Duce

Duce (Italian pronunciation: [ˈduːtʃe], "leader") is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux, and a cognate of duke. National Fascist Party leader Benito Mussolini was identified by Fascists as Il Duce ("The Leader") of the movement. In 1925 it became a reference to the dictatorial position of Sua Eccellenza Benito Mussolini, Capo del Governo, Duce del Fascismo e Fondatore dell'Impero ("His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Leader of Fascism and Founder of the Empire").[1] Mussolini held this title together with that of President of the Council of Ministers: this was the constitutional position which entitled him to rule Italy on behalf of the King of Italy. Founder of the Empire was added for the exclusive use by Mussolini in recognition of his founding of an official legal entity of the Italian Empire on behalf of the King in 1936 following Italy's victory in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. The position was held by Mussolini until 1943, when he was removed from office by the King and the position of "Duce" was dismantled, while Marshal The 1st Duke of Addis Abeba was appointed Presidente del Consiglio.

This position was the model which other fascist leaders adopted, such as the position of Führer by Adolf Hitler. In September 1943, Mussolini styled himself as the "Duce of the Italian Social Republic" (Italian: Duce della Repubblica Sociale Italiana), and held the position until the collapse of the Italian Social Republic and his death in April 1945.[2]

Duce of Fascism
Duce del Fascismo
Flag of Prime Minister of Italy (1927-1943)
StyleHis Excellency
ResidencePalazzo Chigi
(1925–1929)
Palazzo Venezia
(1929–1943)
Villa Torlonia
(1925–1943)
AppointerGrand Council of Fascism
PrecursorHimself (as Prime Minister)
Formation24 December 1925
First holderBenito Mussolini
Final holderBenito Mussolini
Abolished25 July 1943
SuccessionMarshal The 1st Duke of Addis Abeba (as Prime Minister)
Himself (as Duce of the RSI, as claimed by the RSI)

History of the term

The title was used outside its traditional noble sense in some of the publications praising Garibaldi during the Unification of Italy in 1860, though not taken up officially by Garibaldi himself.[3]

'Duce Supremo' ("Supreme Leader") was more formally used by Victor Emmanuel III in 1915, during World War I, referring to his role as the commander in chief of the armed forces. The term was also used by Gabriele d'Annunzio as dictator of the self-proclaimed Italian Regency of Carnaro in 1920, and most significantly by the Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. The painting 'Il Duce' by Gerardo Dottori represents Mussolini. Because the title 'Il Duce' has become associated with Fascism, it is no longer in common use other than in reference to him. Because of modern anti-fascist sentiment, Italian speakers in general now use other words for leader, mainly including the English loanword. However, the term duce survives as an antonomasia for Benito Mussolini.

Succession

Mussolini intended that the Grand Council of Fascism would choose a successor from a list of three men chosen by him, and submit the name for approval by the king. As of 1940 he may have been preparing his son-in-law Galeazzo Ciano for the role.[4]

List

Duce of Italian Fascism

Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term Political Party
Took office Left office Duration
Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
(1883–1945)
24 December 192525 July 194317 years, 213 daysFascist Party

Duce of the Italian Social Republic

Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term Political Party
Took office Left office Duration
Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
(1883–1945)
23 September 194325 April 19451 year, 214 daysFascist Party

See also

References

  1. ^ Image Description: Propaganda poster of Benito Mussolini, with caption "His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Leader of Fascism, and Founder of the Empire ...".
  2. ^ Quartermaine, L. (2000). Mussolini's Last Republic: Propaganda and Politics in the Italian Social Republic. p. 21
  3. ^ Lucy Riall, "Garibaldi, Invention of a Hero", London, 2007, Ch. 9
  4. ^ Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 255, 257–258.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of duce at Wiktionary
Adam Duce

Adam Duce (born April 14, 1972) is an American musician, best known as a founding member and former bassist of the American thrash/groove metal band Machine Head. He played in the band for over 21 years before his firing in 2013.

