Dvaita Vedanta

Dvaita Vedanta (/ˈdvaɪtə vɪˈdɑːntə/; Sanskrit: द्वैत वेदान्त) is a sub-school in the Vedanta tradition of Hindu philosophy. Alternatively known as Bhedavāda, Tattvavāda and Bimbapratibimbavāda, Dvaita Vedanta sub-school was founded by the 13th-century scholar Madhvacharya.[1] The Dvaita Vedanta school believes that God (Vishnu, supreme soul) and the individual souls (jīvātman) exist as independent realities, and these are distinct. The Dvaita school contrasts with the other two major sub-schools of Vedanta, the Advaita Vedanta of Adi Shankara which posits nondualism – that ultimate reality (Brahman) and human soul are identical and all reality is interconnected oneness, and Vishishtadvaita of Ramanuja which posits qualified nondualism – that ultimate reality (Brahman) and human soul are different but with the potential to be identical.[2][3]

Dvaita (द्वैत) is a Sanskrit word that means "duality, dualism".[4] The term refers to any premise, particularly in theology on the temporal and the divine, where two principles (truths) or realities are posited to exist simultaneously and independently.[4][1]

Philosophy

Dvaita Vedanta is a dualistic interpretation of the Vedas, espouses dualism by theorizing the existence of two separate realities. The first and the only independent reality (svatantra-tattva), states the Dvaita school, is that of Vishnu as Brahman.[5] Vishnu is the supreme Self, in a manner similar to monotheistic God in other major religions.[6] The second reality is that of dependent (asvatantra-tattva) but equally real universe that exists with its own separate essence. Everything that is composed of the second reality, such as individual soul, matter, and the like exist with their own separate reality. The distinguishing factor of this philosophy, as opposed to monistic Advaita Vedanta, is that God takes on a personal role and is seen as a real eternal entity that governs and controls the universe.[7]

Like Ramanuja, Madhvacharya also embraced Vaishnavism. Madhvacharya posits God as being personal and saguna, that is endowed with attributes and qualities. To Madhvacharya, the metaphysical concept of Brahman in the Vedas was Vishnu. He stated "brahmaśabdaśca Viṣṇaveva", that Brahman can only refer to Vishnu. To him, Vishnu was not just any other deva, but rather the one and only Supreme Being.[8][9]

Dvaita Vedanta acknowledges two principles; however, it holds one of them (the sentient) as being eternally dependent on the other. The individual souls are depicted as reflections, images or shadows of the divine, but never in any way identical with the divine. Moksha (liberation) therefore is described as the realization that all finite reality is essentially dependent on the Supreme.[5]

Five fundamental, eternal and real differences are described in Dvaita school:[5][9][10]

  1. Between the individual souls (or jīvātman) and God (Brahmātmeśvara or Vishnu).
  2. Between matter (inanimate, insentient) and God.
  3. Between individual souls (jīvātman)
  4. Between matter and jīvatman.
  5. Between various types of matter.

These five differences are said to explain the nature of the universe. The world is called prapañca (pañca "five") by the Dvaita school for this reason.

Madhva differed significantly from traditional Hindu beliefs owing to his concept of eternal damnation. For example, he divides souls into three classes. One class of souls, mukti-yogyas, qualifies for liberation, another, the nitya-samsarins, subject to eternal rebirth or eternal transmigration and a third class, tamo-yogyas, who are condemned to non-eternal hell (andhatamasa).[11] No other Hindu philosopher or school of Hinduism holds such beliefs. In contrast, most Hindus believe in universal salvation, that all souls will eventually obtain moksha, even if after millions of rebirths.

