Dushanbe

Dushanbe (Tajik: Душанбе, IPA: [duʃænˈbe]) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan. Dushanbe means Monday in the Tajik language, the local language[3][4]. It was named this way because it grew from a village that originally had a popular market on Mondays. As of 2016, Dushanbe had a population of 802,700.

Historically a small village, Dushanbe was made the capital of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924. Until 1929, the city was known in Russian as Dyushambe (Russian: Дюшамбе, Dyushambe), and from 1929 to 1961 as Stalinabad (Tajik: Сталинобод, Stalinobod) which was named after Joseph Stalin.

Dushanbe

Душанбe

Дюшамбе (Dyushanbe, 1924–29),
Сталинабад (Stalinabad, 1929–60)
Palace of Nations and the Flagpole, Dushanbe, Tajikistan
National Library of Tajikistan
TJ-Dushanbe photo (9)
Tajik Parliament House, Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Театр Лахути Душанбе
Opera-Ballet - panoramio
Dushanbe, Tajikistan - panoramio (3)
New Ashgabat - panoramio
Ismaili somoni dushanbe
Official seal of Dushanbe

Seal
Dushanbe is located in Tajikistan
Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan
Dushanbe is located in Asia
Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Dushanbe (Asia)
Coordinates: 38°32′12″N 68°46′48″E / 38.53667°N 68.78000°ECoordinates: 38°32′12″N 68°46′48″E / 38.53667°N 68.78000°E
Country Tajikistan
Government
 • MayorRustam Emomali
Area
 • City124.6 km2 (48.1 sq mi)
Elevation
706 m (2,316 ft)
Population
 (2014)[1]
 • City778,500
 • Density6,200/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,051,200
Time zoneUTC+5 (Tajikistan Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+5 (Tajikistan Time)
HDI (2017)0.728[2]
high
Websitewww.dushanbe.tj

History

Situated at the confluence of two rivers, Varzob and Kofarnihon, Dushanbe is the capital of Tajikistan. Although archaeological remnants dating to the 5th century BC have been discovered in the area, there is little to suggest that Dushanbe was more than a small village until the early 20th century.

It was at the crossroads, where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays, hence the name Dushanbe-Bazar (Tajik: Душанбе Бозор, Dushanbe Bozor)[5] from Dushanbe, which means Monday in the Persian language,[3][4] literally – the second day (du) after Saturday (shambe). In the village, there were more than 500 households and a population of about 8,000 people.

Somoni monument
Monument of Amir Ismail Samani.

By 1826, the town was called Dushanbe Qurghan (Tajik: Душанбе Қурғон, Dushanbe Qurghon, with the suffix qurƣon from Turkic qurğan, meaning "fortress") Russified as Dyushambe (Дюшамбе). The first map showing Dyushambe was drafted in 1875. At that time, the town was a fortress on a steep bank on the left bank of the Varzob River with 10,000 residents.

In 1920, the last Emir of Bukhara briefly took refuge in Dyushambe after being overthrown by the Bolshevik revolution. He fled to Afghanistan after the Red Army conquered the area the next year.[6] At the beginning of 1922, the town was taken by Basmachi troops led Enver Pasha, but on 14 July 1922 again came under the power of the Bolsheviks and was proclaimed the capital of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as a part of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924.

Dushanbe Post Office, 1937
Dushanbe Post Office in 1937

A Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic separate from the Uzbek SSR was created in 1929, and its capital Dyushambe was renamed Stalinabad (Russian: Сталинабад; Tajik: Сталинобод Stalinobod) for Joseph Stalin on 16 October 1929. In the years that followed, the city developed at a rapid pace.[7]

The Soviets transformed the area into a centre for cotton and silk production, and tens of thousands of people relocated to the city. The population also increased with thousands of Tajiks migrating to Tajikistan following the transfer of Bukhara and Samarkand to the Uzbek SSR as part of national delimitation in Central Asia.[8]

On 10 November 1961, as part of de-Stalinization,[9] Stalinabad was renamed back to Dushanbe, the name it retains to this day.

