Dust lane

A dust lane is a relatively dense obscuring band of interstellar dust, observed as a dark swath against the background of a brighter object, especially a galaxy. These dust lanes can usually be seen in spiral galaxies (e.g., the Milky Way) when viewed from the edge. Due to the dense and relatively thick nature of this dust, light from the galaxy is reduced by several magnitudes. In the Milky Way, this reduction of light makes it impossible to see the light from the central bulge of the galaxy from Earth. This dust, as well as the gasses also found within these lanes, mix together and combine to form stars and planets.[1]

M104 ngc4594 sombrero galaxy hi-res
The Sombrero Galaxy features a prominent dust lane.

See also


  1. ^ Sparke, L. S.; Gallagher, III, J. S. (2007). Galaxies in the Universe. University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 *BS, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-67186-6.

Centaurus is a bright constellation in the southern sky. One of the largest constellations, Centaurus was included among the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations. In Greek mythology, Centaurus represents a centaur; a creature that is half human, half horse (another constellation named after a centaur is one from the zodiac: Sagittarius). Notable stars include Alpha Centauri, the nearest star system to the Solar System, its neighbour in the sky Beta Centauri, and V766 Centauri, one of the largest stars yet discovered. The constellation also contains Omega Centauri, the brightest globular cluster as visible from Earth and one of the largest known.

Centaurus A

Centaurus A or NGC 5128 is a galaxy in the constellation of Centaurus. It was discovered in 1826 by Scottish astronomer James Dunlop from his home in Parramatta, in New South Wales, Australia. There is considerable debate in the literature regarding the galaxy's fundamental properties such as its Hubble type (lenticular galaxy or a giant elliptical galaxy) and distance (10–16 million light-years). NGC 5128 is one of the closest radio galaxies to Earth, so its active galactic nucleus has been extensively studied by professional astronomers. The galaxy is also the fifth-brightest in the sky, making it an ideal amateur astronomy target, although the galaxy is only visible from low northern latitudes and the southern hemisphere.

The center of the galaxy contains a supermassive black hole with a mass equivalent to 55 million solar masses, which ejects a relativistic jet that is responsible for emissions in the X-ray and radio wavelengths. By taking radio observations of the jet separated by a decade, astronomers have determined that the inner parts of the jet are moving at about half of the speed of light. X-rays are produced farther out as the jet collides with surrounding gases resulting in the creation of highly energetic particles. The X-ray jets of Centaurus A are thousands of light-years long, while the radio jets are over a million light-years long.Like other starburst galaxies, a collision is suspected to be responsible for the intense burst of star formation. Models have suggested that Centaurus A was a large elliptical galaxy that collided and merged with a smaller spiral galaxy.

Messier 66

Messier 66 or M66, also known as NGC 3627, is an intermediate spiral galaxy in the equatorial constellation of Leo. It was discovered by French astronomer Charles Messier on March 1, 1780, who described it as "very long and very faint". This galaxy is a member of a small group of galaxies that includes M65 and NGC 3628, known as the Leo Triplet, or the M66 Group. M65 and M66 make a popular pair for observers, being separated by only 20′.M66 has a morphological classification of SABb, indicating a spiral shape with a weak bar feature and loosely wound arms. The isophotal axis ratio is 0.32, indicating that it is being viewed at an angle. M66 is receding from us with a heliocentric radial velocity of 696.3±12.7 km/s. It lies 31 million light-years away and is about 95 thousand light-years across with striking dust lanes and bright star clusters along sweeping spiral arms. As of 2018, five supernovae have been observed in M66: SN 2016cok, 2009hd, 1997bs, 1989B, and 1973R.Gravitational interaction from its past encounter with neighboring NGC 3628 has resulted in an extremely high central mass concentration; a high molecular to atomic mass ratio; and a resolved non-rotating clump of H I material apparently removed from one of the spiral arms. The latter feature shows up visually as an extremely prominent and unusual spiral arm and dust lane structures as originally noted in the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies.

