the consciousness. You grow up in a world where it's part of the conversation all the time – the statistics of our planet warming up. The environment is changing. The weather is different. There are things that are very visceral and very obvious, and they make you question the future and how we will survive. It's so much a part of everyday life that young people inevitably — consciously or not — are questioning their futures and how the Earth will be. I certainly do. I wonder what kind of world my children's kids will live in."[39]

Some have commented on this trend, saying that "it is easier to imagine the end of the world than it is to imagine the end of capitalism".[40][41][42][43]

See also

References

  1. ^ Cacotopia (from κακός kakos "bad") was the term used by Jeremy Bentham in his 10th century works ("Dystopia". Archived from the original on 26 March 2006. Retrieved 2006-03-19. [1])
  2. ^ a b "Definition of "dystopia"". Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, Inc. 2012.
  3. ^ a b "Definition of "dystopia"". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2012.
  4. ^ "The Utopia Reader".
  5. ^ Tisdall, Nigel (4 November 2016). "Postcard from Belgium: the birthplace of utopia". Financial Times. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  6. ^ Mill, John Stuart (1988). Public and parliamentary speeches - Part I - November 1850 - November 1868. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-415-03791-3. Retrieved 2015-02-16.
  7. ^ Cf. "Dystopia Timeline" Archived 3 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine, in Exploring Dystopia, "edited and designed by Niclas Hermansson; Contributors: Acolyte of Death ('Gattaca'), John Steinbach ('Nuclear Nightmare'), [and] David Clements ('From Dystopia to Myopia')" (hem.passagen.se), Niclas Hermansson, n.d., Web, 22 May 2009.
  8. ^ "Dystopia". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a "dystopia" is: "An imaginary place or condition in which everything is as bad as possible; opp. UTOPIA (cf. CACOTOPIA). So dystopian n., one who advocates or describes a dystopia; dystopian a., of or pertaining to a dystopia; dystopianism, dystopian quality or characteristics." The example of first usage given in the OED (1989 ed.) refers to the 1868 speech by John Stuart Mill quoted above. Other examples given in the OED include:

    1952 NEGLEY & PATRICK Quest for Utopia xvii. 298 The Mundus Alter et Idem [of Joseph Hall] is...the opposite of eutopia, the ideal society: it is a dystopia, if it is permissible to coin a word. 1962 C. WALSH From Utopia to Nightmare 11 The 'dystopia' or 'inverted utopia'. Ibid. 12 Stories...that seemed in their dystopian way to be saying something important. Ibid. ii. 27 A strand of utopianism or dystopianism. 1967 Listener 5 Jan. 22 The modern classics Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty Four are dystopias. They describe not a world we should like to live in, but one we must be sure to avoid. 1968 New Scientist 11 July 96/3 It is a pleasant change to read some hope for our future is trevor ingram ... I fear that our real future is more likely to be dystopian.

