Dux (/dʌks, dʊks/; plural: ducēs) is Latin for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge, duce, etc.).

During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank. In writing his commentaries on the Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar uses the term only for Celtic generals, with one exception for a Roman commander who held no official rank.[1]

Roman Empire

Original usage

Until the 3rd century, dux was not a formal expression of rank within the Roman military or administrative hierarchy.[2]

In the Roman military, a dux would be a general in charge of two or more legions. While the title of dux could refer to a consul or imperator, it usually refers to the Roman governor of the provinces. As the governor, the dux was both the highest civil official as well as the commander-in-chief of the legions garrisoned within the province.

Change in usage

By the mid-3rd century AD, it had acquired a more precise connotation defining the commander of an expeditionary force, usually made up of detachments (i.e. vexillationes) from one or more of the regular military formations. Such appointments were made to deal with specific military situations when the threat to be countered seemed beyond the capabilities of the province-based military command structure that had characterised the Roman army of the High Empire.[3]

From the time of Gallienus onwards for more than a century duces were invariably Viri Perfectissimi, i.e. members of the second class of the Equestrian Order.[4] Thus, they would have out-ranked the commanders of provincial legions, who were usually Viri Egregii - equestrians of the third class.[5]

Duces differed from praesides who were the supreme civil as well as military authority within their provinces in that the function of the former was purely military. However, the military authority of a dux was not necessarily confined to a single province and they do not seem to have been subject to the authority of the governor of the province in which they happened to be operating. It was not until the end of the 3rd century that the term dux emerged as a regular military rank held by a senior officer of limitanei - i.e. frontier troops as opposed those attached to an Imperial field-army (comitatenses) - with a defined geographic area of responsibility[note 1]

The office under the Dominate

During the time of the Dominate, the powers of a dux were split from the role of the governor and were given to a new office called dux. The dux was now the highest military office within the province and commanded the legions, but the governor had to authorize the use of the dux's powers. But once authorized, the dux could act independently from the governor and handled all military matters. An example would be the Dux per Gallia Belgica who was the dux of the province of Gallia Belgica.

After Diocletian's Tetrarchy reform, the provinces were organized into dioceses each administered by a vicarius. As with the governors, the vicarius was assisted by a dux. This dux was superior to all other duces within the dioceses and when the vicarius called the legions of the dioceses into action, all of the legions were at the dux's command. An example would be the Dux per Gallia who was the dux of the dioceses of Gaul. The office of dux was, in turn, made subject to the magister militum of his respective praetorian prefecture, and above him to the emperor.

Later developments

In the Byzantine era of the Roman Empire, the position of dux survived (Byzantine Greek: "δούξ", doux, plural "δούκες", doukes) as a rank equivalent to a general (strategos). In the late 10th and early 11th centuries, a doux or katepano was in charge of large circumscriptions consisting of several smaller themata and of the professional regiments (tagmata) of the Byzantine army (as opposed to the largely militia-like forces of most themata). In the Komnenian period, the title of doux replaced altogether the strategos in designating the military official in charge of a thema. In the Byzantine navy, doukes of the fleet appear in the 1070s, and the office of megas doux ("grand duke") was created in the 1090s as the commander-in-chief of the entire navy.

The title also gave rise to a family name, the aristocratic Doukas clan, which in the 9th–11th centuries provided several Byzantine emperors and generals, while later bearers of the name (maternally descended from the original family) founded the Despotate of Epirus in northwestern Greece.

Post-Roman uses

King Arthur, in one of his earliest literary appearances, is described as dux bellorum ("dux of battles") among the kings of the Romano-Britons in their wars against the Anglo-Saxons. A chronicle from St Martin's monastery in Cologne states that the monastery had been pillaged by the Saxons in 778, but that it was rebuilt by an "Olgerus, dux Daniæ" (who may have been the historical person around whom the myth of Ogier the Dane formed), with the help of Charlemagne.

Dux is also the root of various high feudal noble titles of peerage rank, such as the English duke, the French duc, the Spanish and Portuguese duque, the Venetian doge, the Italian duca and duce, and the Byzantine Greek dukas or doukas (Gr. δούκας) (see Doukas).

Italian Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini used the title of dux (and duce in Italian) to represent his leadership. One fascist motto was "DVX MEA LVX", Latin for "[The] Duce [is] my light" or "[The] Leader [is] my light".[7]

In pre-revolutionary Russia, the Dux Factory built bicycles, automobiles and aircraft in Moscow.


