Dunham Massey Hall

Dunham Massey Hall, usually known simply as Dunham Massey,[1] is an English country house in the parish of Dunham Massey in the district of Trafford,[2] near Altrincham, Greater Manchester. It is now a National Trust property, open to the public.[1] During World War I it was the Stamford Military Hospital,[3]

The stately home was designated a Grade One listed-building on 5 March 1959.[2] It has been owned by the National Trust since the death of the 10th and last Earl of Stamford in 1976.[4] Over 340,000 people visited the house in 2014/15, placing it in the ten most popular National Trust houses.[5]

Dunham Massey was built in the early 17th century by the Earls of Warrington, passing to the Earls of Stamford by inheritance; the family still live in part of the house. There were significant alterations, especially internally, at the start of the 20th century.[6] It has historic formal gardens and a deer park. It was formerly in the ancient parish of Bowdon, Cheshire.

Dunham Massey Hall
Dunham Massey 2015 105
Alternative namesDunham Massey;
Stamford Military Hospital
Website
www.nationaltrust.org.uk/dunham-massey

Main house

Courtyard and fountain in Dunham Massey Hall - geograph.org.uk - 1378677
Courtyard

William Booth, son of Sir George Booth, 1st Baronet, began the building of the hall in the early 17th century on a moated platform. However, the house remained uncompleted by the time of his death and was only completed after the Civil War in the later 17th century by his son, George Booth, 1st Baron Delamer.

Internally, the service rooms such as the kitchen have changed little for over a century, and have been restored to reflect their use then.[7] The mansion's service court dates from circa 1721.[2] The clock tower is inscribed with that date, suggesting that was when improvements were made to the stables. In the 1730s, John Norris was brought in to redesign the whole mansion by the 2nd Earl of Warrington, with a design of brick façade accentuated by bays and a stone centerpiece.[8] The house was then acquired by the Grey family of Enville Hall via the marriage of Lady Mary Booth, daughter of the 2nd Earl, who oversaw to the remodeling of the landscape, work which was reputedly undertaken by Lancelot Capability Brown.

The house remained occupied by the Grey family until the 7th Earl of Stamford’s marriage to Elizabeth (Bessie) King Billage at which stage the house and wider estates were abandoned for a time. The Earl at this time condemned the snobs of Cottonopolis (Manchester) because of their disrespectful attitude towards his wife Bessie and vowed never to step foot in Dunham Massey Hall again. He married Catherine Cox in August 1855 and although they spent private time at Dunham Massey Hall they never considered this to be their home. Catherine Cox was the second daughter of Henry and Jemima Cox, their first daughter Tamar gave birth to three illegitimate children and namely Sarah Letitia Cox and the niece of the Countess and who Catherine took under her wing, Sarah Letitia lived with her aunt from at least 1851 when the census was taken. The descendants of Sarah Letitia Cox and the relations of the Countess still occupy Enville Hall today. [9]


The double courtyard house is built of Flemish bond brick, stone dressings, and a roof of Westmorland and Welsh slate.[2] The external architecture is relatively plain,[10] and was even more so until the house was modified in 1905-08 by Compton Hall, after its reoccupation by William Grey, 9th Earl of Stamford. Until this time, the southern front of the building had 11 three-storey bays; in order to make the building look more 17th-century in style, the 3rd, 4th, 8th, and 9th bays were reduced to two stories with dormers, and a centrepiece of 3 bays was added, with columns each side of the central bay as well as stone pediments.[2]

Stamford Military Hospital

Dunham Massey 2015 20
A ward inside Dunham Massey Hall as reconstructed in 2015.