  9. ^ "ADJOURNED DEBATE. (Hansard, 12 March 1868)". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
  10. ^ See also Michael S. Roth, "A Dystopia of the Spirit" 230ff., Chap. 15 in Jörn Rüsen, Michael Fehr, and Thomas Rieger, eds., Thinking Utopia, Google Books Preview, n.d., Web, 22 May 2009.
  11. ^ κακόs, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  12. ^ Bentham, Jeremy. (1818). Plan of Parliamentary Reform, in the form of a catechism.
  13. ^ Beaumont, Matthew. (2006). Cacotopianism, the Paris Commune, and England's Anti-Communist Imaginary, 1870-1900. ELH, 73(2): 465-487.
  14. ^ William Steinhoff, "Utopia Reconsidered: Comments on 1984" 153, in Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, eds., No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. ISBN 0-8093-1113-5.
  15. ^ William Steinhoff, "Utopia Reconsidered: Comments on 1984" 147, in Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, eds., No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. ISBN 0-8093-1113-5.
  16. ^ "Utopia", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed., 2004, Dictionary.com, Web, 11 Feb. 2007.
  17. ^ Mary Ellen Snodgrass, Encyclopedia of Utopian Literature, ABC-Clio Literary Companion Ser. (Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio Inc., 1995) xii. ISBN 0-87436-757-3 (10). ISBN 978-0-87436-757-7 (13).
  18. ^ Jane Donawerth, "Genre Blending and the Critical Dystopia", in Dark Horizons: Science Fiction and the Dystopian Imagination, ed. Raffaella Baccolini and Tom Moylan (New York: Routledge, 2003).
  19. ^ Howard P. Segal, "Vonnegut's Player Piano: An Ambiguous Technological Dystopia," 163 in Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, eds., No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. ISBN 0-8093-1113-5.
  20. ^ Lee, Tanith. Don't Bite the Sun. Bantam Books:1999.
  21. ^ William Matter, "On Brave New World" 98, in Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, eds., No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. ISBN 0-8093-1113-5.
  22. ^ William Matter, "On Brave New World" 95, in Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, eds., No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. ISBN 0-8093-1113-5.
  23. ^ Gorman Beauchamp, "Zamiatin's We" 70, in Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, eds., No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. ISBN 0-8093-1113-5.
  24. ^ William Matter, "On Brave New World" 94, in Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, eds., No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. ISBN 0-8093-1113-5.
  25. ^ Margaret Atwood, The Handmaid's Tale, McClelland and Stewart, 1985. ISBN 0-7710-0813-9.
  26. ^ Berne, Suzanne. "Patterns for College Writing". Ground Zero: 182.
  27. ^ "Avatism and Utopia" 4, in Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, eds., No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction.ISBN 0-8093-1113-5.
  28. ^ Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World.
  29. ^ Galdon Rodriguez, Angel (2014). "Urban and Natural Spaces in Dystopian Literature Depicted as Opposed Scenarios". Ángulo Recto. Revista de estudios sobre la ciudad como espacio plural. 6 (2). doi:10.5209/rev_ANRE.2014.v6.n2.47585.
  30. ^ Galdon Rodriguez, Angel (2014-12-19). "Espacios urbanos y naturales como escenarios opuestos en la literatura distópica". Ángulo Recto. Revista de estudios sobre la ciudad como espacio plural. 6 (2): 85–100. doi:10.5209/rev_ANRE.2014.v6.n2.47585. ISSN 1989-4015.
  31. ^ Self, W. (2002) p. V of introduction to Hoban, R. (2002)[1980] Riddley Walker. Bloomsbury, London.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g Rushkoff, D. (2002). Renaissance Now! Media Ecology and the New Global Narrative.Explorations in Media Ecology, 1(1), 21-32.
  33. ^ Chandler, D. (2013, July 3). Technological or Media Determinism. Retrieved March 2, 2015, from http://visual-memory.co.uk/daniel/Documents/tecdet/tdet05.html
  34. ^ a b Rosenbaum, R. (2013, January 1). What Turned Jaron Lanier Against the Web? Retrieved March 2, 2015, from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/what-turned-jaron-lanier-against-the-web-165260940/?all&no-ist
  35. ^ a b c Heitman, B. (2011, April 13). The Information: A History, A Theory, A Flood.(Books)(Book review). The Christian Science Monitor, 146-150.
  36. ^ a b "Dystopian stories used to reflect our anxieties. Now they reflect our reality". The Guardian. 26 October 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  37. ^ "Dystopia facts, information, pictures". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  38. ^ a b "Why are Dystopian Films on the Rise Again?". JSTOR Daily. 19 November 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  39. ^ a b "Why Do We Love Dystopian Stories So Much? The Cast of Divergent Explains". Time. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  40. ^ Baker, Stephen; McLaughlin, Greg (1 January 2015). "From Belfast to Bamako: Cinema in the Era of Capitalist Realism". Ireland and Cinema. Palgrave Macmillan UK: 107–116. doi:10.1057/9781137496362_10.
  41. ^ Shaviro, Steven. Post Cinematic Affect. John Hunt Publishing. ISBN 9781846944314. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  42. ^ Allen, Kieran. Marx and the Alternative to Capitalism. Lulu Press, Inc. ISBN 9781312382626. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  43. ^ Hassler-Forest, Dan. Capitalist Superheroes: Caped Crusaders in the Neoliberal Age. John Hunt Publishing. ISBN 9781780991795. Retrieved 3 March 2017.