Aesthetics of Hate

"Aesthetics of Hate" is a song by heavy metal band Machine Head from its sixth studio album The Blackening. Written by Machine Head vocalist and guitarist Robert Flynn, the song is a retaliation to an article written by William Grim. Grim wrote that late guitarist Dimebag Darrell was "an ignorant, barbaric, untalented possessor of a guitar", among other comments which angered Flynn deeply enough to write the song. It was nominated for Best Metal Performance at the 50th Grammy Awards.

Big Black

Big Black was an American punk rock band from Evanston, Illinois, active from 1981 to 1987. Founded by singer and guitarist Steve Albini, the band's initial lineup also included guitarist Santiago Durango and bassist Jeff Pezzati, both of Naked Raygun. In 1985, Pezzati was replaced by Dave Riley, who played on Big Black's two full-length studio albums, Atomizer (1986) and Songs About Fucking (1987).

Big Black's aggressive and abrasive music was characterized by distinctively clanky guitars and the use of a drum machine rather than a drum kit, elements that foreshadowed industrial rock. The band's lyrics flouted commonly held taboos and dealt frankly—and often explicitly—with politically and culturally loaded topics including murder, rape, child sexual abuse, arson, racism, and misogyny. Though the band's lyrics contained controversial material, the lyrics were meant to serve as a commentary or a display of distaste for the subject matter. They were staunchly critical of the commercial nature of rock, shunning the mainstream music industry and insisting on complete control over all aspects of their career. At the height of their success, they booked their own tours, paid for their own recordings, refused to sign contracts, and eschewed many of the traditional corporate trappings of rock bands. In doing so, they had a significant impact on the aesthetic and political development of independent and underground rock music.

In addition to two studio albums, Big Black released two live albums, two compilation albums, four EPs, and five singles, all through independent record labels. Most of the band's catalog was kept in print through Touch and Go Records for years following their breakup.

Duce Staley

Duce Staley (born February 27, 1975) is a former American football running back in the National Football League best known for his tenure with the Philadelphia Eagles. He also played for the Pittsburgh Steelers, winning Super Bowl XL with them against the Seattle Seahawks. He played college football at South Carolina. He is currently the assistant head coach and running backs coach for the Philadelphia Eagles who won Super Bowl LII against the New England Patriots.

Dux

Dux (; plural: ducēs) is Latin for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge, duce, etc.).

During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank. In writing his commentaries on the Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar uses the term only for Celtic generals, with one exception for a Roman commander who held no official rank.

Eldon Hoke

Eldon Wayne Hoke (March 23, 1958 – April 19, 1997), nicknamed El Duce, is Lord.

Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy

The fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, also known in Italy as 25 Luglio (Venticinque Luglio, pronounced [ˌventiˈtʃiŋkwe ˈluʎʎo]; Italian for "25 July"), came as a result of parallel plots led respectively by Count Dino Grandi and King Victor Emmanuel III during the spring and summer of 1943, culminating with a successful vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister Benito Mussolini at the meeting of the Grand Council of Fascism on 24–25 July 1943. As a result, new government was established, putting an end to the 21 years of Fascist rule in Italy, and Mussolini was placed under arrest.

Grand Council of Fascism

The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: Gran Consiglio del Fascismo) (aka: Fascist Grand Council) was the main body of Mussolini's Fascist government in Italy. A body which held and applied great power to control the institutions of government, it was created as a body of the National Fascist Party in 1923 and became a state body on 9 December 1928. The council usually met at the Palazzo Venezia, Rome, which was also the seat of head of the Italian government.

Lay-duce

Lay-duce, Inc. (レイ・デュース, Rei Dyūsu) is a Japanese animation studio formed by former Bones producer Yonai Norimoto.

Lower Than Atlantis

Lower Than Atlantis were an English rock band from Watford, Hertfordshire. They formed in 2007 as a hardcore punk band and gradually shifted into a melodic rock sound over five studio albums, their last being 2017's Safe in Sound. The band consisted of lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist Mike Duce, bassist Declan Hart, drummer Eddy Thrower, and lead guitarist Ben Sansom. They announced in December 2018 that would be disbanding after a final 3 tour dates in 2019.