During World War One, Penelope Grey, Countess of Stamford, wife of the 10th Earl of Stamford, made the stately home available to the Red Cross as a military hospital, becoming known as the Stamford Military Hospital from April 1917 to January 1919. It hosted 182 injured soldiers who had suffered injuries and needed medical care, but not life-threatening, ranging from gas poisoning to bullets in the brain. The hospital was run by Sister Catherine Bennett, and Lady Stamford's daughter, Lady Jane Grey (later Turnbull),[11] trained as a nurse at the hospital.[3][12]

From 1 March 2014 until 11 November 2016, the main ward at Stamford Military Hospital (known as "Baghdad"), along with the operating theatre, nurses' station and the recreation room were recreated to commemorate the 100-year anniversary of the start of World War One,[3] along with actors playing the role of characters who worked, lived and recovered at the hospital.[12][9]

Contents

Dunham Massey 2015 56
The library, with the Grinling Gibbons carving

Dunham Massey contains one of the largest collections of Huguenot silver, largely collected by George Booth, 2nd Earl of Warrington. During his 64 years at Dunham Massey, he accumulated over 1000 pieces of silver. One sixth of the original plate remains at Dunham Massey, with much of the collection being dispersed by the Countess of Stamford and Warrington (who died in 1905), widow of George Grey, Earl of Stamford and Warrington (died 1883). The 10th Earl, Roger Grey, expended much money and effort in returning family heirlooms originally from Dunham Massey.[13]

There is a fine collection of oil paintings and watercolours. The relief wood-carving of the Crucifixion by Grinling Gibbons, which hangs in the Library, is the earliest known work by the 17th-century wood carver. It is on this piece of work he was working when he was discovered by John Evelyn in 1671. A group of paintings of the house and estate from the 1690s and 1750s are described by Simon Jenkins as "the most remarkable topographical survey of any country house and its grounds to remain in situ. These are in the Great Gallery, which also has an Allegory of Time by Guercino.[14]

Other buildings

Dunham Massey 2016 036
The garden front

The Carriage House, located south of the kitchen courtyard, is also Grade 1 listed. It has a clock turret, which displays a date of 1721.[15]

Also located south of the Hall are the stable buildings are also Grade 1 listed. They probably date from 1721, but the west side was extended in the 18th century.[16] The Stables Restaurant is located in the upstairs of the South Stables, with an ice cream parlour below.

Gardens and park

Dunham Massey Hall 20080803-1
Deer in front of the house

The gardens houses over 700 plant species, as well as 1,600 trees and shrubs, and it hosts the largest winter garden in Britain.[4] The Winter Garden has many snowdrops, daffodils and bluebells.[17]

The 300 acre[4] deer park at Dunham Massey dates back to medieval times.[18] The oldest surviving building on the Dunham Estate is the Mill.[18]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Dunham Massey". National Trust. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Dunham Hall". Historic England. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  3. ^ a b c "First World War hospital to be recreated at National Trust's Dunham Massey Hall". 1914. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  4. ^ a b c "A walk in the grounds of Dunham Massey". Guardian. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  5. ^ National Trust 2014/15 Annual Report, 71
  6. ^ Jenkins, 79-80
  7. ^ Jenkins, 79-80
  8. ^ The National Trust (2000). Dunham Massey.
  9. ^ a b "Bringing history to life". National Trust. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  10. ^ Jenkins, 79-80
  11. ^ www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk
  12. ^ a b "First World War Centenary: Dunham Massey Hall reconverted into a hospital". Independent. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  13. ^ The National Trust (2000). Dunham Massey. pp. 29–30.
  14. ^ Jenkins, 80
  15. ^ "Carriage House Immediately To South Of Kitchen Courtyard". Historic England. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  16. ^ "Stables To South Of Hall". Historic England. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  17. ^ "See the Garden spring to life". National Trust. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  18. ^ a b "A perfect parkland". National Trust. Retrieved 21 February 2016.