  • In Scotland, Australia and New Zealand dux is a modern title given to the highest-ranking student in academic, arts or sporting achievement (Dux Litterarum, Dux Artium and Dux Ludorum respectively) in each graduating year.[8] This can lead to scholarships at universities.[9] The runner-up may be given the title proxime accessit (meaning "he/she came next") or semidux.[10]
  • In Portuguese universities the Dux is the most senior of students, usually in charge of overseeing the praxe (initiation rituals for the freshmen).

See also


  1. ^ The earliest attested dux with a defined regional responsibility seems to have been Aur. Firminianus, dux limit. prov. Scyt ...[6] – i.e. dux of the frontier troops of the province of Scythia – in the 290s AD.



  1. ^ Thomas Wiedemann, “The Fetiales: A Reconsideration,” Classical Quarterly 36 (1986), p. 483. The Roman called dux is Publius Crassus, who was too young to hold a commission; see discussion of his rank.
  2. ^ Fergus Millar, The Roman Near East, 31 B.C.-A.D. 337 (Harvard University Press, 1993), pg. 191 online
  3. ^ Smith, Prof. R.E. (1979). "Dux; Praepositus". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik. 36. pp. 277–78.
  4. ^ Christol, M. (1978). "Un duc dans une inscription de Termessos (Pisidie)". Chiron. 8: 537–38.)
  5. ^ Nagy, Prof. T. (1965). "Commanders of Legions in the age of Gallienus". Acta Archeologica Hungarica. XVII: 290–307.
  6. ^ J.B. Campbell, CIL III 764 = ILS 4103, "Inscriptions to the Magna Mater in the Provinces of Moesia", The Roman Army, 31 BC-AD 337: A Sourcebook, books.google.com; accessed 15 May 2016.
  7. ^ DUCE-MUSSOLINI, delcampe.it; accessed 15 May 2016.
  8. ^ "Albion Park High School | Dux of the School". www.albionpk-h.schools.nsw.edu.au. Retrieved 2016-09-10.
  9. ^ "University of Otago Dux Scholarship, Scholarships Database, University of Otago, New Zealand". www.otago.ac.nz. Retrieved 2016-09-10.
  10. ^ "Prizes & Awards » Lincoln High School". www.lincoln.school.nz. Retrieved 2016-09-10.


External links

  • The dictionary definition of dux at Wiktionary
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Canon (music)

In music, a canon is a contrapuntal (counterpoint-based) compositional technique that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e.g., quarter rest, one measure, etc.). The initial melody is called the leader (or dux), while the imitative melody, which is played in a different voice, is called the follower (or comes). The follower must imitate the leader, either as an exact replication of its rhythms and intervals or some transformation thereof (see "Types of canon", below). Repeating canons in which all voices are musically identical are called rounds—"Row, Row, Row Your Boat" and "Frère Jacques" are popular examples.

An accompanied canon is a canon accompanied by one or more additional independent parts that do not imitate the melody.

Diocese of Egypt

The Diocese of Egypt (Latin: Dioecesis Aegypti, Greek: Διοίκηση Αιγύπτου) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire (from 395 the Eastern Roman Empire), incorporating the provinces of Egypt and Cyrenaica. Its capital was at Alexandria, and its governor had the unique title of praefectus augustalis ("Augustal Prefect", of the rank vir spectabilis; previously the governor of the imperial 'crown domain' province Egypt) instead of the ordinary vicarius. The diocese was initially part of the Diocese of the East, but in ca. 380, it became a separate entity, which lasted until its territories were finally overrun by the Muslim conquest of Egypt in the 640s.

Doge of Venice

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Doges of Venice were elected for life by the city-state's aristocracy. The doge was neither a duke in the modern sense, nor the equivalent of a hereditary duke. The title "doge" was the title of the senior-most elected official of Venice and Genoa; both cities were republics and elected doges. A doge was referred to variously by the titles "My Lord the Doge" (Monsignor el Doxe), "Most Serene Prince" (Serenissimo Principe), and "His Serenity" (Sua Serenità).


Duchcov (Czech pronunciation: [ˈduxtsof]; German: Dux) is a town in the Teplice District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It has a population around 8,500 and is located at the foot of the Ore Mountains. It is also the site of the Castle of Dux.

