Dune

In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.[1] Dunes occur in different shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water. Most kinds of dunes are longer on the stoss (upflow) side, where the sand is pushed up the dune, and have a shorter "slip face" in the lee side. The valley or trough between dunes is called a slack. A "dune field" or erg is an area covered by extensive dunes.

Dunes occur in some deserts and along some coasts. Some coastal areas have one or more sets of dunes running parallel to the shoreline directly inland from the beach. In most cases, the dunes are important in protecting the land against potential ravages by storm waves from the sea. Although the most widely distributed dunes are those associated with coastal regions, the largest complexes of dunes are found inland in dry regions and associated with ancient lake or sea beds. Dunes can form under the action of water flow (fluvial processes), and on sand or gravel beds of rivers, estuaries and the sea-bed.

The modern word "dune" came into English from French c. 1790,[2] which in turn came from Middle Dutch dūne.[1]

Morocco Africa Flickr Rosino December 2005 84514010
Erg Chebbi, Morocco

Formation

Saltation on sand dune
Sand hitting sand is more likely to stick; sand hitting a more coherent surface is more likely to bounce (saltation). This exacerbating feedback loop helps sand accumulate into dunes.

Dunes are made of sand-sized particles, and may consist of quartz, calcium carbonate, snow, gypsum, or other materials. The upwind/upstream/upcurrent side of the dune is called the stoss side; the downflow side is called the lee side. Sand is pushed (creep) or bounces (saltation) up the stoss side, and slides down the lee side. A side of a dune that the sand has slid down is called a slip face (or slipface).

The Bagnold formula gives the speed at which particles can be transported.

Aeolian dunes

Aeolian dune shapes

Five basic dune types are recognized: crescentic, linear, star, dome, and parabolic. Dune areas may occur in three forms: simple (isolated dunes of basic type), compound (larger dunes on which smaller dunes of same type form), and complex (combinations of different types). [3]

Barchan or crescentic

Barchan in Noachis
Isolated barchan dunes on the surface of Mars. Dominant wind direction would be from left to right.

Barchan dunes are crescent-shaped mounds which are generally wider than they are long. The lee-side slipfaces are on the concave sides of the dunes. These dunes form under winds that blow consistently from one direction (unimodal winds). They form separate crescents when the sand supply is comparatively small. When the sand supply is greater, they may merge into barchanoid ridges, and then transverse dunes (see below).

Some types of crescentic dunes move more quickly over desert surfaces than any other type of dune. A group of dunes moved more than 100 metres per year between 1954 and 1959 in China's Ningxia Province, and similar speeds have been recorded in the Western Desert of Egypt. The largest crescentic dunes on Earth, with mean crest-to-crest widths of more than three kilometres, are in China's Taklamakan Desert.[4]

See lunettes and parabolic dues, below, for dunes similar to crescent-shaped ones.

Abundant barchan dunes may merge into barchanoid ridges, which then grade into linear (or slightly sinuous) transverse dunes, so called because they lie transverse, or across, the wind direction, with the wind blowing perpendicular to the ridge crest.[5]

Seif or longitudinal dunes

Seif dunes are linear (or slightly sinuous) dunes with two slip faces.[5] The two slip faces make them sharp-crested. They are called seif dunes after the Arabic word for "sword". They may be more than 160 kilometres (100 miles) long, and thus easily visible in satellite images (see illustrations).

Seif dunes are associated with bidirectional winds. The long axes and ridges of these dunes extend along the resultant direction of sand movement (hence the name "longitudinal").[6] Some linear dunes merge to form Y-shaped compound dunes.[7]

Formation is debated. Bagnold, in The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes, suggested that some seif dunes form when a barchan dune moves into a bidirectional wind regime, and one arm or wing of the crescent elongates. Others suggest that seif dunes are formed by vortices in a unidirectional wind.[5] In the sheltered troughs between highly developed seif dunes, barchans may be formed, because the wind is constrained to be unidirectional by the dunes.

Rub' al Khali (Arabian Empty Quarter) sand dunes imaged by Terra (EOS AM-1)

Rub' al Khali (Arabian Empty Quarter) sand dunes imaged by Terra (EOS AM-1). Most of these dunes are seif dunes. Their origin from barchans is suggested by the stubby remnant "hooks" seen on many of the dunes. Wind would be from left to right.

ISS-31 Linear dunes in the Great Sand Sea in southwest Egypt

Large linear seif dunes in the Great Sand Sea in southwest Egypt, seen from the International Space Station. The distance between each dune is 1.5–2.5 km.

Longitudinal dune

The average-direction-longitudinal model of seif dune formation.

Tranverse dune

By contrast, transverse dunes form with the wind blowing perpendicular to the ridges, and have only one slipface, on the lee side. The stoss side is less steep.

Cross-bedding

Transverse dunes lie perpendicular to the wind, which moves them forwards, producing the cross-bedding shown here.

Seif dunes are common in the Sahara. They range up to 300 m (980 ft) in height and 300 km (190 mi) in length. In the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula, a vast erg, called the Rub' al Khali or Empty Quarter, contains seif dunes that stretch for almost 200 km and reach heights of over 300 m.

Linear loess hills known as pahas are superficially similar. These hills appear to have been formed during the last ice age under permafrost conditions dominated by sparse tundra vegetation.

Star

Star-dune
An isolated star dune

Radially symmetrical, star dunes are pyramidal sand mounds with slipfaces on three or more arms that radiate from the high center of the mound. They tend to accumulate in areas with multidirectional wind regimes. Star dunes grow upward rather than laterally. They dominate the Grand Erg Oriental of the Sahara. In other deserts, they occur around the margins of the sand seas, particularly near topographic barriers. In the southeast Badain Jaran Desert of China, the star dunes are up to 500 metres tall and may be the tallest dunes on Earth.

Dome

Oval or circular mounds that generally lack a slipface. Dome dunes are rare and occur at the far upwind margins of sand seas.