External links

5 Songs (Iced Earth EP)

5 Songs is a promotional EP by the American heavy metal band Iced Earth. Originally released on September 19, 2011, as a part of the October 2011 issue of Rock Hard magazine, the EP contained three live recordings from 2007, an interview, as well as two new songs from the band's then yet-to-be-released tenth studio album Dystopia.

Canthus

Canthus (pl. canthi, palpebral commissures) is either corner of the eye where the upper and lower eyelids meet. More specifically, the inner and outer canthi are, respectively, the medial and lateral ends/angles of the palpebral fissure.

The bicanthal plane is the transversal plane linking both canthi and defines the upper boundary of the midface.

Asians eyes tend to have the inner canthus veiled by the epicanthus. In Caucasians the inner corner tends to be exposed completely.

Chris Adler

Christopher James Adler (born November 23, 1972) is an American drummer, best known as a member and founder of the groove metal band Lamb of God, and Grammy Award winning member of Megadeth. He became a member of thrash metal band Megadeth from 2015-2016, playing on their fifteenth album Dystopia and performed most live touring dates in support of that album. In his 5th Grammy nomination, "Dystopia" won Chris his first Grammy Award for the Best Metal Performance at the 59th Grammy Awards.

In 2006 Adler collaborated with revered progressive guitarist Ron Jarzombek beginning the project Blotted Science.

In 2013, Adler moved to Toronto, Canada for 6 weeks and recorded and helped write the album "Volition" with the progressive metal band Protest the Hero. The album went on to win and provide Chris his first Juno Award (Canadian equivalent to the US Grammy)

In 2014 he contributed several drum tracks to the Testament album Dark Roots of the Earth.

In 2016 Adler recorded three songs with Jim Gillette, Michael Angelo Batio, and Victor Wooten in a California studio for a Nitro reunion album.

As of October 2017, he left the Nitro reunion project to focus on a mid-2018 release and tour with Lamb of God.

He is the elder brother of Lamb of God bandmate and guitarist Willie Adler.

Chris played in several local bands including Calibra, Jettison Charlie, and Grouser before founding Lamb of God in 1994.

Adler is pescatarian and has worked with PETA.

He is recognized by his left-handed playing on a right-handed kit, his use of the heel-toe technique, his unusual approach to the drum kit.

Deinonychus (band)

Deinonychus is a Dutch doom metal band formed in 1992 by Marco Kehren. There is a close relationship between Deinonychus and the German band Bethlehem: Kehren provided vocals on S.U.I.Z.I.D., Reflektionen auf's Sterben and Profane Fetmilch Lenzt Elf Krank, while Bethlehem bassist and lyricist Jürgen Bartsch joined Deinonychus in 2005. The first three albums and the early demos released as

After the rain falls...an empty sky remains feature Kehren on all instruments and vocals; 1999's Deinonychus added Cradle of Filth drummer William Sarginson, and 2002's Mournument was recorded with a full band.

The band announced that they disbanded in September 2008.

Marco Kehren nowadays runs a martial industrial band by the name of Nihil Novi Sub Sole (Band). Warfare

Deinonychus revived in 2016 with a new line up consisting of Marco Kehren (Guitars,Bass,Vocals)/ Steve Wolz(Drums) and Markus Stock(Keyboards). The band has recorded a new album called "Ode to Acts of Murder, Dystopia and Suicide" to be released on My Kingdom Music worldwide in October 2017.

Dystopia (Babes in Toyland album)

Dystopia is a compilation album consisting of earlier albums, Spanking Machine, To Mother, and the Handsome & Gretel single recorded by Babes in Toyland. It was released in 1994 by Insipid Records.