Severe rioting occurred in February 1990, after it was rumored that the Soviet government planned to relocate tens of thousands of Armenian refugees to Tajikistan. The Dushanbe riots were primarily fueled by concerns about housing shortages for the Tajik population, but they coincided with a wave of nationalist unrest that swept Transcaucasia and other Central Asian states during the twilight of Mikhail Gorbachev's rule.[10] Dushanbe became the capital of an independent Tajikistan in 1991.

In January 2017, Rustam Emomali, current President Emomali Rahmon's son, was appointed Mayor of Dushanbe, a move which is seen by some analysts as a step to reaching the top of the government.[11]

Geography

Climate

Dushanbe features a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa),[12] with strong continental climate influences (Köppen: Dsa).[12] The summers are hot and dry and the winters are chilly, but not very cold. The climate is damper than other Central Asian capitals, with an average annual rainfall over 500 millimetres (20 in) as moist air is funnelled by the surrounding valley during the winter and spring. Winters are not as cold as further north owing to the shielding of the city by mountains from extremely cold air from Siberia. January 2008 was particularly cold, and the temperature dropped to −22 °C (−8 °F).[13]

Districts

Dushanbe districts
Districts of Dushanbe

Dushanbe is divided into the following districts:

  1. Avicenna (Tajik: Абӯалӣ Ибни Сино, Abūali Ibni Sino; Persian: ابوعلی ابن سینا‌‎)
  2. Ferdowsi (Tajik: Фирдавсӣ, Firdavsi; Persian: فردوسی‌‎)
  3. Ismail Samani (Tajik: Исмоили Сомонӣ, Ismoili Somoni; Persian: اسماعیل سامانی‌‎)
  4. Shah Mansur (Tajik: Шоҳмансур, Shohmansur; Persian: شاه منصور‌‎)

Main sights

Demographics

The population of Dushanbe:

  • in 1987 was about 796,000 and was made up of ethnic Tajiks (75%), Uzbeks (10%), ethnic Russians (3%), and others (12%);
  • in 2016 was about 802,400 and was made up of ethnic Tajiks (c. 84.4%), Uzbeks (9.1%), Russians (4.1%), and others (2.4%).
Population of Dushanbe
Year Population
1926 6,000
1936 83,000
1956 227,000
1971 388,000
1987 796,000[17]
1991 582,000
2002 579,000
2006 661,000
2008 679,400[18]
2014 779,000
2015 788,700[19]
2016 802,700[20]

Economy and infrastructure

Puppet theatre in Dushanbe
Puppet theatre

Tajik Air had its head office on the grounds of Dushanbe Airport in Dushanbe.[21] Somon Air has its head office in Dushanbe.[22]

Transport

Trolley-Bus in Dushanbe
Trolleybus in Dushanbe

The city is served by Dushanbe International Airport which as of April 2015, had regularly scheduled flights to major cities in Russia, Central Asia, as well as Delhi, Dubai, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Kabul, and Ürümqi amongst others. Tajikistan's principal railways are in the southern region and connect Dushanbe with the industrial areas of the Gissar and Vakhsh valleys and with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russia.[23]

The Dushanbe trolleybus system operates public buses in the city. Automobiles are the main form of transportation in the country. The Uzbekistan border is about 50 km away and there is a road that links it to the Uzbek town of Denov. Roads to the north link it to the Sughd Region and from there to parts of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The road to the south goes to Afghanistan, accessible via the bridge at Panji Poyon 150 km away.

as of 2014 many highway and tunnel construction projects are underway or have recently been completed. Major projects include rehabilitation of the Dushanbe – Chanak (Uzbek border), Dushanbe – Kulma (Chinese border), Kurgan-Tube – Nizhny Pyanj (Afghan border) highways and construction of tunnels under the mountain passes of Anzob, Shakhristan, Shar-Shar[24] and Chormazak.[25]

Education

A number of educational facilities are based in Dushanbe:

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Dushanbe is twinned with:[7]