Fixed crescentic dunes that form on the leeward margins of playas and river valleys in arid and semiarid regions in response to the direction(s) of prevailing winds, are known as lunettes, source-bordering dunes, bourrelets and clay dunes. They may be composed of clay, silt, sand, or gypsum, eroded from the basin floor or shore, transported up the concave side of the dune, and deposited on the convex side. Examples in Australia are up to 6.5 km long, 1 km wide, and up to 50 metres high. They also occur in southern and West Africa, and in parts of the western United States, especially Texas.[8]

Parabolic

Parabolic dune
Schematic of coastal parabolic dunes

U-shaped mounds of sand with convex noses trailed by elongated arms are parabolic dunes. These dunes are formed from blowout dunes where the erosion of vegetated sand leads to a U-shaped depression. The elongated arms are held in place by vegetation; the largest arm known on Earth reaches 12 km. Sometimes these dunes are called U-shaped, blowout, or hairpin dunes, and they are well known in coastal deserts. Unlike crescent shaped dunes, their crests point upwind. The bulk of the sand in the dune migrates forward.

In plan view, these are U-shaped or V-shaped mounds of well-sorted, very fine to medium sand with elongated arms that extend upwind behind the central part of the dune. There are slipfaces that often occur on the outer side of the nose and on the outer slopes of the arms.

These dunes often occur in semiarid areas where the precipitation is retained in the lower parts of the dune and underlying soils. The stability of the dunes was once attributed to the vegetative cover but recent research has pointed to water as the main source of parabolic dune stability. The vegetation that covers them—grasses, shrubs, and trees—help anchor the trailing arms. In inland deserts, parabolic dunes commonly originate and extend downwind from blowouts in sand sheets only partly anchored by vegetation. They can also originate from beach sands and extend inland into vegetated areas in coastal zones and on shores of large lakes.

Most parabolic dunes do not reach heights higher than a few tens of metres except at their nose, where vegetation stops or slows the advance of accumulating sand.

Simple parabolic dunes have only one set of arms that trail upwind, behind the leading nose. Compound parabolic dunes are coalesced features with several sets of trailing arms. Complex parabolic dunes include subsidiary superposed or coalesced forms, usually of barchanoid or linear shapes.

Parabolic dunes, like crescent dunes, occur in areas where very strong winds are mostly unidirectional. Although these dunes are found in areas now characterized by variable wind speeds, the effective winds associated with the growth and migration of both the parabolic and crescent dunes probably are the most consistent in wind direction.

The grain size for these well-sorted, very fine to medium sands is about 0.06 to 0.5 mm. Parabolic dunes have loose sand and steep slopes only on their outer flanks. The inner slopes are mostly well packed and anchored by vegetation, as are the corridors between individual dunes. Because all dune arms are oriented in the same direction, and, the inter-dune corridors are generally swept clear of loose sand, the corridors can usually be traversed in between the trailing arms of the dune. However to cross straight over the dune by going over the trailing arms, can be very difficult. Also, traversing the nose is very difficult as well because the nose is usually made up of loose sand without much if any vegetation.

A type of extensive parabolic dune that lacks discernible slipfaces and has mostly coarse grained sand is known as a zibar.[9] The term zibar comes from the Arabic word to describe "rolling transverse ridges ... with a hard surface".[10] The dunes are small, have low relief, and can be found in many places across the planet from Wyoming (United States) to Saudi Arabia to Australia. Spacing between zibars ranges from 50 to 400 metres and they don't become more than 10 metres high.[11] The dunes form at about ninety degrees to the prevailing wind which blows away the small, fine-grained sand leaving behind the coarser grained sand to form the crest.[12]

Reversing dunes

Libya 4608 Idehan Ubari Dunes Luca Galuzzi 2007
Reversing dune showing short minor slipface atop the major stoss (upwind) face

Occurring wherever winds periodically reverse direction, reversing dunes are varieties of any of the above shapes. These dunes typically have major and minor slipfaces oriented in opposite directions. The minor slipfaces are usually temporary, as they appear after a reverse wind and are generally destroyed when the wind next blows in the dominant direction.[5]

Draas

350m Düne Deadvlei Sossusvlei
Dune Nine in Sossusvlei, Namibia, is over 300m high.

Draas are very large-scale dune bedforms; they may be tens or a few hundreds of metres in height, kilometres wide, and hundreds of kilometres in length.[5] After a draa has reached a certain size, it generally develops superimposed dune forms.[13] They are thought to be more ancient and slower-moving than smaller dunes,[5] and to form by vertical growth of existing dunes. Draas are widespread in sand seas and are well-represented in the geological record.[13]

Dune complexity

All these dune shapes may occur in three forms: simple (isolated dunes of basic type), compound (lager dunes on which smaller dunes of same type form), and complex (combinations of different types).[3]. Simple dunes are basic forms with the minimum number of slipfaces that define the geometric type. Compound dunes are large dunes on which smaller dunes of similar type and slipface orientation are superimposed. Complex dunes are combinations of two or more dune types. A crescentic dune with a star dune superimposed on its crest is the most common complex dune. Simple dunes represent a wind regime that has not changed in intensity or direction since the formation of the dune, while compound and complex dunes suggest that the intensity and direction of the wind has changed.

Dune movement

The sand mass of dunes can move either windward or leeward, depending on if the wind is making contact with the dune from below or above its apogee. If wind hits from above, the sand particles move leeward. If sand hits from below, sand particles move windward. The leeward flux of sand is greater than the windward flux. Further, when the wind carrying sand particles when it hits the dune, the dune’s sand particles will saltate more than if the wind had hit the dune without carrying sand particles.[14]

Coastal dunes

LIVER AAS UDLOEB I JULI 2012 (ubt)-002
Coastal dunes covered in grasses around the mouth of the Liver Å river in Denmark

Coastal dunes form when wet sand is deposited along the coast and dries out and is blown along the beach. [15] Dunes form where the beach is wide enough to allow for the accumulation of wind-blown sand, and where prevailing onshore winds tend to blow sand inland. The three key ingredients for coastal dune formation are a large sand supply, winds to move said sand supply, and a place for the sand supply to accumulate.[16] Obstacles—for example, vegetation, pebbles and so on—tend to slow down the wind and lead to the deposition of sand grains.[17] These small "incipient dunes or "shadow dunes" tend to grow in the vertical direction if the obstacle slowing the wind can also grow vertically (i.e., vegetation). Coastal dunes expand laterally as a result of lateral growth of coastal plants via seed or rhizome.[18][19] Models of coastal dunes suggest that their final equilibrium height is related to the distance between the water line and where vegetation can grow.[20] Coastal dunes can be classified by where they develop, or begin to take shape. Dunes are commonly grouped into either the Primary Dune Group or the Secondary Dune Group.[21] Primary dunes gain most of their sand from the beach itself, while secondary dunes gain their sand from the primary dune. Along the Florida Panhandle, most dunes are considered to be foredunes or hummocks.[22][23] Different locations around the globe have dune formations unique to their given coastal profile.