Dystopia (Iced Earth album)

Dystopia is the tenth studio album by American heavy metal band Iced Earth. Released on October 17, 2011, it was the band's first album to feature vocalist Stu Block, who joined after previous vocalist Matt Barlow left the band. Dystopia was also the only Iced Earth studio album to feature bassist Freddie Vidales and drummer Brent Smedley until his return in 2015.

The album was recorded during the summer of 2011 at Morrisound Recording, with co-producer Jim Morris. While not a concept album, many of the album's songs are inspired by dystopian themes and films, very much like the group's 2001 album Horror Show, which was largely inspired by horror films and other similar subjects. Two songs off of Dystopia (the title track and "Tragedy and Triumph") feature the return of rhythm guitarist Jon Schaffer's Something Wicked concept, which has appeared on many of the band's previous albums.During its first week, the album sold over 6,000 copies in the United States and charted in eight countries, including Germany, Finland and the UK. The album was met with a very positive response, with some critics calling it one of Iced Earth's best albums. Many also praised Stu Block's performance and wide vocal range. Dystopia was followed by an extensive world tour which included dates in countries that Iced Earth had never played before, including Cyprus, China and Australia.

Dystopia (Megadeth album)

Dystopia is the fifteenth studio album by American thrash metal band Megadeth. It was released on frontman and guitarist Dave Mustaine's Tradecraft label via Universal on January 22, 2016. The album was produced by Mustaine and Chris Rakestraw and features cover artwork by Brent Elliot White.

Prior to Dystopia's recording, longtime drummer Shawn Drover and guitarist Chris Broderick announced their departure from the band. It is the first album by the band since 2004's The System Has Failed not to feature the former, and the first not to feature the latter since 2007's United Abominations. These roles have been filled by Lamb of God drummer Chris Adler and Angra guitarist Kiko Loureiro, respectively.

Following the lukewarm response to the band's previous album, 2013's Super Collider, Dystopia received largely favorable reaction from critics, being considered a return to form for the band. The album holds a Metacritic score of 69/100 as of August 2016. The album debuted at number three on the Billboard 200 chart, making Dystopia the band's second highest charting album in the U.S. after Countdown to Extinction, which peaked at number two in 1992. Additionally, the title track earned the band its first Grammy win (for Best Metal Performance) at the 59th Grammy Awards after eleven unsuccessful nominations.

Dystopia (Midnight Juggernauts album)

Dystopia is the debut album by Australian electronic band Midnight Juggernauts, released in August 2007 by record label Siberia.

Dystopia (band)

Dystopia was an American crust punk group that formed in Oakland, California in 1991. Dystopia was popular in both the heavy metal and crust punk scenes, due in large part to the band's bleak, misanthropic imagery. Dystopia's lyrics often dealt with human emotions and social or political issues such as environmentalism, racial equality, substance abuse, and animal rights. Their music utilized the slow, heavy sound of sludge metal whilst including more up-beat elements drawing from crust punk, grindcore, and noise rock.

Dystopia (video game)

Dystopia is a team-based, objective-driven, first-person shooter video game, developed as a total conversion modification on the Valve's proprietary Source engine. It is based on the cyberpunk literary and aesthetic genre; it is somewhat based on popular role-playing game Shadowrun, created by an amateur development team and released to the public for free. Its first playable build was released on September 9, 2005, after a year of planning and nine months of development. The first full version of Dystopia, Version 1, was released after 3 years of development on February 25, 2007. The latest unofficial fan update of Dystopia, version 1.5.2., was released on February 18, 2018, as a direct download from Steam, utilizing Valve's Steamworks framework.

Dystopia has been received positively from critics, with praise being given for its graphical quality, unique meatspace/cyberspace gameplay, overall polish and its representation of cyberspace. Criticisms of Dystopia were aimed at how inaccessible the game is at first, and its learning curve. The game has won several awards, including Best Mod for Half-Life 2 from the Independent Games Festival's Modding Competition.