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2012 (in Russian)
  2. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  3. ^ a b Dushanbe in Persian language Archived 31 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b D. Saimaddinov, S. D. Kholmatova, and S. Karimov, Tajik-Russian Dictionary, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature, Scientific Center for Persian-Tajik Culture, Dushanbe, 2006.
  5. ^ Dushanbe in Dictionary of Geographic Names (in Russian)
  6. ^ "The Last Khan". 8 March 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  7. ^ a b "Regions: Dushanbe & Surroundings". Official Website of the Tourism Authority of Tajikistan. Committee of Youth Affairs, Sports and Tourism. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
  8. ^ "Dushanbe: History". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
  9. ^ "1956- De-Stalinization - Mr. Whalen- Suffern High School". sites.google.com.
  10. ^ Ethnic rioting in Dushanbe, New York Times, 13 February 1990. Retrieved 18 October 2008
  11. ^ "Tajikistan: regime eternalization completed?". The Politicon. The Politicon. 26 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  12. ^ a b "Updated Asian map of the Köppen climate classification system".
  13. ^ "Tajikistan: Citizens Ponder Bleak Future Amid Harsh Winter - Eurasianet.Org".
  14. ^ "Klimatafel von Duschanbe / Tadschikistan" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  15. ^ "Dushanbe Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  16. ^ "Tallest unsupported flagpole". Guinness World Records. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  17. ^ Genesis 1987, USSR
  18. ^ Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008 (Russian)
  19. ^ "Tajikistan: Provinces, Major Cities & Urban Settlements - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". www.citypopulation.de.
  20. ^ "Шумораи аҳолии Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон то 1 январи соли 2016 Ахбороти Агентии омори назди Президенти Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  21. ^ "Directory: World Airlines." Flight International. 30 March-5 April 2004. 78. "Titov Street 31/2, Dushanbe Airport, Dushanbe, 734006, Tajikistan."
  22. ^ "Contacts Archived 29 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine." Somon Air. Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Contacts: 40, Titova Str. Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 734012." Address in Tajik : "734012, Таджикистан, Душанбе, ул. Титова, 40" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  23. ^ Migrant Express Part 1: Good-bye Dushanbe, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BBSardpSH0E
  24. ^ Shar-Shar auto tunnel links Tajikistan to China, The 2.3 km (1 mi) Shar-Shar car tunnel linking Tajikistan and China opened to traffic on Aug. 30., Siyavush Mekhtan, 2009-09-03, http://centralasiaonline.com/en_GB/articles/caii/features/2009/09/03/feature-06
  25. ^ Chormaghzak Tunnel renamed Khatlon Tunnel and Shar-Shar Tunnel renamed Ozodi Tunnel, 12/02/2014 15:49, Payrav Chorshanbiyev, http://news.tj/en/news/chormaghzak-tunnel-renamed-khatlon-tunnel-and-shar-shar-tunnel-renamed-ozodi-tunnel
  26. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  27. ^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013.

External links

2011 Tajik League

The 2011 Tajik League was the 20th season of Tajik League, the Tajikistan Football Federation's top division of association football. Istiklol retained the Championship they won the previous season.

2012 Tajik League

In the season 2012 of the Tajik League, will participate 13 teams.Newly promoted are Khosilot, Istaravshan, and Zarafshon,while Shodmon Ghissar withdrew from the competition.

There is a limit on the foreign players. Clubs can register up to eight players, while five can be on the field. Only Parvoz Bobojon Ghafurov has the maximum of eight foreign footballers.

As Tajikistan clubs' participation was upgraded from the AFC President's Cup to the AFC Cup starting from 2013 by the AFC, two clubs (league champions and cup winners) will participate in the 2013 AFC Cup.

2013 Tajik League

The 2013 Tajik League started on 6 April 2013 and ended on 17 November 2013.

2017 Tajik League

The 2017 Tajik League is the 26th season of Tajik League, the Tajikistan Football Federation's top division of association football. FC Istiklol are the defending champions, having won the previous season.

2017 Tajikistan Cup

The 2017 Tajik Cup is the 26th edition of the Tajik Cup. The cup winner qualifies for the 2018 AFC Cup.

The draw of the tournament was held on 22 May 2017.

2018 Tajik Cup

The 2018 Tajik Cup is the 27th edition of the Tajik Cup, the knockout football tournament of Tajikistan. The cup winner qualifies for the 2019 AFC Cup.

2018 Tajik League

The 2018 Tajik League is the 27th season of Tajik League, Tajikistan's top division of association football. The season began on 10 March 2018.