Coastal sand dunes can provide privacy and/or habitats to support local flora and fauna. Animals such as sand snakes, lizards, and rodents can live in coastal sand dunes, along with insects of all types.[24] Often the vegetation of sand dunes is discussed without acknowledging the importance that coastal dunes have for animals. Further, some animals, such as foxes and feral pigs can use coastal dunes as hunting grounds to find food.[25] Birds are also known to utilize coastal dunes as nesting grounds. All these species find the coastal environment of the sand dune vital to their species survival.

Over the course of time coastal dunes may be impacted by tropical cyclones or other intense storm activity, dependent on their location. Recent work has suggested that coastal dunes tend to evolve toward a high or low morphology depending on the growth rate of dunes relative to storm frequency. During a storm event, dunes play a significant role in minimizing wave energy as it moves onshore. As a result, coastal dunes, especially those in the foredune area affected by a storm surge, will retreat or erode.[26] To counteract the damage from tropical activity on coastal dunes, short term post-storm efforts such as fences can be made by individual agencies through fencing to help with sand accumulation.[27]

How a much a dune erodes during any storm event is related to its location on the coastal shoreline and the profile of the beach during a particular season. During the summer, a beach tends to take on more of a convex appearance due to gentler waves, while the same beach in the winter may take on more of a concave appearance. As a result, coastal dunes can erode much more quickly in the winter than in the summer.[28]

Ecological succession on coastal dunes

As a dune forms, plant succession occurs. The conditions on an embryo dune are harsh, with salt spray from the sea carried on strong winds. The dune is well drained and often dry, and composed of calcium carbonate from seashells. Rotting seaweed, brought in by storm waves adds nutrients to allow pioneer species to colonize the dune. These pioneer species are marram grass, sea wort grass and other sea grasses in the United Kingdom. These plants are well adapted to the harsh conditions of the foredune typically having deep roots which reach the water table, root nodules that produce nitrogen compounds, and protected stoma, reducing transpiration. Also, the deep roots bind the sand together, and the dune grows into a foredune as more sand is blown over the grasses. The grasses add nitrogen to the soil, meaning other, less hardy plants can then colonize the dunes. Typically these are heather, heaths and gorses. These too are adapted to the low soil water content and have small, prickly leaves which reduce transpiration. Heather adds humus to the soil and is usually replaced by coniferous trees, which can tolerate low soil pH, caused by the accumulation and decomposition of organic matter with nitrate leaching.[29] Coniferous forests and heathland are common climax communities for sand dune systems.

Young dunes are called yellow dunes and dunes which have high humus content are called grey dunes. Leaching occurs on the dunes, washing humus into the slacks, and the slacks may be much more developed than the exposed tops of the dunes. It is usually in the slacks that more rare species are developed and there is a tendency for the dune slacks soil to be waterlogged and where only marsh plants can survive. These plants would include: creeping willow, cotton grass, yellow iris, reeds, and rushes. As for the species, there is a tendency for natterjack toads to breed here.

Coastal dune floral adaptations

Dune ecosystems are extremely difficult places for plants to survive. This is due to a number of pressures related to their proximity to the ocean and confinement to growth on sandy substrates. These include:

  • Little available soil moisture
  • Little available soil organic matter/nutrients
  • Harsh winds
  • Salt spray
  • Erosion/shifting and sometimes ephemeral substrate
  • Tidal influences

There are many adaptations plants have evolved to cope with these pressures:

  • Deep taproot to reach water table (Pink Sand Verbena)
  • Shallow but extensive root systems
  • Prostrate growth form to avoid wind/salt spray (Abronia spp., Beach Primrose)
  • Krummholz growth form (Monterrey Cypress-not a dune plant but deals with similar pressures)
  • Thickened cuticle/Succulence to reduce moisture loss and reduce salt uptake (Ambrosia/Abronia spp., Calystegia soldanella)
  • Pale leaves to reduce insolation (Artemisia/Ambrosia spp.)
  • Thorny/Spiky seeds to ensure establishment in vicinity of parent, reduces chances of being blown away or swept our to sea (Ambrosia chamissonis)

Nabkha dunes

A nabkha, or coppice dune, is a small dune anchored by vegetation. They usually indicate desertification or soil erosion, and serve as nesting and burrow sites for animals.

Sub-aqueous dunes

Sub-aqueous (underwater) dunes form on a bed of sand or gravel under the actions of water flow. They are ubiquitous in natural channels such as rivers and estuaries, and also form in engineered canals and pipelines. Dunes move downstream as the upstream slope is eroded and the sediment deposited on the downstream or lee slope in typical bedform construction.[30]

These dunes most often form as a continuous 'train' of dunes, showing remarkable similarity in wavelength and height. The shape of a dune gives information about its formation environment.[31] For instance, rives produce asymmetrical ripples, with the steeper slip face facing downstream. Ripple marks preserved in sedimentary strata in the geological record can be used to determine the direction of current flow, and thus an indication of the source of the sediments.

Dunes on the bed of a channel significantly increase flow resistance, their presence and growth playing a major part in river flooding.

Lithified dunes

Cross-bedding Of Sandstone Near Mt Carmel Road Zion Canyon Utah
Cross-bedding in lithified aeolian sand dunes preserved as sandstone in Zion National Park, Utah

A lithified (consolidated) sand dune is a type of sandstone that is formed when a marine or aeolian sand dune becomes compacted and hardened. Once in this form, water passing through the rock can carry and deposit minerals, which can alter the color of the rock. Cross-bedded layers of stacks of lithified dunes can produce the cross-hatching patterns, such as those seen in the Zion National Park in the western United States.

A slang term, used in the southwest US, for consolidated and hardened sand dunes is "slickrock", a name that was introduced by pioneers of the Old West because their steel-rimmed wagon wheels could not gain traction on the rock.