Influence

  • Dvaita Vedanta and Madhvacharya's historical influence in Hinduism, state Kulandran and Kraemer, has been salutary, but not extensive.[12]
  • According to Sharma, the influence of Dvaita Vedanta ideas have been most prominent on the Chaitanya school of Bengal Vaishnavism,[13] and in Assam.[14]
  • Madhva's theology influenced later scholars such as Nimbarka, Vallabha Acharya and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. B.N.K. Sharma notes that Nimbarka's theology is a loose réchauffé of Madhva's in its most essential aspects.
  • Dvaita Vedanta's discussion of the eternal differences and the gradation between the concept of God, human beings and the observed nature led some early colonial-era Indologists such as George Abraham Grierson to suggest that its founder, the 13th-century Madhva was influenced by Christianity,[12] but later scholars rejected this theory.[15][16]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 340–343. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3.
  2. ^ Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 238–243, 288–293, 340–343. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3.
  3. ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 1 & 2, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pages 12-13, 213-214, 758-759
  4. ^ a b Sir Monier Monier-Williams, Dvaita, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages, Oxford University Press (Reprinted: Motilal Banarsidass), ISBN 978-8120831056, page 507
  5. ^ a b c Fowler 2002, pp. 340-344.
  6. ^ Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700712571, pages 124-127
  7. ^ Etter 2006, pp. 59-60.
  8. ^ Bryant, Edwin (2007). Krishna : A Sourcebook (Chapter 15 by Deepak Sarma). Oxford University Press. p. 358. ISBN 978-0195148923.
  9. ^ a b Stoker, Valerie (2011). "Madhva (1238-1317)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
  10. ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), Madhva, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0823931798, page 396
  11. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami. Bhakti Schools of Vedanta pg. 177.
  12. ^ a b Sabapathy Kulandran and Hendrik Kraemer (2004), Grace in Christianity and Hinduism, James Clarke, ISBN 978-0227172360, pages 177-179
  13. ^ Sharma 1962, pp. 22-23.
  14. ^ Sharma 2000, pp. xxxii-xxxiii, 514-516.
  15. ^ Jones & Ryan 2006, p. 266.
  16. ^ Sarma 2000, pp. 19-21.

Bibliography

External links

Brahma Purana

The Brahma Purana (Sanskrit: ब्रह्म पुराण, Brahma Purāṇa) is one of the eighteen major Puranas genre of Hindu texts in Sanskrit language. It is listed as the first Maha-Purana in all the anthologies, and therefore also called Adi Purana. Another title for this text is Saura Purana, because it includes many chapters related to Surya or the Sun god. The name Brahma Purana is misleading and apocryphal because the extant manuscripts of this text have nothing to do with the Hindu god Brahma, and are actually just a compilation of geographical Mahatmya (travel guides) and sections on diverse topics.The extant text is likely not the ancient Brahma Purana, but one that was completely changed between the 13th to 16th-century, may be after. The surviving manuscripts comprise 245 chapters. It is divided into two parts: the Purvabhaga (former part) and the Uttarabhaga (latter part). The text exists in numerous versions, with significant differences, and the text was revised continually over time. Further, the Brahma Purana likely borrowed numerous passages from other Hindu texts such as the Mahabharata and Puranas such as the Vishnu, Vayu, Samba, and Markandeya.

The text is notable for dedicating over 60% of its chapters on description of geography and holy sites of Godavari river region, as well as places in and around modern Odisha, and tributaries of Chambal river in Rajasthan. This travel guide-like sections are non-sectarian, and celebrates sites and temples related to Vishnu, Shiva, Devi and Surya. The coverage of Jagannatha (Krishna, Vishnu-related) temples, however, is larger than the other three, leading scholars to the hypothesis that the authors of extant manuscripts may have been authors belonging to Vaishnavism. Its presentation of the Konark Sun Temple is notable.Out of 245 chapters, 18 chapters of the Brahma Purana cover the cosmology, mythology, genealogy, manvantara (cosmic time cycles) and topics that are required to make a text belong to the Puranic genre of literature. Other chapters cover Sanskara (rite of passage), summary of Dharmasastra, its theories on the geography of earth, summary of Samkhya and Yoga theories of Hindu philosophy, and other topics. While many chapters of the Brahma Purana praise temples and pilgrimage, chapters 38-40 of the text, a part of embedded Saura Purana, present arguments that are highly critical of the theistic theories and devotional worship proposals of 13th-century Madhvacharya and Dvaita Vedanta sub-school of Hindu philosophies.

The Padma Purana categorizes Brahma Purana as a Rajas Purana, implying the text is related to Brahma, but extant manuscripts have nothing to do with Brahma. Scholars consider the Sattva-Rajas-Tamas classification as "entirely fanciful" and there is nothing in this text that actually justifies this classification.The manuscripts of travel guide to Godavari-river region from this Purana is found as a separate text, and is called Gautami-mahatmya or Godavari-mahatmya, while the one corresponding to Rajasthan region is called Brahmottara Purana. The tradition and other Puranas assert the Brahma Purana had 10,000 verses, but the surviving manuscripts contain between 7,000 and 8,000 verses exclusive of the Brahmottara Purana supplement which adds between 2,000 and 3,000 verses depending on different versions of the same text.Sohnen and Schreiner published a summary of the Brahma Purana in 1989.

Brahman

In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe. In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists. It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe.Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads. The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality.Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being. In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.