References

  • Jenkins, Simon, England's Thousand Best Houses, 2003, Allen Lane, ISBN 0-7139-9596-3 (gives 3 stars)

External links

Coordinates: 53°22′58″N 2°24′00″W / 53.3827°N 2.4000°W

Altrincham

Altrincham ( (listen) OL-tring-əm) is a town in Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, south of the River Mersey 8 miles (13 km) southwest of Manchester city centre, 3 miles (5 km) southwest of Sale and 10 miles (16 km) east of Warrington. At the 2011 Census, it had a population of 52,419.Historically part of Cheshire, Altrincham was established as a market town in 1290, a time when the economy of most communities was based on agriculture rather than trade, and there is still a market in the town. Further socioeconomic development came with the extension of the Bridgewater Canal to Altrincham in 1765 and the arrival of the railway in 1849, stimulating industrial activity in the town. Outlying villages were absorbed by Altrincham's subsequent growth, along with the grounds of Dunham Massey Hall, formerly the home of the Earl of Stamford, and now a tourist attraction with three Grade I Listed Buildings and a deer park.

Altrincham today is an affluent commuter town, partly because of its transport links. The town has a strong middle-class presence; there has been a steady increase in Altrincham's middle classes since the 19th century. It is also home to Altrincham F.C. and three ice hockey clubs: Manchester Storm, Altrincham Aces and Trafford Tornados.

Dunham Castle

Dunham Castle is an early medieval castle in Dunham Massey, Greater Manchester, England (grid reference SJ73428742).

Dunham Massey

Dunham Massey is a civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford, Greater Manchester, England. The parish includes the villages of Sinderland Green, Dunham Woodhouses and Dunham Town, along with Dunham Massey Hall and Park, formerly the home of the last Earl of Stamford and owned by the National Trust since 1976. Dunham Massey was historically in the county of Cheshire, but since 1974 has been part of Trafford Metropolitan Borough; the nearest town is Altrincham. At the 2001 census, the parish had a population of 475.Dunham Massey's history is reflected in its 45 listed buildings. It was a regionally important place during the medieval period, and the seat of the Massey barons. The Georgian mansion with the remains of a castle on its grounds is a popular tourist attraction. There are two Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Dunham Massey: Dunham Park, located south of Dunham Town, and Brookheys Covert.

Earl of Stamford

Earl of Stamford was a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1628 for Henry Grey, 2nd Baron Grey of Groby. This Grey family descended through Lord John Grey, of Pirgo, Essex, younger son of Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset, and younger brother of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk (father of Lady Jane Grey); Suffolk was executed for treason in 1554 forfeiting his titles (see the Duke of Suffolk for earlier history of the family).

George Booth, 1st Baron Delamer

George Booth, 1st Baron Delamer (August 1622 – 8 August 1684), styled Sir George Booth, 2nd Bt, from 1652 to 1661, until his elevation to the House of Lords as an English peer.

George Booth, 2nd Earl of Warrington

George Booth, 2nd Earl of Warrington (2 May 1675 – 2 August 1758) was an English peer and landowner, who amassed a fine collection of silver.

George Grey, 5th Earl of Stamford

George Harry Grey, 5th Earl of Stamford (1 October 1737 – 28 May 1819), styled Lord Grey from 1739 to 1768, was a British nobleman, who additionally became a peer of Great Britain as Earl of Warrington in 1796.

The eldest son and heir of Harry Grey, 4th Earl of Stamford by his wife Lady Mary, only daughter and heiress of George Booth, 2nd Earl of Warrington, baptised on 21 October at Newtown Linford, Leicestershire. Educated at Leicester School he went up to Queens' College, Cambridge. where he matriculated in the Michaelmas term 1755, graduating MA in 1758.

Lord Grey served as Whig MP for Staffordshire from 1761 until 1768. On 22 September he was a Page of Honour at George III's coronation. Colonel of the Royal Chester Regiment of Militia from 1764, and Lord Lieutenant from 1783.

The Grey family owned large tracts of land at Enville in Staffordshire and Bradgate Park in Leicestershire, and his mother had inherited Dunham Massey Hall and land in Stalybridge. His father died in 1768 and his mother in 1772. He was created on 22 April 1796 the Baron Delamer of Dunham Massey, in the County of Chester, and Earl of Warrington.