Desertification

Sand dunes can have a negative impact on humans when they encroach on human habitats. Sand dunes move via a few different means, all of them helped along by wind. One way that dunes can move is by saltation, where sand particles skip along the ground like a bouncing ball. When these skipping particles land, they may knock into other particles and cause them to move as well, in a process known as creep. With slightly stronger winds, particles collide in mid-air, causing sheet flows. In a major dust storm, dunes may move tens of metres through such sheet flows. Also as in the case of snow, sand avalanches, falling down the slipface of the dunes—that face away from the winds—also move the dunes forward.

Sand threatens buildings and crops in Africa, the Middle East, and China. Drenching sand dunes with oil stops their migration, but this approach is quite destructive to the dunes' animal habitats and uses a valuable resource. Sand fences might also slow their movement to a crawl, but geologists are still analyzing results for the optimum fence designs. Preventing sand dunes from overwhelming towns, villages, and agricultural areas has become a priority for the United Nations Environment Programme. Planting dunes with vegetation also helps to stabilise them.

Conservation

KelsoSand
Sand blowing off a crest in the Kelso Dunes of the Mojave Desert, California, USA

Dune habitats provide niches for highly specialized plants and animals, including numerous rare species and some endangered species. Due to widespread human population expansion, dunes face destruction through land development and recreational usages, as well as alteration to prevent the encroachment of sand onto inhabited areas. Some countries, notably the United States, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Sri Lanka have developed significant programs of dune protection through the use of sand dune stabilization. In the U.K., a Biodiversity Action Plan has been developed to assess dunes loss and to prevent future dunes destruction.

Examples

Africa

Düne S-Schlag Sossusvlei
A dune in Sossusvlei, in the greater Namib-Naukluft National Park, Namibia. Note the trees being engulfed for scale.
Sand dune in the Kalahari Desert (Namibia)
Camelthorn trees and bushes scattered on dunes in the Kalahari Desert in Namibia (2017)
1969 Afghanistan (Sistan) wind ripples.tiff
Wind ripples on crescent-shaped sand dunes (Barchans) in Southwest Afghanistan (Sistan)

Asia

Europe

North America

My Public Lands Roadtrip- Cadiz Dunes Wilderness in California (18720555819)
Cadiz Dunes Wilderness, California.

South America

Oceania

World's highest dunes

Note: This table is partially based on estimates and incomplete information.
Dune Height from Base feet/metres Height from Sea Level feet/metres Location Notes
Duna Federico Kirbus ~4,035/1,230 ~9,334/2,845 Bolsón de Fiambalá, Fiambalá, Catamarca Province, Argentina Highest in the world[40]
Cerro Blanco ~3,860/1,176 ~6,791/2,080 Nazca Province, Ica Region, Peru 14°52′05″S 74°50′17″W / 14.868°S 74.838°W Highest in Peru, second highest in the world
Badain Jaran Dunes ~1,640/500 ~6,640/2,020 Badain Jaran Desert, Alashan Plain, Inner Mongolia, Gobi Desert, China World's tallest stationary dunes and highest in Asia[41]
Rig-e Yalan Dune ~1,542/470 ~3,117/950 Lut Desert, Kerman, Iran Near World the hottest place (Gandom Beryan)
Average Highest Area Dunes 1,410/430? ~6,500/~1,980? Isaouane-n-Tifernine Sand Sea, Algerian Sahara Highest in Africa
Big Daddy/Dune 7
(Big Mama?)[42]
1,256/383 ~1,870/570 Sossusvlei Dunes, Namib Desert, Namibia / Near Walvis Bay Namib Desert, Namibia according to the Namibian Ministry of Environment & Tourism the highest dune in the world
Mount Tempest ~920/280 ~920/280 Moreton Island, Brisbane, Australia Highest in Australia
Star Dune >750/230 ~8,950/2,730 Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado, USA Highest in North America
Dune of Pyla ~345/105 ~699/130 Bay of Arcachon, Aquitaine, France Highest in Europe
Ming-Sha Dunes ? 5,660/1,725 Dunhuang Oasis, Taklamakan Desert, Gansu, China
Medanoso Dune ~1805/550 ~5446/1,660 Atacama Desert, Chile Highest in Chile

Sand dune systems

(coastal dunes featuring succession)

Extraterrestrial dunes

Gusev Crater, Mars
Sand dune on Mars

Dunes can likely be found in any environment where there is a substantial atmosphere, winds, and dust to be blown. Dunes are common on Mars and in the equatorial regions of Titan.

