Duration (music)

In music, duration is an amount of time or how long or short a note, phrase, section, or composition lasts. "Duration is the length of time a pitch, or tone, is sounded."[1] A note may last less than a second, while a symphony may last more than an hour. One of the fundamental features of rhythm, or encompassing rhythm, duration is also central to meter and musical form. Release plays an important part in determining the timbre of a musical instrument and is affected by articulation.

The concept of duration can be further broken down into those of beat and meter, where beat is seen as (usually, but certainly not always) a 'constant', and rhythm being longer, shorter or the same length as the beat. Pitch may even be considered a part of duration. In serial music the beginning of a note may be considered, or its duration may be (for example, is a 6 the note which begins at the sixth beat, or which lasts six beats?).

Durations, and their beginnings and endings, may be described as long, short, or taking a specific amount of time. Often duration is described according to terms borrowed from descriptions of pitch. As such, the duration complement is the amount of different durations used, the duration scale is an ordering (scale) of those durations from shortest to longest, the duration range is the difference in length between the shortest and longest, and the duration hierarchy is an ordering of those durations based on frequency of use.[2]

Durational patterns are the foreground details projected against a background metric structure, which includes meter, tempo, and all rhythmic aspects which produce temporal regularity or structure. Duration patterns may be divided into rhythmic units and rhythmic gestures (Winold, 1975, chap. 3). But they may also be described using terms borrowed from the metrical feet of poetry: iamb (weak–strong), anapest (weak–weak–strong), trochee (strong–weak), dactyl (strong–weak–weak), and amphibrach (weak–strong–weak), which may overlap to explain ambiguity.[3]

Characteristic rock drum pattern
Simple [quadr]duple drum pattern, against which duration is measured in much popular music: divides two beats into two Play .
Duration example with length, articulation, and pedal
Various durations Play 

See also

References

  1. ^ Benward & Saker (2003). Music: In Theory and Practice, Vol. I, p.230. Seventh Edition. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0.
  2. ^ Winold, Allen (1975). "Rhythm in Twentieth-Century Music". Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. Delone and Wittlich (eds.). pp. 208–269. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-049346-5.
  3. ^ Cooper and Meyer (1960). The Rhythmic Structure of Music,. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-11522-4. Cited in Winold (1975, chapter three).
Ami Shudhu Cheyechi Tomay

Ami Shudhu Cheyechi Tomay is a 2014 West Bengal and Bangladesh joint film directed by Ashok Pati and Anonno Mamun and produced by Ashok Dhanuka under the banner of Eskay Movies. The film was co-produced by Action Cut Entertainment. The film features Bengali actors Ankush Hazra, Subhasree Ganguly and Vikram Chatterjee in the lead roles. It is a remake of Telugu movie Arya 2. The music for the film was composed by Savvy Gupta, Hridoy Khan & Akassh.

This is the fourth collaboration between Ankush and Eskay Movies, after Idiot, Kanamachi, and Khiladi. This is the third collaboration between Subhasree and Eskay Movies, after Khokababu and Khoka 420. This is also Ankush and Subhasree's first Indo-Bangladeshi joint venture film.

Bhopal Express (film)

Bhopal Express (Hindi: भोपाल एक्सप्रेस) is a 1999 Hindi film directed by Mahesh Mathai. The film stars Kay Kay Menon, Naseeruddin Shah, Nethra Raghuraman, Zeenat Aman and Vijay Raaz. The story was written by the advertising film maker Prasoon Pandey and his brother Piyush Pandey. The music was composed by the Shankar-Ehsaan-Loy trio.

Duration

Duration may refer to:

The amount of elapsed time between two events

Duration (music) – an amount of time or a particular time interval, often cited as one of the fundamental aspects of music

Duration (philosophy) – a theory of time and consciousness first proposed by Henri Bergson

Duration (project management) – the number of calendar periods for the completion of a project in project management

Bond duration – the weighted average time until the various cash flows from a bond are received

Hourglass

An hourglass (or sandglass, sand timer, sand clock or egg timer) is a device used to measure the passage of time. It comprises two glass bulbs connected vertically by a narrow neck that allows a regulated trickle of material (historically sand) from the upper bulb to the lower one. Factors affecting the time it measured include sand quantity, sand coarseness, bulb size, and neck width. Hourglasses may be reused indefinitely by inverting the bulbs once the upper bulb is empty. Depictions of hourglasses in art survive in large numbers from antiquity to the present day, as a symbol for the passage of time. These were especially common sculpted as epitaphs on tombstones or other monuments, also in the form of the winged hourglass, a literal depiction of the well-known Latin epitaph tempus fugit ("time flies").

Music and mathematics

Music theory has no axiomatic foundation in modern mathematics, yet the basis of musical sound can be described mathematically (in acoustics) and exhibits "a remarkable array of number properties". Elements of music such as its form, rhythm and metre, the pitches of its notes and the tempo of its pulse can be related to the measurement of time and frequency, offering ready analogies in geometry.

The attempt to structure and communicate new ways of composing and hearing music has led to musical applications of set theory, abstract algebra and number theory. Some composers have incorporated the golden ratio and Fibonacci numbers into their work.

Romeo vs Juliet

Romeo vs Juliet is an Indo-Bangladeshi joint venture romantic comedy film, produced jointly by Eskay Movies and Jaaz Multimedia. The film is directed by Ashok Pati and features a cast which includes Ankush Hazra and Mahiya Mahi. The film released on 16 January 2015.

Summon the Heroes

Summon the Heroes is a one-movement orchestral composition written for the 1996 Summer Olympics by the American composer John Williams for the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). It premiered July 19, 1996, at the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia. The composition was dedicated to Tim Morrison, trumpet soloist of the Boston Pops Orchestra. The piece is the third of four compositions Williams has written for the Olympics, following 1984's Olympic Fanfare and Theme and 1988's Olympic Spirit, and preceding 2002's Call of the Champions.

Sunday (2008 film)

Sunday is a 2008 Indian Hindi mystery comedy film directed by Rohit Shetty. The film stars Ajay Devgn, Ayesha Takia, Arshad Warsi and Irrfan Khan in lead roles. It is a remake of the 2005 Telugu film Anukokunda Oka Roju.Sunday released on 25 January 2008, and received mixed response from critics. It also managed to do average business at the box office worldwide.

Term (time)

A term is a period of duration, time or occurrence, in relation to an event. To differentiate an interval or duration, common phrases are used to distinguish the observance of length are near-term or short-term, medium-term or mid-term and long-term.

It is also used as part of a calendar year, especially one of the three parts of an academic term and working year in the United Kingdom: Michaelmas term, Hilary term / Lent term or Trinity term / Easter term, the equivalent to the American semester. In America there is a midterm election held in the middle of the four-year presidential term, there are also academic midterm exams.

In economics, it is the period required for economic agents to reallocate resources, and generally reestablish equilibrium. The actual length of this period, usually numbered in years or decades, varies widely depending on circumstantial context. During the long term, all factors are variable.

In finance or financial operations of borrowing and investing, what is considered long-term is usually above 3 years, with medium-term usually between 1 and 3 years and short-term usually under 1 year. It is also used in some countries to indicate a fixed term investment such as a term deposit.

In law, the term of a contract is the duration for which it is to remain in effect (not to be confused with the meaning of "term" that denotes any provision of a contract). A fixed-term contract is one concluded for a pre-defined time, although it may also include provision for it to be extended. A contractor required to deliver against a term contract is often referred to as a "term contractor".

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