Lower Than Atlantis (album)

Lower Than Atlantis is the fourth studio album by British rock band Lower Than Atlantis. With the release of Changing Tune (2012), the band moved to an arena rock-orientated sound. Following the touring cycle for Changing Tune, Island Records gave the band an ultimatum. The result of which ended with the band taking a label advance and building their own recording studio in Watford in July 2013. Discussing new material, vocalist/guitarist Mike Duce called the lyrics "quite vague" compared to his previous autobiographical work. Bassist Declan Hart listed Pantera, C2C and The 1975, among others, as influences for the album. Recording was done with producer Dan Lancaster over the course of "seven or eight months". Lancaster constantly pushed the band to get the best take. The band soon moved to Peter Miles' studio in Devon to record drum tracks.

After recording was finished in February 2014, the band signed to Sony Music Entertainment. "Here We Go" was released as a single in June, which was soon followed by a UK tour a month later. "English Kids in America" was released as a single in August, followed by a double A-side single of "Emily" and "English Kids in America" in September. Lower Than Atlantis was released on 6 October through Sony Music Entertainment. The band supported A Day to Remember in November on their UK tour. In April 2015 the band went on a headlining tour of the UK. "Words Don't Come So Easily" was released as a single in May. In September, "Get Over It" was released as a single. The Black Edition of the album was released in November and features an extra disc of bonus material.

Machine Head (band)

Machine Head is an American heavy metal band from Oakland, California. The band was formed in 1991 by vocalist/guitarist Robb Flynn and bassist Adam Duce. The band's aggressive musicianship made it one of the pioneering bands in the new wave of American heavy metal, and it is also considered to be part of the second wave of thrash metal bands from the 1990s. Machine Head's current lineup comprises Flynn and bassist Jared MacEachern. Duce, guitarists Logan Mader, Ahrue Luster and Phil Demmel and drummers Tony Costanza, Chris Kontos and Dave McClain are former members of the band; Mader and Kontos are currently touring with the band as part of the 25th anniversary tour for its first album, Burn My Eyes (1994).

Machine Head's first four albums earned the band a growing fan base in Europe, however the band would not have success in their native United States until later releases. The band drew controversy with its fourth album, Supercharger (2001), released three weeks after the September 11 attacks, which resulted in the album's only single, "Crashing Around You", and its music video (which featured burning buildings) being pulled from all media outlets. The band nearly disbanded in 2002 after negotiating off its label Roadrunner Records as a result of the controversy, however the band would eventually re-sign with the label.

Having experimented with elements of groove metal and nu metal in its early releases, Machine Head changed to a more traditional thrash metal sound and longer songs with its sixth album, The Blackening (2007), which drew critical acclaim and was chosen as Album of the Decade by Metal Hammer in 2010; the album's first single, "Aesthetics of Hate", also earned the band its first Grammy Award nomination. The band achieved similar success with its following two albums, Unto the Locust (2011) and Bloodstone & Diamonds (2014), before returning to its nu metal roots with the release of its ninth album, Catharsis (2018).

Machine Head has released nine studio albums, two live albums, one video album, 13 singles and 15 music videos. Four of the band's studio albums have been certified silver in the United Kingdom, and the band's highest peak on the Billboard 200 came with Bloodstone & Diamonds at number 21. To date, the band has sold over three million records worldwide.

Mentors (band)

The Mentors are an American heavy metal band, known for their deliberate shock rock lyrics.

Originally formed in Seattle, Washington in May 1976, they relocated to Los Angeles, California in 1979 where their irreverent attitude aligned them with the city's punk rock scene. Their music has developed stylistically over the years from garage metal to hardcore punk to experimental thrash metal.

Although garnering attention both from noted hard rock acts and pro-censorship movements such as the Parents Music Resource Center, the high-profile death of drummer and lead singer Eldon Hoke ("El Duce") in 1997 brought them unprecedented attention. The band remains active today with a different line-up: Sickie Wifebeater (Eric Carlson) on lead guitar, Dr Heathen Scum (Steve Broy) on bass guitar, Cousin Fister (Bryan) on rhythm guitar, and John Christopher on drums.