Dystopia World Tour

The Dystopia World Tour is a worldwide concert tour by the American heavy metal group Iced Earth, in support of their 2011 album Dystopia. The tour was the band's first to feature vocalist Stu Block, who joined the band in early 2011, and the last to feature bassist Freddie Vidales, who left the band on April 13, 2012. For the remainder of the tour, Vidales was replaced by Luke Appleton from Fury UK.The tour kicked off on October 30, 2011, in Bochum, Germany. Prior to the release of the accompanied album, the tour was named "the most extensive world tour Iced Earth has ever undertaken" and that it would take the band "to countries it has never previously played". Subsequently, the Dystopia World Tour featured Iced Earth's first-ever shows in Australia and China. The band was also scheduled to play their first Indian show on June 16, 2012, but due to visa issues, was forced to cancel.During the first North American leg, the tour also featured a co-headlining portion with Symphony X, from January 31, to March 10, 2012. During the second North American leg, Iced Earth (along with Hellyeah) supported Danish band Volbeat.During the first European leg of the Dystopia World Tour, Iced Earth was supported by White Wizzard and Fury UK (White Wizzard was forced to drop off the tour after November 27, due to financial difficulties, but Fury UK remained until December 11, 2011). During the tour's first North American leg, Iced Earth was supported by Warbringer. Evergrey, Steel Engraved and Deadshape Figure supported Iced Earth during the third European leg.Iced Earth also recorded a new live album on August 19, 2012 in Cyprus.

Iced Earth

Iced Earth is an American heavy metal band from Tampa, Florida. It was formed in 1984 under the name the Rose, then Purgatory by guitarist and main songwriter Jon Schaffer and original drummer Greg Seymour. Iced Earth released their debut album in 1990 and have since released thirteen studio albums, four EPs, three compilations, three box sets, three live albums and eleven music videos.

After releasing their first two studio albums in 1990 and 1991, respectively, Iced Earth took a three-year layoff from 1992 to 1995, after which the band returned with new lead vocalist Matt Barlow. Iced Earth went on to release four studio albums with Barlow between 1995 and 2001, respectively; 1995's Burnt Offerings, 1996's The Dark Saga, 1998's Something Wicked This Way Comes and 2001's Horror Show.

After Horror Show, Barlow quit the band and joined the police force, while Iced Earth continued on with Tim "Ripper" Owens, of Judas Priest fame, on vocals. With Owens, the band released two studio albums (2004's The Glorious Burden and 2007's Framing Armageddon). In late 2007, Matt Barlow rejoined the band. Iced Earth recorded the album The Crucible of Man with Barlow in 2008. In 2011, Barlow left the band again. Later that year, Into Eternity frontman Stu Block became Iced Earth's new lead vocalist. Dystopia, Block's first album with the group, was released in October 2011. It received a positive response; some critics called Dystopia one of Iced Earth's best albums. Block's second album with the group, Plagues of Babylon, was released in January 2014.

Before arriving at their current lineup, Iced Earth has had numerous line-up changes, with founder Jon Schaffer staying as the last remaining member. As of 2013, there have been over twenty musicians in and out of Iced Earth since its formation in 1985 (see: List of Iced Earth band members for more details). Currently, the band is composed of rhythm guitarist Jon Schaffer, lead singer Stu Block, bassist Luke Appleton, drummer Brent Smedley, and lead guitarist Jake Dreyer.

Jeff Loomis

Jeff Loomis (born September 14, 1971) is an American musician, best known for his role as lead guitarist in the progressive metal band Nevermore. In November 2014, it was announced he was to be the new guitarist for Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy.

List of dystopian comics

This is a list of dystopian comics.

20th Century Boys by Naoki Urasawa; the second half of the story is set in Japan after a former cult leader known only as "Friend" controls the entire world.