NGC 210

NGC 210 is a barred spiral galaxy located roughly 67 million light-years from the Solar System in the constellation Cetus. It was discovered on October 3, 1785 by William Herschel and later added to the New General Catalogue.

NGC 3665

NGC 3665 is a lenticular galaxy located in the constellation Ursa Major. It is located at a distance of circa 85 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 3665 is about 85,000 light years across. It was discovered by William Herschel on March 23, 1789.

NGC 4459

NGC 4459 is a lenticular galaxy located about 50 million light-years away in the constellation of Coma Berenices. NGC 4459 is also classified as a LINER galaxy. NGC 4459 was discovered by astronomer William Herschel on January 14, 1787. NGC 4459 is a member of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4522

NGC 4522 is an edge-on spiral galaxy located about 60 million light-years away within the Virgo Cluster in the constellation Virgo. NGC 4522 is losing its molecular gas though ram-pressure stripping as it plows though the cluster at a speed of more than 10 million kilometres per hour. The galaxy was discovered by astronomer John Herschel on January 18, 1828.

NGC 5078

NGC 5078 is a spiral galaxy in the Hydra constellation, approximately 94 million light-years away from Earth. It has a diameter of 127,000 light-years and is probably a member of the NGC 5061 group. The dust lane of NGC 5078 is warped, probably by interaction with the nearby galaxy IC 879, which is itself distorted into an 'S' shape by the interaction. At the presumed distance the two galaxies would have a minimal separation of about 61,000 light-years. For comparison, the Large Magellanic Cloud is about 160,000 light-years from the Milky Way.

NGC 5965

NGC 5965 is a spiral galaxy located in the constellation Draco. It is located at a distance of circa 150 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 5965 is about 260,000 light years across. It was discovered by William Herschel οn May 5, 1788. Two supernovae have been observed in NGC 5965, SN 2001 cm (type II, mag 17.5) and SN 2018cyg (type II, mag 17.0).NGC 5965 is seen nearly edge-on, with an inclination of 80 degrees. Dust is seen across the galactic disk, while there is also a red dust lane at the nucleus. The bulge is X-shaped, that suggests that the galaxy is actually barred. NGC 5965 along with another edge-on galaxy, NGC 5746, were the galaxies used to confirm that peanut shaped bulge are associated with the presence of a bar, by spectographically observing the disturbance caused at the velocity distributions of the galaxies.

The galaxy features some level of disk disturbance, like a warp, as the outer part of the disk along with a ring-like dust lane appear to be on a different plane from the bulge, but it could also be a projection effect. When observed in K band, the galaxy features a stellar ring.NGC 5965 lies in a galaxy filament which also includes NGC 5987 and its loose group, which includes NGC 5981, NGC 5982, NGC 5985, three galaxies known as the Sampler.

NGC 612

NGC 612 is a lenticular galaxy in the constellation of Sculptor located approximately 388 million light-years from Earth. It is a type II Seyfert galaxy and thus has an active galactic nucleus. NGC 612 has been identified as an extremely rare example of a non-elliptical radio galaxy, hosting one of the nearest powerful FR-II radio sources.

NGC 705

NGC 705 is a lenticular galaxy located 240 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. The galaxy was discovered by astronomer William Herschel on September 21, 1786 and is also a member of Abell 262.Although NGC 705 is an early type galaxy, it has a dust lane that is concentrated toward its central region. It is projected to lie about 0.098 Mly (0.03 Mpc) from the cd-galaxy NGC 708.

NGC 708

NGC 708 is an elliptical galaxy located 240 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda and was discovered by astronomer William Herschel on September 21, 1786. It is classified as a cD galaxy and is the brightest member of Abell 262. NGC 708 is a weak FR I radio galaxy and is also classfied as a type 2 seyfert galaxy.NGC 708 is surrounded by 4700 globular clusters.

NGC 891

NGC 891 (also known as Caldwell 23 and Silver Sliver Galaxy) is an edge-on unbarred spiral galaxy about 30 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It was discovered by William Herschel on October 6, 1784. The galaxy is a member of the NGC 1023 group of galaxies in the Local Supercluster. It has an H II nucleus.The object is visible in small to moderate size telescopes as a faint elongated smear of light with a dust lane visible in larger apertures.