Ishvara

Ishvara (Sanskrit: ईश्वर, IAST: Īśvara) is a concept in Hinduism, with a wide range of meanings that depend on the era and the school of Hinduism. In ancient texts of Indian philosophy, depending on the context, Ishvara can mean supreme soul, ruler, lord, king, queen or husband. In medieval era Hindu texts, depending on the school of Hinduism, Ishvara means God, Supreme Being, personal god, or special Self.In Shaivism and for almost all Hindus, Ishvara is synonymous with "Shiva", sometimes as Maheshvara or Parameshvara meaning the "Supreme lord", or as an Ishta-deva (personal god). For a few Vaishnavists, it is synonymous with Vishnu. In traditional Bhakti movements, Ishvara is one or more deities of an individual's preference from Hinduism's polytheistic canon of deities. In modern sectarian movements such as Arya Samaj and Brahmoism, Ishvara takes the form of a monotheistic God. In Yoga school of Hinduism, it is any "personal deity" or "spiritual inspiration". In Advaita Vedanta school, Ishvara is a monistic Universal Absolute that connects and is the Oneness in everyone and everything.

Lakshmipati Tirtha

Lakshmipati Tirtha (1420–1487) was a Vaishnava saint, belonging to Madhva Sampradaya. He was a disciple of Vyasatirtha a proponent of Dvaita Philosopher, who gave him the name Lakshmipati Tirtha upon initiation.

One of the important vaishnavait of Brij area during the time of Vallabhacharya and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Madhavendra Puri was very likely initiated by Lakshmipati Tirtha.

Lakshmipati Tirtha is also credited as being the spiritual master of Nityananda Prabhu, although Madhavendra Puri is often given this title in other versions. The prominent Gaudiya Vaishnava scholar and founder of the modern Hare Krishna movement, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada writes in his commentary on Chaitanya Charitamrita (Madhya-lila 8.128): "Sri Nityananda Prabhu was initiated by Madhavendra Puri, a sannyasi.According to others, however, He was initiated by Lakṣmīpati Tīrtha."

Madhavendra Puri

Madhavendra Puri (Mādhavendra Purī in IAST) also known as Madhavendra Puri Goswami is a Vaishnava saint who appeared in the 14th century. He was initiated in to Dvaita Vedanta of Madhvacharya of Udupi region of Karnataka, and was highly revered in Vallabhacharya's Pushtimarg and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's Gaudiya Vaishnavism, both sects that emanate from the famed Vrindavan region.

Madhva tradition

The Madhva tradition (also referred as Madhva Sampradaya, or Sad Vaishnavism) is a denomination within the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism, founded by the thirteenth century philosopher Madhvacharya. It is a movement in Hinduism that developed during its classical period around the beginning of the Common Era. Philosophically, Madhva tradition is aligned with Dvaita Vedanta, and regards Madhvacharya as its founder or reformer.The Sampradaya is also referred to as the Brahma Sampradaya, referring to its traditional origins in the succession of spiritual masters (gurus) have originated from Brahma.According to Madhva tradition, the creator is superior to the creation, and hence moksha comes only from the grace of Vishnu, but not from effort.

Mallur, Karnataka

Dodda Mallur is a village in Channapatna Taluk in Ramanagara district in the Indian state of Karnataka. Mallur is located on the banks of the river Kanva. The village is famous for its temples of Sri Ramaprameya Swamy, Aravindavalli and Ambegalu Navaneeta Krishna (crawling Krishna). It is approximately 60 km from Bangalore in Bangalore-Mysore state highway. It is roughly 3 km from Channapatna.

The idol of Ambegalu Navaneetha Krishna (crawling Krishna with butter in hand), is believed to be the only deity of Lord Sri Krishna in this pose. This idol was installed by Vyasaraja (aka Vyasatirtha), who was a prominent saint of Dvaita Vedanta. The famous Kriti (musical composition or song) "Jagadodharana Adisidale Yashode" was composed by most prominent composer of Carnatic music Purandaradasa in appreciation of the beauty of this idol.

Dodda Mallur is located between Bangalore and Mysore. Its 60 km from Bangalore and approximately 80 km from Mysore. It is 3 km from Channapatna.

Transport: You can reach Channapatna by Bus and Train. From Channapatna, local autorickshaws and private vehicles transport travelers to Doddamallur.

Monastery

A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits). A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, and may also serve as an oratory.

, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex typically comprises a number of buildings which include a church, dormitory, cloister, refectory, library, balneary and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may also include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community. These may include a hospice, a school, and a range of agricultural and manufacturing buildings such as a barn, a forge, or a brewery.