Duke of the Franks

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The first office was that of the mayors of the palace of the Merovingian kings of the Franks, whose powers increased as those of the kings declined. The second was that of the second-in-command to the early kings of France, the last incumbent of which succeeded to the throne in 987. This title was sometimes rendered Duke of France (dux Franciae). The third instance was that of the rulers of the Frankish-inhabited lands of Germany, the so-called "tribal" duchy of Franconia.

Duun language

Duun is a Mande language of Mali. There are two principal varieties of Duun, West Duun, or Duungooma (also known as Du, Samogho-sien), in Mali, and East Duun, or Dzuungoo, in Burkina Faso. These are clearly distinct but have a reasonable degree of mutual intelligibility with each other and with Banka (Bankagooma). Dialects of East Duun, Kpan (Kpango, Samoro-guan) and Dzùùngoo (Samogo-iri), are easily intelligible.

Dux de Lux

The Dux de Lux (Latin: Masters of the Finest), originally called Llanmaes, was a popular beer garden and restaurant in Christchurch, New Zealand, that is part of the Arts Centre. The building, initially a private home, became the home of the student union of the University of Canterbury at this central city site before the tertiary institution moved to the suburb of Ilam. It is listed as a Category II heritage building (register number 4907) by Heritage New Zealand. The building was closed following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, with the restaurant and bar moving to various suburban premises.

Dynamite Düx

Dynamite Düx is a side-scrolling 'beat 'em up' arcade video game, created by Sega AM2 and released by Sega in December 1988 for their Sega System 16 arcade board, the same board that was used for Golden Axe and Altered Beast. It was ported to the Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Atari ST, Commodore 64, Master System, and ZX Spectrum in the following year.

A girl named Lucy is kidnapped by the evil Sorcerer Achacha, and the player's mission is to rescue her.

Eiríkr Hákonarson

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Frank Dux

Frank William Dux ( ; born April 6, 1956) is a martial artist, fight choreographer and author. According to Dux, a ninjutsu expert named Senzo Tanaka trained him as a ninja when he was a teenager. He established his own school of ninjutsu called Dux Ryu Ninjutsu, and has said he won a secret martial arts tournament called the Kumite in 1975. His alleged victory at the Kumite served as the inspiration for the 1988 film Bloodsport starring Jean-Claude Van Damme. Dux's victory at the Kumite has been disputed, as has the existence of both the Kumite he described and Senzo Tanaka.

Dux served in the United States Marine Corps Reserve from 1975 to 1981, and claims he was sent on covert missions to Southeast Asia and awarded the Medal of Honor. He also asserts he was recruited by Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) director William J. Casey to work as a covert agent. His military records, however, show he was never sent overseas and has not received any awards; Dux states the military sabotaged his records to discredit him. He has been accused of falsifying his military service by authors B. G. Burkett, Ralph Keyes and Nigel West, and his claim to have worked for the CIA has been dismissed by Director of Central Intelligence Robert Gates, General Norman Schwarzkopf Jr., major general John K. Singlaub and Soldier of Fortune.

Dux worked as a fight choreographer for Bloodsport, Lionheart (1990) and Only the Strong (1993). He detailed his alleged work for the CIA in the book The Secret Man in 1996, and that same year co-authored the film The Quest alongside Jean-Claude Van Damme. He sued Van Damme for breach of contract over the film, but lost the suit in 1998. He also lost a lawsuit against Soldier of Fortune for libel the following year, over their claims he had falsified his military and CIA service.

Giant squid

The giant squid (genus Architeuthis) is a deep-ocean dwelling squid in the family Architeuthidae. Giant squid can grow to a tremendous size due to deep-sea gigantism: recent estimates put the maximum size at 13 m (43 ft) for females and 10 m (33 ft) for males from the posterior fins to the tip of the two long tentacles (second only to the colossal squid at an estimated 14 m (46 ft), one of the largest living organisms). The mantle is about 2 m (6 ft 7 in) long (more for females, less for males), and the length of the squid excluding its tentacles (but including head and arms) rarely exceeds 5 m (16 ft). Claims of specimens measuring 20 m (66 ft) or more have not been scientifically documented.

The number of different giant squid species has been debated, but recent genetic research suggests that only one species exists.In 2004, Japanese researchers took the first images of a live giant squid in its natural habitat, and in July 2012, a live adult was first filmed in its natural habitat off Chichijima. In 2015, another video sighting was released. In June 2019, scientists reported the video appearance, for the second time, and for the first time in waters of the United States, of a giant squid in its deepwater habitat.