Titan's dunes include large expanses with modal lengths of about 20–30 km. The regions are not topographically confined, resembling sand seas. These dunes are interpreted to be longitudinal dunes whose crests are oriented parallel to the dominant wind direction, which generally indicates west-to-east wind flow. The sand is likely composed of hydrocarbon particles, possibly with some water ice mixed in.[43]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b first edited by Fowler, H.W.; Fowler, F.G. (1984). Sykes, J.B., ed. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English (7th ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-861132-5.
  2. ^ "Dune—Define Dune at Dictionary.com". dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  3. ^ a b Types of dunes, a USGS publication
  4. ^ "Types of Dunes". Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Mangimeli, John (2007-09-10), Geology of Sand Dunes, U.S.A. National Park Service
  6. ^ Radebaugh, Jani; Sharma, Priyanka; Korteniemi, Jarmo; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E. (1 May 2018). "Longitudinal Dunes (or Linear Dunes)". Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms. Springer, New York, NY. pp. 1–11. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_460-2. ISBN 978-1-4614-9213-9.
  7. ^ "Types of Dunes". Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  8. ^ Twidale, C.R. & Campbell, E.M. (2005, revised edition): Australian landforms: understanding a low, flat, arid and old landscape. Rosenberg Publishing. Pp. 241–3. ISBN 1 877058 32 7
  9. ^ Goudie, Ron Cooke; Andrew Warren; Andrew (1996). Desert geomorphology (2. impr. ed.). London: UCL Press. pp. 395–396. ISBN 978-1-85728-017-3.
  10. ^ Goudie, Ron Cooke; Andrew Warren; Andrew (1996). Desert geomorphology (2. impr. ed.). London: UCL Press. p. 395. ISBN 978-1-85728-017-3.
  11. ^ "USGS Landform Glossary" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
  12. ^ Nielsen, Ole. "Zibar Dunes". My Opera. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
  13. ^ a b Lancaster, N. (1 March 1988). "The development of large aeolian bedforms". Sedimentary Geology. 55 (1–2): 69–89. doi:10.1016/0037-0738(88)90090-5.
  14. ^ Jiang, Hong; Dun, Hongchao; Tong, Ding; Huang, Ning (2017-04-15). "Sand transportation and reverse patterns over leeward face of sand dune". Geomorphology. 283: 41–47. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.12.030.
  15. ^ Bird, ECF (1976). Coasts: an introduction to systematic geomorphology. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University Press.
  16. ^ Goldsmith, V (1978). Coastal dunes. In Coastal sedimentary environments. New York, NY: Springer. pp. 171–235.
  17. ^ Hesp, P. (1989). "A review of biological and geomorphological processes involved in the initiation and development of incipient foredunes". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Section B. Biological Sciences. 96: 181–201. doi:10.1017/S0269727000010927.
  18. ^ Godfrey, P. J. (1977-09-01). "Climate, plant response and development of dunes on barrier beaches along the U.S. east coast". International Journal of Biometeorology. 21 (3): 203–216. doi:10.1007/BF01552874. ISSN 0020-7128.
  19. ^ Goldstein, Evan B.; Moore, Laura J.; Vinent, Orencio Durán (8 August 2017). "Lateral vegetation growth rates exert control on coastal foredune "hummockiness" and coalescing time". Earth Surface Dynamics. 5 (3): 417–427. doi:10.5194/esurf-5-417-2017. ISSN 2196-6311.open access publication – free to read
  20. ^ Durán, O.; Moore L. J. (2013). "Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (43): 17217–17222. doi:10.1073/pnas.1307580110. PMC 3808624. PMID 24101481.
  21. ^ Sloss, CR; Shepherd, M; Hesp, P. "Coastal dunes: geomorphology". Nature Education Knowledge. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  22. ^ Houser, C; Hapke, C; Hamilton, S (August 15, 2008). "Controls on coastal dune morphology, shoreline erosion and barrier island response to extreme storms". Geomorphology. 100 (3–4): 223–40.
  23. ^ Claudino-Sales, V; Wang, P; Horwitz, MH (March 15, 2008). "Factors controlling the survival of coastal dunes during multiple hurricane impacts in 2004 and 2005: Santa Rosa Barrier Island, Florida". Geomorphology. 95 (3–4): 295–315.
  24. ^ Ronica, D (2008-10-27). "How sand dunes work". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  25. ^ Hill, K. "Dune Habitats". Smithsonian Marine Station. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  26. ^ Morton, RA (May 1, 1976). "Effects of Hurricane Eloise on beach and coastal structures, Florida Panhandle". Geology. 4 (5): 277–80.
  27. ^ Charbonneau, B; Wnek, JP. "Reactionary fence installation for post-Superstorm Sandy dune recovery". EarthArXiv. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  28. ^ Maine Sea Grant. "Seasonal changes". Maine Sea Grant College Program. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  29. ^ Miles, J. (1985). "The pedogenic effects of different species and vegetation types and the implications of succession". European Journal of Soil Science. 36 (4): 571–584. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2389.1985.tb00359.x.
  30. ^ Prothero, D. R. and Schwab, F., 1996, Sedimentary Geology, pg. 45–49, ISBN 0-7167-2726-9
  31. ^ "Ripples". Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  32. ^ "Alexandria Coastal Dunefields". UNESCO World Heritage. Archived from the original on 18 November 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
  33. ^ Wahiba Sands
  34. ^ "Herring Cove Beach - Cape Cod National Seashore (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  35. ^ "Race Point Beach - Cape Cod National Seashore (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  36. ^ "Province Lands Bike Trail - Cape Cod National Seashore (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  37. ^ Mann, D. H.; Heiser P. A.; Finney B. P. (2002). "Holocene history of the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Northwestern Alaska" (PDF). Quaternary Science Reviews. 21 (4): 709–731. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.419.8948. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00120-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September 2015.
  38. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2006). Alice Gray, Dorothy Buell, and Naomi Svihla: "Preservationists of Ogden Dunes". The South Shore Journal, 1. "Account Suspended". Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
  39. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2009). "The Historical Roots of the Nature Conservancy in the Northwest Indiana/Chicagoland Region: From Science to Preservation". The South Shore Journal, 3. "Account Suspended". Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
  40. ^ Kirbus, Federico B. "Bolsón de Fiambalá". Sandboard Magazine. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  41. ^ "Mystery of world's tallest sand dunes solved"—24 November 2004—New Scientist Archived 26 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  42. ^ Big Mama highest dune Archived 2 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ Peeking Through the Haze: Titan's Surface, part II—The Planetary Society Blog | The Planetary Society Archived 28 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine.

References

  • Bagnold, Ralph (2012) [1941]. The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-14119-0.

Further reading

External links

Bene Gesserit

The Bene Gesserit ( BEN-ee-JESS-ər-it) are a key social, religious, and political force in Frank Herbert's fictional Dune universe. The group is described as an exclusive sisterhood whose members train their bodies and minds through years of physical and mental conditioning to obtain superhuman powers and abilities that can seem magical to outsiders. Acolytes who have acquired the breadth of Bene Gesserit abilities are called Reverend Mothers within the organization's ranks. Some of these fictional powers are analyzed and deconstructed from a real-world scientific perspective in the book The Science of Dune (2008).Sometimes called witches due to their secretive nature and misunderstood powers, the Bene Gesserit are loyal only to themselves. However, to attain their goals and avoid outside interference, they often screen themselves with the illusion of being loyal to other groups or individuals. Their every move is calculated toward a result. As the skills of a Bene Gesserit are as desirable as an alliance with the Sisterhood itself, they are able to charge a fee to school the women from Great Houses, and install some of their initiates as wives and concubines to their advantage. In 1965's Dune, the Princess Irulan is quoted (via epigraph):

The Reverend Mother must combine the seductive wiles of a courtesan with the untouchable majesty of a virgin goddess, holding these attributes in tension so long as the powers of her youth endure. For when youth and beauty have gone, she will find that the place-between, once occupied by tension, has become a wellspring of cunning and resourcefulness.

Dune (film)

Dune is a 1984 American epic science fiction film written and directed by David Lynch, based on the 1965 Frank Herbert novel of the same name. The film stars Kyle MacLachlan as young nobleman Paul Atreides, and includes an ensemble of well-known American and European actors in supporting roles. It was filmed at the Churubusco Studios in Mexico City and included a soundtrack by the rock band Toto, as well as Brian Eno.