"The Age of Apocalypse" is an alternate reality of the X-Men. Attempting to kill the mutant Magneto in the past, before he can become a threat, the time-traveler Legion instead killed his own father, Charles Xavier, who took the shot to save his friend of that time. In this timeline, Magneto took the dream of Xavier for himself and started the X-Men, while the mutant Apocalypse created a dystopia where humans were destroyed. This dystopia would be erased from existence by a second time travel by Bishop, who prevented Legion from killing either Xavier or Magneto and so restored the usual Marvel continuity.

Akira, also set in a post-nuclear Tokyo, touches on themes like youth alienation and government corruption.

Alpha Girl, a comic about a group of survivors trying to survive a zombie apocalypse while working to save the brother of one of the group

American Flagg is a comic book series created by writer-artist Howard Chaykin, published by First Comics from 1983 to 1989. A science fiction series and political satire, it was set in the US, particularly Chicago, Illinois, in the early 2030s.

Appleseed by Masamune Shirow is a science fiction manga which combines elements of the cyberpunk and mecha genres with a heavy dosage of politics, philosophy, and sociology.

Attack on Titan by Hajime Isayama follows a group of humans as they try to survive and prevent mankind's extinction from the terror of the Titans.

Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, a non-continuity tale by Frank Miller, portrays an aged Batman returning to fight crime in a dystopian Gotham City.

Battle Angel Alita by Yukito Kishiro

BLAME!

"Civil War" - The recent events in the Marvel Universe following this storyline dealing with the Superhuman Registration Act could be seen as dystopian, especially "Dark Reign", in which the supervillains are placed in positions of power.

"Days of Future Past" is a dystopian future of the X-Men, in which the Sentinels, robots entrusted with protecting the human race from the mutants, take control of all human society. This dystopia is erased by time-traveler Kitty Pryde, who goes back to the present and prevents the events that would lead to the dystopia.

Eden: It's an Endless World by Hiroki Endo is set in a near-future world where a biological agent has wiped out approximately 15% of the world's population, while leaving a much larger number crippled and traumatized. Political and religious upheaval drastically change the balance of power between nations and organized crime, with the two sometimes becoming indistinguishable.

Fist of the North Star, also known as Hokuto no Ken, shows a post-nuclear society in which people are threatened by gangs of bikers and violent martial art killers.

Ghost in the Shell

The Incal by Moebius and Alexandro Jodorowsky starts in a dystopian futuristic city populated largely by apathetic "TV junkies".

Judge Dredd is set in a post-apocalyptic world dominated by megacities, like Mega-City One, policed by ruthless lawmen called Judges.

Marvel 2099 by various authors - The story spans several different books, taking place in a society ruled by a small group of Megacorporations and a corrupt religion known as the Church of Thor.

Marshal Law takes place in a post-earthquake San Francisco (called San Futuro) where rival gangs of "super heroes" terrorize the city and are hunted by a government-sanctioned vigilante.

The Nikopol Trilogy by Enki Bilal, consisting of La Foire aux Immortels (The Carnival of Immortals), La Femme Piège (The Woman Trap) and Froid Équateur (Cold Equator), tells of dystopian future Paris ruled by fascist dictatorship.

No. 6, based on the original novel series by Atsuko Asano

Ruins by Warren Ellis is the Marvel Universe in which the myriad experiments and accidents which led to the creation of superheroes in the mainstream world instead resulted in more realistic consequences: horrible deformities and painful deaths.

Long-running web comic Sluggy Freelance told a story of a dystopian alternate dimension where the entire Earth was changed into endless wastelands populated by hordes of mutants as a result of the Research and Development Wars, safe for the last bastion of humanity, 4U City. 4 Us stands for Universal Unified Ubiquitous Utopia.

Transmetropolitan by Warren Ellis concerns a partially dystopian, postcyberpunk take on our world, some unspecified time from now. Nearly everyone lives in "The City," which is overrun with pollution and chaos.

The True Lives of the Fabulous Killjoys by Shaun Simon and Gerard Way serves as a sequel to My Chemical Romance's album Danger Days: The True Lives of the Fabulous Killjoys, and deals with a post-apocalyptic society controlled by a brainwashing corporation and the freedom fighters who attempt to save the world.