On 28 May 1763, he married Lady Henrietta, second daughter of William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland by Margaret Cavendish, only daughter and heiress of Robert, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Mortimer at Stamford House, Whitehall, and registry office, Westminster, having nine children including:

Lady Henrietta (1764-1826), married John Chetwode

George Grey, 6th Earl of Stamford (1765-1845), his successor in the family titles

Lady Marie Booth Grey (1767-1767)

Lady Maria (1769-1838), married John Cotes MP

Lady Louisa Booth Grey (1771-1830)

William Booth Grey (1773-1852)

Anchitel Grey, a prebendary (1774-1833)

Henry Grey, a naval commander (1776-1799)

Lady Sophia (1777-1849), married her cousin, Booth Grey, of Ashton Hayes

Lady Amelia (1779-1849), married John Lister KayeHe succeeded to his father's earldom in 1768. His brother-in-law, William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, while Prime Minister, suggested that Stamford should also become a peer of Great Britain in addition to being an English peer. He accepted an earldom in 1796 from Portland's successor William Pitt the Younger, rather than the reported previous offer of a marquessate; in the absence of there being another dukedom in keeping with Grey family tradition (cf Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk), Stamford deemed it better to preserve the memory of his grandmaternal family whose estates he had inherited. Thus he received the additional titles of Baron Delamer and Earl of Warrington (in the peerage of Great Britain) in recognition of the Booth family.

He modernised the family's Staffordshire seat at Enville to the design of Thomas Hope. He promoted the development of the town of Ashton-under-Lyne (where he had appointed his cousin, George Booth as Rector) near Manchester, on land inherited from the Earls of Warrington.On his death at Enville Hall on 23 May 1819 he was succeeded by his eldest son, after his will was proven became 6th Earl of Stamford and 2nd Earl of Warrington.

George Grey, 7th Earl of Stamford

George Harry Booth-Grey, 7th Earl of Stamford and 3rd Earl of Warrington (7 January 1827 – 2 January 1883) was an English cricketer, landowner and peer, who sat on the Whig benches in the House of Lords.

Harry Grey, 4th Earl of Stamford

Harry Grey, 4th Earl of Stamford (18 June 1715 – 30 May 1768) was an English peer, styled Lord Grey from 1720 to 1739.Harry Grey was born at Enville Hall, the eldest son of Henry Grey, 3rd Earl of Stamford. He was educated at Rugby and Westminster.

In 1736, he married Lady Mary Booth, the only daughter and heiress of George, 2nd Earl of Warrington. They had three children:

George Harry Grey, 5th Earl of Stamford (1737–1819)

Hon. Booth Grey (1740–1802), the MP for Leicester from 1774 to 1784, married, with a son and daughter

Hon. John Grey (1743 – 12 July 1802), married and had issueIn 1738, he represented Leicestershire in the British House of Commons, but entered the House of Lords in 1739 upon inheriting the earldom. On 3 March 1744, he was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Lincolnshire, and on 8 March, of Staffordshire too.

He had inherited the Grey estates at Bradgate Park in Leicestershire and Enville in Staffordshire but decided to make Enville Hall the family seat. Bradgate House was therefore bricked up and the park there kept for hunting and game. The Enville grounds (750 acres) were significantly re-landscaped during the mid-18th century. Mary, Countess of Stamford also inherited large estates at Dunham Massey in Cheshire and Stalybridge in Lancashire on the death of her father in 1758.

He died at Enville Hall and was succeeded in the earldom by his son (George) Harry, 5th Earl of Stamford (later Earl of Stamford and Warrington).

House of Grey

The House of Grey is an ancient English noble family originating from Creully in Normandy. Its name, initially having been difficult to comprehend in the English language, was variously transliterated as Grey, Grai, Greye, Gray, etc.

In the Middle Ages, the Grey family was first ennobled as Barons Grey of Codnor, of Ruthyn and of Wilton (later being elevated as viscounts, earls, marquesses and dukes).