Set in the distant future, the film chronicles the conflict between rival noble families as they battle for control of the extremely harsh desert planet Arrakis, also known as "Dune". The planet is the only source of the drug melange—also called "the spice"—which allows prescience and is vital to space travel, making it the most essential and valuable commodity in the universe.

After the novel's initial success, attempts to adapt Dune as a film began as early as 1971. A lengthy process of development followed throughout the 1970s, during which Arthur P. Jacobs, Alejandro Jodorowsky, and Ridley Scott unsuccessfully tried to bring their visions to the screen. In 1981, executive producer Dino De Laurentiis hired Lynch as director.

The film was negatively reviewed by critics and was a box-office failure, grossing $30.9 million from a $40 million budget. Upon release, Lynch distanced himself from the project, stating that pressure from both producers and financiers restrained his artistic control and denied him final cut privilege. At least three versions have been released worldwide. In some cuts, Lynch's name is replaced in the credits with the name Alan Smithee, a pseudonym used by directors who wish not to be associated with a film for which they would normally be credited. The extended and television versions additionally credit writer Lynch as Judas Booth. The film has developed a cult following over time, but opinion varies among fans of the novel and fans of Lynch's films.

Dune (franchise)

Dune is a science fiction media franchise that originated with the 1965 novel Dune by Frank Herbert. Dune is frequently cited as the best-selling science fiction novel in history. It won the 1966 Hugo Award and the inaugural Nebula Award for Best Novel, and was later adapted into a 1984 film and a 2000 television miniseries. Herbert wrote five sequels, and the first two were presented as a miniseries in 2003. The Dune universe has also inspired some traditional games and a series of video games. Since 2009, the names of planets from the Dune novels have been adopted for the real-world nomenclature of plains and other features on Saturn's moon Titan.Frank Herbert died in 1986. Beginning in 1999, his son Brian Herbert and science fiction author Kevin J. Anderson published a number of prequel novels, as well as two which complete the original Dune series (Hunters of Dune in 2006 and Sandworms of Dune in 2007), partially based on Frank Herbert's notes discovered a decade after his death.The political, scientific, and social fictional setting of Herbert's novels and derivative works is known as the Dune universe, or Duniverse. Set tens of thousands of years in the future, the saga chronicles a civilization which has banned artificial intelligence but has also developed advanced technology and mental and physical abilities. Vital to this empire is the harsh desert planet Arrakis, only known source of the spice melange, the most valuable substance in the universe.

Due to the similarities between some of Herbert's terms and ideas and actual words and concepts in the Arabic language—as well as the series' "Islamic undertones" and themes—a Middle Eastern influence on Herbert's works has been noted repeatedly.

Dune (novel)

Dune is a 1965 science fiction novel by American author Frank Herbert, originally published as two separate serials in Analog magazine. It tied with Roger Zelazny's This Immortal for the Hugo Award in 1966, and it won the inaugural Nebula Award for Best Novel. It is the first installment of the Dune saga, and in 2003 was cited as the world's best-selling science fiction novel.Set in the distant future amidst a feudal interstellar society in which noble houses, in control of individual planets, owe allegiance to the Padishah Emperor, Dune tells the story of young Paul Atreides, whose noble family accepts the stewardship of the planet Arrakis. It is an inhospitable and sparsely populated desert wasteland, but is also the only source of melange, also known as "spice", a drug that enhances mental abilities. As melange is the most important and valuable substance in the universe, control of Arrakis is a coveted—and dangerous—undertaking. The story explores the multi-layered interactions of politics, religion, ecology, technology, and human emotion, as the factions of the empire confront each other in a struggle for the control of Arrakis and its spice.Herbert wrote five sequels: Dune Messiah, Children of Dune, God Emperor of Dune, Heretics of Dune, and Chapterhouse: Dune. The first novel also inspired a 1984 film adaptation by David Lynch, the 2000 Sci-Fi Channel miniseries Frank Herbert's Dune and its 2003 sequel Frank Herbert's Children of Dune (which combines the events of Dune Messiah and Children of Dune), computer games, several board games, songs, and a series of followups, including prequels and sequels, that were co-written by Kevin J. Anderson and the author's son, Brian Herbert, starting in 1999. A new film adaptation directed by Denis Villeneuve is scheduled to begin production in 2019.

Since 2009, the names of planets from the Dune novels have been adopted for the real-life nomenclature of plains and other features on Saturn's moon Titan.

Dune II

Dune II: The Building of a Dynasty (titled Dune II: Battle for Arrakis in Europe and Dune: The Battle for Arrakis for the North American Mega Drive/Genesis port respectively) is a real-time strategy Dune video game developed by Westwood Studios and released by Virgin Games in December 1992. It is based upon David Lynch's 1984 movie Dune, an adaptation of Frank Herbert's science fiction novel of the same name.

While not necessarily the first real-time strategy (RTS) video game, Dune II established the format that would be followed for years to come. As such, Dune II is the archetypal "real-time strategy" game. Striking a balance between complexity and innovation, it was a huge success and laid the foundation for Command & Conquer, Warcraft, StarCraft, and many other RTS games that followed.

Dune Za Keyih Provincial Park and Protected Area

Dune Za Keyih Provincial Park and Protected Area, also known as the Frog-Gataga Provincial Park, is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada. It is part of the larger Muskwa-Kechika Management Area and is located in the area of the Gataga River, between Denetiah Provincial Park, which lies west across the Kechika River, and Kwadacha Wilderness Provincial Park to its east. Established in 2001 as Frog-Gataga, the park is 330,254 ha. in area; its newer name is a Kaska Dena translation of Frog-Gataga.

Dune buggy

A dune buggy — also known as a beach buggy — is a recreational motor vehicle with large wheels, and wide tires, designed for use on sand dunes, beaches, or desert recreation.

The design is usually a roofless vehicle with a rear-mounted engine. A dune buggy can be created by modifying an existing vehicle or custom-building a new vehicle.

Frank Herbert

Franklin Patrick Herbert, Jr. (October 8, 1920 – February 11, 1986) was an American science fiction writer best known for the novel Dune and its five sequels. Though he became famous for his long novels, he was also a newspaper journalist, photographer, short story writer, book reviewer, ecological consultant and lecturer.