In 1999, the Hubble Space Telescope imaged NGC 891 in infrared.

In 2005, due to its attractiveness and scientific interest, NGC 891 was selected to be the first light image of the Large Binocular Telescope.

In 2012, it was again used as a first light image of the Discovery Channel Telescope with the Large Monolithic Imager.Supernova SN 1986J was discovered on August 21, 1986 at apparent magnitude 14.

Pipe Nebula

The Pipe Nebula (also known as Barnard 59, 65–67, and 78) is a dark nebula in the Ophiuchus constellation and a part of the Dark Horse Nebula. It is a large but readily apparent pipe shaped dust lane that obscures the Milky Way star clouds behind it. Clearly visible to the naked eye in the Southern United States under clear dark skies, but it is best viewed with 7x binoculars.

The nebula has two main parts: the Pipe Stem with an opacity of 6 which is composed of Barnard 59, 65, 66, and 67 (also known as LDN 1773) 300′ x 60′ RA: 17h 21m Dec: −27° 23′; and the Bowl of the Pipe with an opacity of 5 which is composed of Barnard 78 (also known as LDN 42) 200′ x 140′ RA: 17h 33m Dec: −26° 30′.

Skyline (Yann Tiersen album)

Skyline is the seventh studio album by Yann Tiersen. The album was published by Everything's Calm and released through Mute Records on 17 October 2011 in Europe, and six months later, on 17 April 2012, via ANTI- in North America.

The album, which features nine tracks, was engineered by Gwen Roujanski, mixed by Ken Thomas, and mastered by Ray Staff. It was released in CD and LP formats.

Snake Nebula

The Snake Nebula (also known as Barnard 72) is a dark nebula in the Ophiuchus constellation. It is a small but readily apparent S-shaped dust lane that snakes out in front of the Milky Way star clouds from the north-north-west edge of the bowl of the Pipe Nebula. Its thickness runs between 2′ and 3′ and runs around 6′ in the north-west / south-east orientation. A good view in a 4" to 6" telescope requires clear dark skies.

It is part of the much larger Dark Horse Nebula.

To the right side of the Snake Nebula is found Barnard 68. Below it are found Barnard 69, Barnard 70, and Barnard 74.

Sombrero Galaxy

The Sombrero Galaxy (also known as Messier Object 104, M104 or NGC 4594) is a lenticular galaxy in the constellation Virgo located 9.55 Mpc (31,100,000 ly) from Earth. The galaxy has a diameter of approximately 15kpc (50,000 light-years), 30% the size of the Milky Way. It has a bright nucleus, an unusually large central bulge, and a prominent dust lane in its inclined disk. The dark dust lane and the bulge give this galaxy the appearance of a sombrero. Astronomers initially thought that the halo was small and light, indicative of a spiral galaxy, but the Spitzer Space Telescope found that the halo around the Sombrero Galaxy is larger and more massive than previously thought, indicative of a giant elliptical galaxy. The galaxy has an apparent magnitude of +8.0, making it easily visible with amateur telescopes, and it is considered by some authors to be the galaxy with the highest absolute magnitude within a radius of 10 megaparsecs of the Milky Way. Its large bulge, its central supermassive black hole, and its dust lane all attract the attention of professional astronomers.

Yann Tiersen

Yann Tiersen (born 23 June 1970) is a French musician and composer. His musical career is split between studio albums, collaborations and film soundtracks. His music involves a large variety of instruments; primarily the guitar, piano, synthesizer or violin together with instruments like the melodica, xylophone, toy piano, harpsichord, accordion and typewriter.

Tiersen is often mistaken for a composer of soundtracks, himself saying "I'm not a composer and I really don't have a classical background", but his real focus is on touring and studio albums which just happen to often be suitable for film. His most famous soundtrack for the film Amélie was primarily made up of tracks taken from his first three studio albums.

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