Barkchi

Barki Tajik Dushanbe (Tajik: Дастаи Футболи Барқи Тоҷик, Dastai Futboli Barqi Tojik) is football club based in Dushanbe in Tajikistan. They currently play in the top division of the country, and formerly played in the Soviet Second League.

CSKA Pamir Dushanbe

CSKA Pamir Dushanbe (Tajik: Дастаи Футболи Помир, Dastai Futboli Pomir) is a football club based in Dushanbe, Capital of Tajikistan that currently plays in the Tajik League, the country's top division. Since 1997, the club has been under the patronage of the Tajik Army, like its rivals CSKA Dushanbe.

Districts of Republican Subordination

Districts of Republican Subordination (Tajik: Ноҳияҳои тобеи ҷумҳурӣ, Nohiyaho‘i tobe‘i jumhurî/Nohijahoji toвeji çumhurī; Russian: Районы республиканского подчинения, Rajony respublikanskogo podčinenija) is a region in Tajikistan, consisting of 13 districts that are directly under central rule.

Districts of Tajikistan

The provinces of Tajikistan are subdivided into 58 districts (Tajik: ноҳия, nohiya or Russian: район, rayon), not including 4 districts belonging to the capital city Dushanbe, together with 17 cities of provincial subordination (including Dushanbe, an extraprovincial capital city). The districts (or nohiyas) are further subdivided into rural municipalities called jamoats, which in turn are further subdivided into villages (or deha or qyshqol).

The numbering of the districts follows the map.

Dushanbe International Airport

Dushanbe International Airport (IATA: DYU, ICAO: UTDD) is an airport in Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan. It is the a main hub for Somon Air and was the home base for now defunct Tajik Air, which also had its head office on the property.

European route E008

E 008 is a European B class road in Tajikistan, connecting the cities Dushanbe - Kulob - Kalaikhumb - Khorugh – Murghab - Kulma - border of China. The border is located at the Kulma Pass, at an elevation of 4,362 metres (14,311 ft), the highest elevation of any E-route.

FC Istiklol

Not to be confused with Uzbek club, FK Istiqlol Fergana.

Football Club Istiklol (Tajik: Дастаи Футболи Истиқлол, Dastayi Futboli Istiqlol) is a professional football club based in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. They currently play in the top division of the country. The club is named after the independence of Tajikistan. Istiklol from Tajik to English translated as Independence.

Pamir Stadium

The Pamir Stadium (Tajik: Варзишгоҳи ҷумҳурии марказӣ «Помир», Varzišgohi jumhuriyi markazí «Pomir»; Persian: ورزشگاه پامیر‎, Varzešgâhe Pâmir) is a multi-purpose stadium in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It is officially known as the Central Republican Stadium. It is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium currently holds 20,000. It is currently the home ground of the Tajikistan national football team, Istiqlol Dushanbe and formerly of CSKA Pomir Dushanbe.

Next to it is located the Dushanbe Zoo.

Regions of Tajikistan

Tajikistan is divided into

one autonomous region (Tajik: Вилояти мухтор, viloyati mukhtor

two regions (Tajik: вилоятҳо, viloyatho Persian: ولایتها‎), sing. Tajik: вилоят, viloyatو Persian: ولایت‎, Russian: oblast )

the Districts of Republican Subordination

Dushanbe, the capital city.

1 The direct translation from Tajik is Kuhistoni Badakhshon Autonoumous Region, but the name translated from Russian are more commonly used in English.

Each region is divided into districts (nohiya or rayon), which are further subdivided into jamoats (full name jamoati dehot), and then villages/settlements (deha). Tajikistan has a total of 58 (not including 4 districts of the capital city Dushanbe) districts.

Tajikistan

Tajikistan ( (listen), ; Tajik: Тоҷикистон [tɔdʒikisˈtɔn]), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an area of 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi) and an estimated population of 8.7 million people as of 2016. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. The traditional homelands of the Tajik people include present-day Tajikistan as well as parts of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.

The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilisation, Andronovo culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Islam. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid dynasty, the Khanate of Bukhara, the Russian Empire, and subsequently the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, the country's modern borders were drawn when it was part of Uzbekistan as an autonomous republic before becoming a full-fledged Soviet republic in 1929.On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan became an independent sovereign nation when the Soviet Union disintegrated. A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Like all other Central Asian neighbouring states, the country, led by President Emomali Rahmon since 1994, has been criticised by a number of non-governmental organizations for authoritarian leadership, lack of religious freedom, corruption and widespread violations of human rights.

Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's 8.7 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian). Russian being used as inter-ethnic

language. While the state is constitutionally secular, Islam is practiced by 98% of the population. In the Gorno-Badakhshan Oblast of Tajikistan, despite its sparse population, there is large linguistic diversity where Rushani, Shughni, Ishkashimi, Wakhi and Tajik are some of the languages spoken. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a transition economy that is highly dependent on remittances, aluminium and cotton production. Tajikistan is a member of the United Nations, CIS, OSCE, OIC, ECO, SCO and CSTO as well as an NATO PfP partner.

Tajikistan Cup

Tajikistan Cup (Tajiki: Ҷоми Тоҷикистон / Jâmi Tâjikistân; Russian: Кубок Таджикистана) is the top knockout tournament of the Tadjikistan football.

Tajikistan Football League

Tajikistan Football League (Tajiki: Лигаи футболи Тоҷикистон / Ligai futboli Tojikiston; Russian: Футбольная лига Таджикистана), Tajikistan Higher League (Tajiki: Лигаи олии Тоҷикистон / Ligai olii Tojikiston; Russian: Высшая лига Таджикистана) — is the top division of football in Tajikistan, and is operated under the auspices of the Tajikistan Football League Organization and Tajikistan Football Federation.

It was founded in 1992. 8 clubs participate in the Higher League of the Tajikistan Football League.

The first champions of the league were CSKA Pomir Dushanbe in 1992. The most successful team is Regar-TadAZ Tursunzoda with seven league titles. The number of foreign players is limited to eight per team.

Climate data for Dushanbe (1961–1990, extremes 1951–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.6
(70.9)
23.1
(73.6)
30.6
(87.1)
35.6
(96.1)
38.8
(101.8)
43.0
(109.4)
43.3
(109.9)
45.0
(113.0)
40.6
(105.1)
36.8
(98.2)
31.7
(89.1)
24.3
(75.7)
45.0
(113.0)
Average high °C (°F) 7.9
(46.2)
10.2
(50.4)
15.2
(59.4)
22.1
(71.8)
27.0
(80.6)
33.1
(91.6)
35.8
(96.4)
34.3
(93.7)
30.7
(87.3)
24.2
(75.6)
17.1
(62.8)
10.8
(51.4)
22.4
(72.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
3.8
(38.8)
9.2
(48.6)
15.4
(59.7)
20.0
(68.0)
25.3
(77.5)
27.1
(80.8)
24.9
(76.8)
20.1
(68.2)
14.3
(57.7)
8.9
(48.0)
4.8
(40.6)
14.7
(58.5)
Average low °C (°F) −2.0
(28.4)
−0.2
(31.6)
4.2
(39.6)
9.3
(48.7)
13.0
(55.4)
16.5
(61.7)
17.9
(64.2)
15.9
(60.6)
11.1
(52.0)
6.7
(44.1)
3.5
(38.3)
0.8
(33.4)
8.2
(46.8)
Record low °C (°F) −26.6
(−15.9)
−17.3
(0.9)
−13.4
(7.9)
−7.8
(18.0)
1.2
(34.2)
8.4
(47.1)
10.9
(51.6)
8.1
(46.6)
1.9
(35.4)
−4.4
(24.1)
−13.5
(7.7)
−19.5
(−3.1)
−26.6
(−15.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.3
(2.61)
75.4
(2.97)
107.5
(4.23)
105.0
(4.13)
66.0
(2.60)
5.5
(0.22)
3.2
(0.13)
0.5
(0.02)
3.1
(0.12)
30.6
(1.20)
44.7
(1.76)
59.8
(2.35)
567.6
(22.35)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.5 9.1 13.4 9.8 7.8 1.5 0.7 0.1 0.8 3.7 5.3 8.1 68.8
Average relative humidity (%) 69 67 65 63 57 42 41 44 44 56 63 69 57
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120 121 156 198 281 337 352 338 289 224 164 119 2,699
Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst[14]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[15]
Capitals of Asia

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