The Dune saga, set in the distant future and taking place over millennia, deals with complex themes such as human survival and evolution, ecology, and the intersection of religion, politics, and power. Dune is the best-selling science fiction novel of all time and the series is widely considered to be among the classics of the genre.

Frank Herbert's Children of Dune

Frank Herbert's Children of Dune is a three-part science fiction miniseries written by John Harrison and directed by Greg Yaitanes, based on Frank Herbert's novels Dune Messiah (1969) and Children of Dune (1976). First broadcast in the United States on March 16, 2003, Children of Dune is the sequel to the 2000 miniseries Frank Herbert's Dune (based on Herbert's 1965 novel Dune) and produced by the Sci Fi Channel. As of 2004, this miniseries and its predecessor were two of the three highest-rated programs ever to be broadcast on the Sci-Fi Channel.In 2003, the critically acclaimed miniseries won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Special Visual Effects.

Frank Herbert's Dune

Frank Herbert's Dune is a three-part science fiction television miniseries based on the eponymous novel by Frank Herbert. It was directed and adapted by John Harrison. The ensemble cast includes Alec Newman as Paul Atreides, William Hurt as Duke Leto, and Saskia Reeves as Jessica, as well as James Watson, P. H. Moriarty, Robert Russell, Ian McNeice, and Giancarlo Giannini.

The series was produced by New Amsterdam Entertainment, Blixa Film Produktion and Hallmark Entertainment. It was first broadcast in the United States on December 3, 2000, on the Sci Fi Channel. It was later released on DVD in 2001, with an extended director's cut appearing in 2002.A 2003 sequel miniseries called Frank Herbert's Children of Dune continued the story, adapting the second and third novels in the series (1969's Dune Messiah and its 1976 sequel Children of Dune). As of 2004, both miniseries were two of the three highest-rated programs ever to be broadcast on the Sci Fi Channel.Frank Herbert's Dune won two Emmy Awards in 2001 for cinematography and visual effects in a miniseries/movie, as well as being nominated for a third Emmy for sound editing. The series was also praised by several critics, including Kim Newman.The miniseries was shot in Univisium (2.00:1) aspect ratio, although it was broadcast in 1.78:1.

Glossary of Dune terminology

This is a list of terminology used in the fictional Dune universe created by Frank Herbert, the primary source being "Terminology of the Imperium", the glossary contained in the novel Dune (1965).

Dune word construction could be classified into three domains of vocabulary, each marked with its own neology: the names and terms related to the politics and culture of the Galactic Empire, the names and terms characteristic of the mystic sodality of the Bene Gesserit, and the barely displaced Arabic of the Fremen language.

Fremen share vocabulary for Arrakeen phenomena with the Empire, but use completely different vocabulary for Bene Gesserit-implanted messianic religion.Due to the similarities between some of Herbert's terms and ideas and actual words and concepts in the Arabic and Hebrew languages — as well as the series' "Islamic undertones" and themes — a Middle Eastern influence on Herbert's works has been noted repeatedly.

God Emperor of Dune

God Emperor of Dune is a science fiction novel by Frank Herbert published in 1981, the fourth in his Dune series of six novels. It was ranked as the number 11 hardcover fiction best seller of 1981 by Publishers Weekly.

List of Dune secondary characters

The following is a list of secondary fictional characters from the Dune franchise created by Frank Herbert.

List of extraterrestrial dune fields

This is a list of dune fields not on Earth which have been given official names by the International Astronomical Union. Dune fields are named according to the IAU's rules of planetary nomenclature. The relevant descriptor term is undae. As of now, the only two solar system planets, besides Earth, with named dune fields are Venus and Mars. Dune fields have also been discovered on Saturn's moon Titan, and a field of giant ripples has been identified on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.

List of technology in the Dune universe

The technology in the Dune universe is a key aspect of the fictional setting of the Dune series of science fiction novels written by Frank Herbert, and derivative works. Herbert's concepts and inventions have been analyzed and deconstructed in at least one book, The Science of Dune (2008). Herbert's originating 1965 novel Dune is popularly considered one of the greatest science fiction novels of all time, and is frequently cited as the best-selling science fiction novel in history. Dune and its five sequels by Herbert explore the complex and multilayered interactions of politics, religion, ecology and technology, among other themes.

The Butlerian Jihad, an event in the back-story of Herbert's universe, leads to the outlawing of certain technologies, primarily "thinking machines", a collective term for computers and artificial intelligence of any kind. This prohibition is a key influence on the nature of Herbert's fictional setting. In Dune, ten thousand years after this jihad, its enduring commandment remains, "Thou shalt not make a machine in the likeness of a human mind."

Melange (fictional drug)

Melange (), often referred to as simply "the spice", is the name of the fictional drug central to the Dune series of science fiction novels by Frank Herbert, and derivative works.

In the series, the most essential and valuable commodity in the universe is melange, a drug that gives the user a longer life span, greater vitality, and heightened awareness; it can also unlock prescience in some humans, depending upon the dosage and the consumer's physiology. This prescience-enhancing property makes safe and accurate interstellar travel possible. Melange comes with a steep price, however: it is addictive, and withdrawal is fatal.Carol Hart analyzes the concept in the essay "Melange" in The Science of Dune (2008). According to Paul Stamets, Herbert's creation of the drug was related in part to his own personal experiences with psilocybin mushrooms.

Organizations of the Dune universe

Multiple organizations of the Dune universe dominate the political, religious, and social arena of the fictional setting of Frank Herbert's Dune series of science fiction novels, and derivative works. Set tens of thousands of years in the future, the saga chronicles a civilization which has banned computers but has also developed advanced technology and mental and physical abilities through physical training, eugenics and the use of the drug melange. Specialized groups of individuals have aligned themselves in organizations focusing on specific abilities, technology and goals. Herbert's concepts of human evolution and technology have been analyzed and deconstructed in at least one book, The Science of Dune (2008). His originating 1965 novel Dune is popularly considered one of the greatest science fiction novels of all time, and is frequently cited as the best-selling science fiction novel in history. Dune and its five sequels by Herbert explore the complex and multilayered interactions of politics, religion, ecology and technology, among other themes.