List of National Trust properties in England

This is a list of National Trust properties in England, including any stately home, historic house, castle, abbey, museum or other property in the care of the National Trust in England.

List of museums in Cheshire

In this list of museums in Cheshire, England, museums are defined as institutions (including non-profit organisations, government entities and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural, artistic, scientific or historical interest, and that make their collections or related exhibits available for public viewing. Also included are non-profit art galleries and university art galleries. Museums that exist only in cyberspace (virtual museums) are not included.

Many Cheshire museums focus on the area's industrial heritage, including Quarry Bank Mill in Styal and Clarence Mill in Bollington (cotton), the Macclesfield Museums (silk), the Catalyst Science Discovery Centre in Widnes (chemicals), and the Lion Salt Works in Marston and Weaver Hall Museum in Northwich (salt). The Anson Engine Museum in Poynton is on the site of a former colliery. Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre, on the site of the observatory in Lower Withington, explores astronomy. There are also several transport museums, including the Crewe Heritage Centre (railways), the National Waterways Museum in Ellesmere Port and the Anderton Boat Lift (canals). There are water-powered mills at Bunbury, Nether Alderley and Stretton.

The cities of Chester and Warrington each have a combined museum and art gallery, and the towns of Congleton and Nantwich have local museums. Norton Priory is the remains of an Augustinian abbey, and Englesea Brook Chapel and Museum documents the Primitive Methodist movement. Historic house museums are also represented in the county, including Little Moreton Hall and Lyme Park. Cheshire Military Museum in Chester Castle covers the county's regimental history, and RAF Burtonwood Heritage Centre and Hack Green Secret Nuclear Bunker explore more recent military history. The Museum of Policing in Warrington documents Cheshire's police forces. Unusual specialist museums include Cuckooland Museum, which exhibits cuckoo clocks.

List of museums in Greater Manchester

This list of museums in Greater Manchester, England contains museums which are defined for this context as institutions (including nonprofit organizations, government entities, and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural, artistic, scientific, or historical interest and make their collections or related exhibits available for public viewing. Also included are non-profit art galleries and university art galleries. Museums that exist only in cyberspace (i.e., virtual museums) are not included.

To use the sortable table, click on the icons at the top of each column to sort that column in alphabetical order; click again for reverse alphabetical order.

List of places of interest in Greater Manchester

This is a list of places of interest in the British county of Greater Manchester. See List of places in Greater Manchester for a list of settlements in Greater Manchester.

Listed buildings in Dunham Massey

Dunham Massey is a civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford, Greater Manchester, England. It contains 48 listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Of these, three are listed at Grade I, the highest of the three grades, one is at Grade II*, the middle grade, and the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade.

The major building in the parish is Dunham Massey Hall; the hall, many structures associated with it, and buildings in its adjacent park are listed. The rest of the parish is mainly rural, and contains the settlements of Dunham Town, Sinderland Green, and Dunham Woodhouses. Most of the listed buildings outside Dunham Massey Park and Gardens are houses and cottages, farmhouses and farm buildings. The Bridgewater Canal passes through the parish and a bridge and an aqueduct associated with it are listed. The other listed buildings include another bridge, an obelisk, a former school, a former water-powered mill, and a war memorial.

Peter Archambo I

Peter Archambo I (1699–1759) in his time Peter Archambo, was a Huguenot silver and goldsmith. He was the English-born son of the Huguenot (Protestant) refugee Archambault family from France. In 1710 he was apprenticed to the notable Huguenot goldsmith Jacob Margas (1677-circa 1750).The sons of Huguenot immigrants were often apprenticed to masters of Huguenot origin, benefitting from their master's manufacturing skill and design knowledge and thus were in a position to develop the ideas and designs brought by their masters from France. Huguenot silver is noted for its fine workmanship and design elements including strap work, cut card work, and cast and applied ornaments and decoration with elaborate engraving.