In English usage, the term monastery is generally used to denote the buildings of a community of monks. In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics (nuns), particularly communities of teaching or nursing religious sisters. Historically, a convent denoted a house of friars (reflecting the Latin), now more commonly called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in more specific ways.

Nandinagari

Nandinagari is a Brahmic script derived from Nāgarī script which appeared in the 7th century AD. This script and its variants were used in the central Deccan region and south India, and an abundance of Sanskrit manuscripts in Nandinagari have been discovered but remain untransliterated. Some of the discovered manuscripts of Madhvacharya of the Dvaita Vedanta school of Hinduism are in Nandinagari script.It is a sister script to Devanāgarī, which is common in other parts of India.

Nididhyāsana

In Advaita Vedanta and Jnana Yoga Nididhyasana (Sanskrit: निदिध्यासन) is profound and repeated meditation on the mahavakyas, great Upanishadic statements such as "That art Thou", to realize the identity of Atman and Brahman. It is the fourth step in the training of a sisya (disciple), consisting of preparatory practives, listening to the teachings as contained in the sruti, reflection on the teachings, and nididhyasana.

Pancharatra

Pancharatra (IAST: Pāñcarātra) was a religious movement in Hinduism that originated in late 1st millennium BCE around the ideas of Narayana considered as an avatar of Vishnu. The movement later merged with the ancient Bhagavata tradition and contributed to the development of Vaishnavism. The Pancharatra movement created numerous literary treatises in Sanskrit called the Pancharatra Samhitas, and these have been influential Agamic texts within the theistic Vaishnava movements.Literally meaning five nights (pañca: five, rātra: nights), the term Pancharatra has been variously interpreted. The term has been attributed to a sage Narayana who performed a sacrifice for five nights and became a transcendent being and one with all beings. The Pancharatra Agamas constitute some of the most important texts of many Vaishnava philosophies including the Dvaita Vedanta of Madhvacharya and the Srivaishnava Sampradaya of Ramanuja. The Pancharatra Agamas are composed of more than 200 texts; with various suggested time periods of composition; including the 3rd century BC, and a period between 600 AD to 850 AD.The Shandilya Sutras (~100 CE) is the earliest known text that systematized the devotional Bhakti pancharatra doctrine and 2nd-century CE inscriptions in South India suggest Pancharatra doctrines were known there by then. The 8th-century Adi Shankara criticized elements of the Pancharatra doctrine along with other theistic approaches stating Pancaratra doctrine was against monastic spiritual pursuits and non-Vedic. The 11th-century Ramanuja, the influential Vaishnavism scholar, developed a qualified monism doctrine which bridged ideas of Pancharatra movement and those of monistic ideas in the Vedas. The Pancharatra theology is a source of the primary and secondary avatar-related doctrines in traditions of Hinduism.

Pramana

Pramana (Sanskrit: प्रमाण, Pramāṇa) literally means "proof" and "means of knowledge". It refers to epistemology in Indian philosophies, and is one of the key, much debated fields of study in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, since ancient times. It is a theory of knowledge, and encompasses one or more reliable and valid means by which human beings gain accurate, true knowledge. The focus of Pramana is how correct knowledge can be acquired, how one knows, how one doesn't, and to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired.Ancient and medieval Indian texts identify six pramanas as correct means of accurate knowledge and to truths: perception (Sanskrit pratyakṣa), inference (anumāna), comparison and analogy (upamāna), postulation, derivation from circumstances (arthāpatti), non-perception, negative/cognitive proof (anupalabdhi) and word, testimony of past or present reliable experts (Śabda). Each of these are further categorized in terms of conditionality, completeness, confidence and possibility of error, by each school of Indian philosophies.

The various schools of Indian philosophies vary on how many of these six are epistemically reliable and valid means to knowledge. For example, Carvaka school of Hinduism holds that only one (perception) is a reliable source of knowledge, Buddhism holds two (perception, inference) are valid means, Jainism holds three (perception, inference and testimony), while Mimamsa and Advaita Vedanta schools of Hinduism hold all six are useful and can be reliable means to knowledge. The various schools of Indian philosophy have debated whether one of the six forms of pramana can be derived from other, and the relative uniqueness of each. For example, Buddhism considers Buddha and other "valid persons", "valid scriptures" and "valid minds" as indisputable, but that such testimony is a form of perception and inference pramanas.The science and study of Pramanas is called Nyaya.