We've a three-point civilization: the Imperial Household balanced against the Federated Great Houses of the Landsraad, and between them, the Guild with its damnable monopoly on interstellar transport.

As Frank Herbert's Dune (1965) begins, the known universe is ruled by Shaddam IV, the 81st Padishah Emperor of House Corrino, whose power is secured by his control of the brutally efficient military force known as the Imperial Sardaukar. One balance to Imperial power is the assembly of noble houses called the Landsraad, which enforces the Great Convention's ban on the use of atomics against human targets. Though the power of the Corrinos is unrivaled by any individual House, they are in constant competition with each other for political power and stakes in the omnipresent CHOAM company, a directorship which controls the wealth of the entire Old Empire. The third primary power in the universe is the Spacing Guild, which monopolizes interstellar travel and banking through its proprietary use of melange-mutated Guild Navigators to "fold space."The matriarchal Bene Gesserit possess almost superhuman physical, sensory, and deductive powers developed through years of physical and mental conditioning. While positioning themselves to "serve" mankind, the Bene Gesserit pursue their goal to better the human race by subtly and secretly guiding and manipulating human bloodlines and the affairs of others to serve their own purposes. "Human computers" known as Mentats have been developed and perfected to replace the capacity for logical analysis lost through the prohibition of computers. The patriarchal Bene Tleilax, or Tleilaxu, are amoral merchants who traffic in biological and genetically engineered products such as artificial eyes, "twisted" Mentats and a type of clone called a ghola. Finally, the Ixians produce cutting-edge technology that seemingly complies with (but sometimes pushes the boundaries of) the prohibitions against computers, thinking machines and conscious robots put in place 10,000 years before as a result of the Butlerian Jihad. The doctors of the Suk School are the universe's most competent and trusted; those who have received the "Suk Imperial Conditioning" are incapable of inflicting harm. The Swordmasters of Ginaz are an elite group of master swordsmen whose fighting skills are prized and unmatched. Equally fierce in battle are the native Fremen of the desert planet Arrakis, known as Dune. Naturally honed to excellence in harsh conditions rivaling the planet on which the Imperial Sardaukar are trained, the Fremen are misunderstood and underestimated by the other powers in the universe.Arrakis is the only natural source of the all-important spice melange, and by leading the Fremen to seize control of the planet in Dune, Paul Atreides is able to depose Shaddam and become ruler of the known universe. With a bloody jihad subsequently unleashed across the universe in Paul's name but out of his control, the Bene Gesserit, Tleilaxu, Spacing Guild and House Corrino plot to dethrone him in Dune Messiah (1969). Seeing the eventual extinction of mankind through prescient vision, in Children of Dune (1976) Paul's son Leto II devises a plan to save humanity but becomes a symbiote with the sandworm of Arrakis to gain the extended lifespan needed to see this plan to its end. Thirty-five hundred years later in God Emperor of Dune (1981), Leto still rules the universe as a benevolent tyrant, with the help of his all-female army, the Fish Speakers. He denies any spiritual outlets other than his own compulsory religion, and maintains a tight monopoly on melange and space travel. Through his own selective breeding program among the descendants of his twin sister Ghanima, Leto finally achieves Siona, whose actions are hidden from prescient vision. He engineers his own assassination, knowing it will result in rebellion and revolt but also in an explosion in travel and colonization. The resultant chaos and severe famine on many worlds cause trillions of humans to set off into the freedom of unknown space and spread out across the universe in a diaspora later called the Scattering. Fifteen hundred years later, as Heretics of Dune (1984) begins, the balance of power in the Empire rests among the Ixians, the Bene Gesserit and the Tleilaxu. The Spacing Guild has been forever weakened by the development of Ixian machines capable of navigation in foldspace, practically replacing Guild Navigators. Ixians are at their apex with their alliance with the Fish Speakers; but Bene Gesserit analysts see them as a failing power, because Ixian society has become a bureaucracy and no great inventions have come out of the workshops of Ix for centuries. The Bene Gesserit control the sandworms and their planet, now called Rakis, through their influence over the Rakian Priesthood that worships the sandworms as the Divided God, Leto II, and now actively participate on interstellar politics and even have their own standing armies. But the Tleilaxu have also discovered how to synthetically produce melange, and they are preparing to subjugate the rest of humanity. As a large influx of people begin to return from the Scattering, the Bene Gesserit find their match in a violent and corrupt matriarchal society known as the Honored Matres. A bitter and bloody war erupts between the orders, but in Chapterhouse: Dune (1985) it ultimately becomes clear that joining the two organizations into a single New Sisterhood with shared abilities is their best chance at survival against the approaching enemy who had driven the Honored Matres into the Old Empire.

Paul Atreides

Paul Atreides (; later known as Paul Muad'Dib) is a fictional character in the Dune universe created by Frank Herbert. Paul is a prominent character in the first two novels in the series, Dune (1965) and Dune Messiah (1969), and returns in Children of Dune (1976). The character is brought back as two different gholas in the Brian Herbert/Kevin J. Anderson novels which conclude the original series, Hunters of Dune (2006) and Sandworms of Dune (2007), and appears in the prequels Paul of Dune (2008) and The Winds of Dune (2009).

A primary theme of Dune and its sequels is Frank Herbert's warning about society's tendencies to "give over every decision-making capacity" to a charismatic leader. He said in 1979, "The bottom line of the Dune trilogy is: beware of heroes. Much better rely on your own judgment, and your own mistakes." Paul rises to leadership through military strategy and political maneuvering, but his superhuman powers and ability to fit himself into pre-existing religious infrastructure allow him to force himself upon mankind as their messiah. As "Muad'Dib," Paul becomes the central figure of a new religion, and reluctantly unleashes a bloody jihad in his name across the universe; Paul struggles with the potential idea of seizing divine control over his newly minted empire, only to finally escape from the burden of his destiny by placing it on his sister Alia and his offspring Leto II and Ghanima.

Paul was portrayed by Kyle MacLachlan in David Lynch's 1984 film adaptation, and by Alec Newman in the 2000 Dune miniseries and its 2003 sequel.

RatPac-Dune Entertainment

RatPac Entertainment is an American motion picture production and financing company owned by producer-director Brett Ratner and Access Entertainment. RatPac was founded by Ratner and billionaire James Packer. RatPac is a partner in RatPac-Dune Entertainment with Dune Entertainment.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.