V for Vendetta by Alan Moore follows the exploits of the anarchist V and his struggle in a Britain ruled by a fascist party.

The Walking Dead depicts the story of a group of people trying to survive in a world stricken by a zombie apocalypse. It is influenced by George A. Romero's zombie movies and other works in zombie fiction.

Wanted by Mark Millar depicts a world ruled by supervillains.

Watchmen by Alan Moore depicts an alternate reality where masked heroes actually exist in American society, and how that affects the history of the twentieth century. The book is marked by a strong sense of alienation in a hostile society.

Y: The Last Man - almost all male mammals in the world have died except for lead character Yorick and his male monkey Ampersand.

Captain Confederacy (1986, and occasional tie-ins afterward) by Will Shetterly and Vince Stone.

Elseworlds: Batman: The Blue, the Grey and the Bat (1992) by Elliot S! Maggin and Alan Weiss.

Elseworlds: Batman: Detective No. 27 (2003) by Michael Uslan and Peter Snejbjerg

One issue of Supreme written by Alan Moore.

List of dystopian films

This is a list of dystopian films. A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- and τόπος, alternatively, cacotopia, kakotopia, cackotopia, or anti-utopia) is an imaginary community or society that is undesirable or frightening. It is literally translated from Greek as "not-good place", an antonym of utopia. Such societies appear in many artistic works, particularly in stories set in a future. Dystopias are often characterized by dehumanization, totalitarian governments, ruthless megacorporations, environmental disaster, or other characteristics associated with a dramatic decline in society. Dystopian societies appear in many subgenres of fiction and are often used to draw attention to potential as well as real-world trends and issues in society, which can range from environmental, cultural, political, economical, religious, psychological, ethical, scientific, to technological issues, which if unaddressed could potentially lead to dystopia.

Live in Ancient Kourion

Live in Ancient Kourion is a live album by American heavy metal band Iced Earth. The album was recorded August 19, 2012 at the 2300 year-old Kourion Theater in Cyprus during the bands Dystopia World Tour.

Midnight Juggernauts

Midnight Juggernauts is an Australian band from Melbourne, composed of Andrew Szekeres, Vincent Vendetta (Vincent Heimann), and Daniel Stricker. The band has been described as anything from 'prog dance meets cosmic film scores', to 'slasher-flick disco' to 'deadpan landscape'. Following the release of numerous 7" and 12" singles, and limited edition EPs, the band released their debut album, Dystopia. After playing festivals and headlining tours worldwide during late 2007–2008, the band finished working on their follow up album The Crystal Axis, touring around its release mid-2010 at festivals and headline shows around the globe. After a few years break the band released a third album Uncanny Valley in mid-2013. Members have also collaborated with various artists including Kevin Parker, Kirin J Callinan, Justice, Solange and Sebastian Tellier. The group also runs the label Siberia Records, through which they release their own music and others including Kirin J Callinan and Forces.

Stu Block

Stuart Block (born November 26, 1977) is a Canadian singer-songwriter, who was the frontman for Canadian progressive death metal band Into Eternity, and is now the lead vocalist for American heavy metal band Iced Earth. Before joining Into Eternity in 2005, Block began his musical career singing for various bands in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. After two albums with Into Eternity, Block joined Iced Earth in 2011, with whom he released the album Dystopia the same year.

Utopian and dystopian fiction

Utopia and dystopia are genres of speculative fiction that explore social and political structures. Utopian fiction portrays the setting that agrees with the author's ethos, having various attributes of another reality intended to appeal to readers. Dystopian fiction (sometimes combined with, but distinct from apocalyptic literature) is the opposite: the portrayal of a setting that completely disagrees with the author's ethos. Many novels combine both, often as a metaphor for the different directions humanity can take, depending on its choices, ending up with one of two possible futures. Both utopias and dystopias are commonly found in science fiction and other speculative fiction genres, and arguably are by definition a type of speculative fiction.

More than 400 utopian works were published prior to the year 1900 in the English language alone, with more than a thousand others during the twentieth century.

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