Satyapramoda Tīrtha

Satyapramoda Tirtha (1918- 3 November 1997; officially known as Shrī 1008 Shrī Satyāpramoda Tīrtha Swāmīji) was the pontiff of Uttaradi Matha, a math (mutt) dedicated to Dvaita philosophy, which has a large following in southern India. He was the 41st pontiff of Uttaradi Matha since Madhvacharya, the chief proponent and the one who rejuvenated this Dvaita philosophy.

Satyatma Tirtha

Satyatma Tirtha (officially known as Śrī Śrī 1008 Śrī Satyātma-tīrtha Śrīpādaṅgaḷavaru; Kannada: ಶ್ರೀ ಶ್ರೀ ೧೦೦೮ ಶ್ರೀ ಸತ್ಯಾತ್ಮತೀರ್ಥ ಶ್ರೀಪಾದಂಗಳವರು) is the present pontiff of Uttaradi Matha, a math (also mutt) dedicated to Dvaita philosophy, which has a large following in southern India. He is the 42nd pontiff of Uttaradi Matha since Madhvacharya, the chief proponent and the one who rejuvenated this Dvaita philosophy.

Trivikrama Panditacharya

Sri Trivikrama Panditacharya was one of the disciples of Sri Madhvacharya, the great Dvaita philosopher. He composed the Vayu Stuti, one of the most famous Stotras in the Madhva tradition.

Umaswati

Aacharya Umaswami, also known as Umaswati, was an early 1st-millennium Indian scholar, possibly between 2nd-century and 5th-century CE, known for his foundational writings on Jainism. He authored the Jain text Tattvartha Sutra (literally '"All That Is", also called Tattvarthadhigama Sutra). Umaswati's work was the first Sanskrit language text on Jain philosophy, and is the earliest extant comprehensive Jain philosophy text accepted as authoritative by all four Jain traditions. His text has the same importance in Jainism as Vedanta Sutras and Yogasutras have in Hinduism.Umaswati is claimed by both the Digambara and Śvētāmbara sects of Jainism as their own. On the basis of his genealogy, he was also called Nagaravachka. Umaswati was influential not only in Jainism, but also other Indian traditions over the centuries. The 13th- to 14th-century Madhvacharya, founder of Dvaita Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy, for example referred to Umaswati in his works as Umasvati-Vachakacharya. Some in the Digambara Jain tradition believe him to be the chief disciple of Acharya Kundakunda. However, this is disputed by some Western scholars.Umaswati, also spelled Umasvati, was an Acharya (head of the monastic order, teacher) and therefore one of the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi (five supreme beings) in Jaina tradition. The theory mooted by Umaswati is that rebirth and suffering is on account of one's karma (deeds) and a life lived in accordance to vows of virtuous living with austerities cleanses this karma, ultimately leading to liberation. The main philosophy in Umaswati's Tatvartha Sutra aphorisms is that "all life, both human and non-human, is sacred."

Vyasaraja Matha (Sosale)

Sri Vyasatirtha Matha (Kannada: ವ್ಯಾಸರಾಜ ಮಠ) is a Dvaita Samsthana based in Southern India but spread all over india. It is one of the main lineage of Srimad Ananda Teertha Bhagavatpadaha, who is the incarnation wind god Sri Vayudevaru. Other Main Lineages are Sri Uttaradi Matha and Sri Raghavendra Matha.The organization has history of 800 years and includes Sanyasins of highest intellect in Vedanta, Vyakarana, Nyaya and Visheshika.

Main lessons taught are about Sri hari being supreme among all living and non living and Sri vayu is the jeevottam ( uttam among all jeevas )

Dvaita Vedanta is propagated by Srimadacharya with perfect logic for each statement and evidence shown in Vedas and puranas. Sri Vyasaraja Samsthana continues the legacy with excellent masters of Vedanta such as Sri Jayateertharu, Sri Rajendra teertharu , Sri vyasaraja teertharu, Sri Raghunatha teertharu ( Sri Shehachandrika charyaru ) etc. Every Sanyasin in the lineage is a maestro of Vedanta.

Ānanda (Hindu philosophy)

Ānanda (Sanskrit: आनन्द) literally means bliss or happiness. In the Hindu Vedas, Upanishads and Bhagavad gita, ānanda signifies eternal bliss which accompanies the ending of the rebirth cycle. Those who renounce the fruits of their actions and submit themselves completely to the divine will, arrive at the final termination of the cyclical life process (saṃsāra) to enjoy eternal bliss (ānanda) in perfect union with the godhead. The tradition of seeking union with God through loving commitment is referred to as bhakti, or devotion.

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