List of monarchs of Sussex

The list of monarchs of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Sussex (or South Saxons) contains substantial gaps, and many of the dates from this time are unreliable. No authentic South Saxon king list or genealogy exists, unlike what can be found for other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Most kings are known only from Anglo-Saxon charters, some of which are forgeries, which makes it difficult to date the reigns of each king. The monarchs were either known as kings or ealdormen.

According to the charters, most kings did not govern alone: Nothhelm reigned with two or three colleagues and Oslac with four. The locations of the lands granted in their charters indicate that they reigned jointly and that there was no division of territory. Such joint reigns can also be demonstrated for the Hwicce, the East Saxons, and the West Saxons. Indeed, “[t]here is nothing remarkable in the existence of two or even more contemporary kings in the same people in the seventh century. The ancient idea that royal dignity was a matter of birth rather than of territorial rule still survived at this date.”The traditional residence of the South Saxon kings was at Kingsham, once outside the southern walls of Chichester although within its modern boundaries.


Malagina (Greek: Μαλάγινα), in later times Melangeia (Μελάγγεια), was a Byzantine district in the valley of the Sangarius river in northern Bithynia, which served as a major encampment and fortified staging area (aplekton) for the Byzantine army. Malagina was the aplekton closest to the imperial capital of Constantinople, and, as such, of major importance during imperial expeditions to the East: it was here that the armies of the powerful themes of Anatolikon, Opsikion and Thrakesion joined the emperor. The region was also the site of the major imperial horse ranches (metata) in Asia Minor. It is first mentioned in historical sources in 798, when Empress Eirene assembled an army there. Other sources state that the first mention of Malagina is in a text attributed to St. Methodius, dating from the late seventh century. The site was attacked by the Arabs in 798, 860 and in ca. 875. In the 12th century, Emperor Manuel I Komnenos restored the fortifications of the district's main fortress at Metabole, and used it as a base for his campaigns against the Seljuk Sultanate of Iconium. Under the Angeloi, it became a separate province, headed by a governor titled dux and stratopedarches. At the same time, it is attested as being an archbishopric, before being raised to a metropolis under the Laskarids.

Mesopotamia (Roman province)

Mesopotamia was the name of two distinct Roman provinces, the one a short-lived creation of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 116–117 and the other established by Emperor Septimius Severus in ca. 198, which ranged between the Roman and the Sassanid empires, until the Muslim conquests of the 7th century.

Pierre Dux

Pierre Dux (21 October 1908 – 1 December 1990) was a French stage director, stage actor, and film actor. He appeared in 50 films between 1932 and 1990.

Thomas Dux Grocer

Thomas Dux was an Australian chain of gourmet grocery stores operated by Woolworths from 2008 to 2017. It sold a range of local and imported fresh foods and grocery items. Products included fresh fruit and vegetables, dairy products, artisan-style baked breads, oils and vinegars, pasta and sauces, condiments, prepared meals, chocolate products, fresh meat and fresh flowers. Thomas Dux specialised in organic, gluten-free, preservative-free and free-range foods. Local boutique suppliers included Saskia Beer, Maggie Beer, Simmone Logue, Herbies, Ornella, Phillippa's, Rowie's, Brasserie Bread, Phillippa's and Geoff Jansz. Fruit and vegetables were sourced directly from the wholesale markets in Sydney and Melbourne on a daily basis.

Tyson Dux

Tyson Moody (born June 19, 1978) is a Canadian professional wrestler, known by his ring name Tyson Dux (pronounced "Dukes"), and is currently wrestling for various independent promotions.


Valedictorian is an academic title of success used in the United States, Canada, Philippines, and Armenia (and elsewhere in limited number of schools) for the student who delivers the closing or farewell statement at a graduation ceremony (called a valediction). The chosen valedictorian is traditionally the student with the highest ranking (highest Grade Point Average, or GPA) among their graduating class. The term is an Anglicised derivation of the Latin vale dicere ("to say farewell"), historically rooted in the valedictorian's traditional role as the final speaker at the graduation ceremony before the students receive their diplomas. The valedictory address generally is considered a final farewell to classmates, before they disperse to pursue their individual paths after graduating.

In Australia, United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, Ireland and India the title valedictorian is not used frequently. In Australia, the title is sometimes awarded to a member of a graduating university class on the basis of contribution to the school rather than academic success. The highest-ranking student in a graduating class is often referred to as dux (Latin for "leader"), and may or may not give a speech. In France the term Major de promotion ("first in class") is used, although the term is not related to any ceremonial role, as there are rarely graduation ceremonies in schools or universities.

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