Archambo's work is described as French in influence and he is credited with helping to introduce the Rococo style into England (popular c. 1725 – c. 1765).

After serving as apprentice for ten years to Jacob Margas he became a Freeman of the Butchers' Company on 7 December 1720 (rather than the Goldsmiths' Company, which was restricting entry to foreigners into their guild). He first registered his mark in London in 1721, his second mark in 1722 and his third mark in 1739 and is thought to have retired around 1750 and to have died c. 1759.Archambo's work is characterised as in a more restrained manner than that of some of his contemporaries such as the extraordinarily complex silversmith Paul de Lamerie, to whom his son, Peter Archambo (today distinguished as Peter Archambo II) was initially apprenticed.

Archambo produced much fine quality domestic silver encompassing a wide range of objects, including cups, candlesticks, cream jugs and cake baskets. The wares often feature marine motifs such as shells and figures such as Neptune.

In 1731 he produced the very fine hot water kettle with a circular body with a finely engraved contemporary armorial crest now part of the interpretative collection at The Johnston Collection in East Melbourne (in Victoria). Shells and Neptune adorn this elegant item which would have been a key requisite for entertaining in style.

Other of his works in well known collections include the magnificent wine urn chased with masks, shells and strap-work, and its companion, a wine cistern commissioned by George Booth, 2nd Earl of Warrington (1675–1758), which remain in the notable collection of silver at Dunham Massey Hall in Cheshire. The Gilbert Collection now at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London has a neo-classical hot-water urn and a set of three exquisite caddies with finely engraved decoration. At the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York there are a pair of plain ewers dated 1740 and a pair of sauce boats dated 1733-34.

Thomas Heming was apprenticed to Archambo from 1735–45, whose work, distinctly French in character, shows signs of his master's influence. Heming was an influential and highly regarded goldsmith and from 1760-82 he was appointed Principal Goldsmith to George III. He was responsible for many pieces of large and important silverware, including regalia and plate for the coronation of George III in 1761.

Roger Grey, 10th Earl of Stamford

Roger Grey, 10th Earl of Stamford (27 October 1896 – 18 August 1976) was an English peer.

He took his seat in the House of Lords on 19 March 1919 but rarely sat in the House.

Secrets of the National Trust

Secrets of the National Trust is a television programme, anchored by Alan Titchmarsh, which first aired on Tuesday 7 February 2017 on Channel 5.

Trafford

Trafford is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England, with an estimated population of 235,493 in 2017. It covers 41 square miles (106 km2) and includes the areas of Old Trafford, Stretford, Urmston, Altrincham, Partington and Sale. The borough was formed in 1974 as a merger of the metropolitan boroughs of Altrincham, Sale, and Stretford, the urban districts of Bowdon, Hale and Urmston and part of Bucklow Rural District. The River Mersey flows through the borough, separating North Trafford from South Trafford, and the historic counties of Lancashire and Cheshire.

There is evidence of Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Roman activity in the area, two castles – one of them a Scheduled Ancient Monument – and over 200 listed buildings. In the late 19th century, the population rapidly expanded with the arrival of the railway. Trafford is the home of Altrincham Football Club, Trafford Football Club, Manchester United F.C., The Trafford Centre and Lancashire County Cricket Club and since 2002 the Imperial War Museum North.

Trafford has a strong economy with low levels of unemployment and contains both Trafford Park industrial estate and the Trafford Centre, a large out-of-town shopping centre. Apart from the City of Manchester, Trafford is the only borough in Greater Manchester to be above the national average for weekly income. Socially, the area includes both working class and middle class areas like Bowdon and Hale. In Parliament, Trafford is represented by three constituencies: Stretford and Urmston; Altrincham and Sale West; and Wythenshawe and Sale East, which mainly covers neighbouring Manchester.

Buildings and structures in the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford, England
Buildings
Places of worship
Education
Transportation
Shopping complexes
Sport and Entertainment
Bridges
Others
Demolished
Lists
Listed buildings in

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