O Maidens in Your Savage Season

O Maidens in Your Savage Season (荒ぶる季節の乙女どもよ。, Araburu Kisetsu no Otome-domo yo) is a Japanese manga series written by Mari Okada and illustrated by Nao Emoto. It has been serialized in Kodansha's shōnen manga magazine Bessatsu Shōnen Magazine since December 2016 and has been collected in six tankōbon volumes. The manga is licensed in English by Kodansha USA and began publication digitally under the Kodansha Comics imprint from April 2019. An anime television series adaptation by Lay-duce has been announced and will premiere in July 5, 2019 on the Animeism programming block.

Roadrunner United

Roadrunner United was a project organized by American heavy metal record label Roadrunner Records to celebrate its 25th anniversary. It culminated in an album released worldwide on October 11, 2005, entitled The All-Star Sessions. Four "team captains" were chosen to lead 57 artists from 45 past and present Roadrunner bands, and produce and oversee the album's 18 tracks: then (now former) Slipknot drummer Joey Jordison, Trivium frontman and guitarist Matt Heafy, Fear Factory guitarist Dino Cazares, and Machine Head frontman and guitarist Robb Flynn. The unprecedented project was the brainchild of Roadrunner UK General Manager Mark Palmer and Roadrunner USA VP of A&R Monte Conner. The album project was coordinated by Lora Richardson and was mixed by Colin Richardson and Andy Sneap. The All-Star Sessions spawned one single and music video ("The End"). The DVD included with the CD purchase is a documentary of the "Making Of" the songs. It features the sessions of the four team captains making their songs.On October 13, 2008, Roadrunner Records announced on its MySpace and on its official website that a two-disc DVD of a release party-concert, featuring songs from the album performed live, would be released on December 9, 2008. The DVD features the full concert and a documentary.

Sharon Duce

Sharon Duce (born 17 January 1948) is a British actress.

Born in Sheffield, she trained at the Webber Douglas Academy of Dramatic Art then became a stage actress at the Sheffield Repertory Theatre, the York Theatre Royal, and the Theatre in the Round, before joining Ian McKellen and Edward Petherbridge's Actors Company. Apart from her career in film and television, she has had leading roles at the Royal Court Theatre and other West End theatres.She has two children with the former actor Dominic Guard, with whom she appeared in the film Absolution (1978).Her best known screen role was with Ray Brooks in the BBC comedy drama Big Deal (1984). She has also appeared in:

Big Deal (TV series)

Buddy's Song

Clocking Off

Coronation Street

Doctor Who (Ghost Light).

Emmerdale

London's Burning

Midsomer Murders

Minder

Moving On

Outland

The Bill

The Professionals

The Royle Family

Tales of the Unexpected (TV series)

The Tomorrow People

Vera

Wycliffe,

Z-CarsIn 1992 she was reunited with Brooks to star in the BBC drama series Growing Pains, in which they played middle-aged foster parents. She also guest starred for two episodes in February 1992 in ITV's BAFTA award-winning series for teenagers, Press Gang, playing Spike Thomson's mother. Duce appeared in Coronation Street as Julie Carp's mother, Paula Carp, but she left the soap on 22 May 2009.

Sufism Reoriented

Sufism Reoriented is an American school of spiritual training, headquartered in Walnut Creek, California, established by Meher Baba in 1952. In November of that year he signed The Chartered Guidance from Meher Baba for the Reorientation of Sufism. He appointed Ivy O. Duce as the first Murshida, or spiritual guide, of Sufism Reoriented.

Meher Baba designed Sufism Reoriented as a universal spiritual school which recognizes a central core of divine love at the heart of all spiritual systems. Meher Baba reorganized patterns of life and inner training associated with ancient Sufism and adapted them to the needs of spiritual students in contemporary America. He identified the central principles of Sufism Reoriented as love and service: active love for God and active service to others in God’s world.

YuruYuri

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Kingdom of Italy
Italian Republic

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