Dubrovnik

Dubrovnik (Croatian: [dǔbroːʋniːk] (listen);[2] historically Latin: Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean Sea, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva County. Its total population is 42,615 (census 2011). In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage sites.

The prosperity of the city was historically based on maritime trade; as the capital of the maritime Republic of Ragusa, it achieved a high level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries, as it became notable for its wealth and skilled diplomacy.

In 1991, after the break-up of Yugoslavia, Dubrovnik was besieged by Serbian and Montenegrin soldiers of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) for seven months and suffered significant damage from shelling.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] After repair and restoration works in the 1990s and early 2000s, Dubrovnik re-emerged as one of the top tourist destinations in the Mediterranean.[12][13][14][15]

Dubrovnik
Grad Dubrovnik
City of Dubrovnik
Top: old city of Dubrovnik, Second left: Sponza Palace, Second right: Rector's Palace, Third left: city walls, Third right: Dubrovnik Cathedral, Bottom: Stradun, the city's main street
Top: old city of Dubrovnik, Second left: Sponza Palace, Second right: Rector's Palace, Third left: city walls, Third right: Dubrovnik Cathedral, Bottom: Stradun, the city's main street
Flag of Dubrovnik
Flag
Coat of arms of Dubrovnik
Coat of arms
Nicknames: 
"Croatian Athens", "Pearl of the Adriatic", "Thesaurum mundi"
Dubrovnik is located in Croatia
Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia
Coordinates: 42°38′25″N 18°06′30″E / 42.64028°N 18.10833°ECoordinates: 42°38′25″N 18°06′30″E / 42.64028°N 18.10833°E
Country Croatia
CountyDubrovnik-Neretva
Government
 • TypeMayor-Council
 • MayorMato Franković (HDZ)
 • City Council
Area
 • City21.35 km2 (8.24 sq mi)
Elevation
3 m (10 ft)
Population
(2011)[1]
 • City42,615
 • Density2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
 • Urban
28,434
 • Metro
65,808
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
HR-20 000
Area code(s)+385 20
Vehicle registrationDU
Websitewww.dubrovnik.hr
Main street-Dubrovnik-2
Stradun, Dubrovnik's main street
Dubrovnik as seen from Srđ - Detail - September 2017
The Old Town from above
Casco viejo de Dubrovnik, Croacia, 2014-04-14, DD 10
View of the old city

Names

The names Dubrovnik and Ragusa co-existed for several centuries. Ragusa, recorded in various forms since at least the 10th century, remained the official name of the Republic of Ragusa until 1808, and of the city within the Kingdom of Dalmatia until 1918, while Dubrovnik, first recorded in the late 12th century, was in widespread use by the late 16th or early 17th century.[16]

The name Dubrovnik of the Adriatic city is first recorded in the Charter of Ban Kulin (1189).[17] It is mostly explained as "dubron", a Celtic name for water (Gaulish dubron, Irish dobar, Welsh dubr/dwfr, Cornish dofer), akin to the toponyms Douvres, Dover, and Tauber[18]; or originating from a Croatian word "dub" meaning oak.

The historical name Ragusa is recorded in the Greek form Ῥαούσιν (Rhaousin, Latinized Ragusium) in the 10th century. It was recorded in various forms in the medieval period, Rausia, Lavusa, Labusa, Raugia, Rachusa. Various attempts have been made to etymologize the name. Suggestions include derivation from Greek ῥάξ, ῥαγός "grape"; from Greek ῥώξ, ῥωγός "narrow passage"; Greek ῥωγάς "ragged (of rocks)", ῥαγή (ῥαγάς) "fissure"; from the name of the Epirote tribe of the Rhogoi, from an unidentified Illyrian substrate. A connection to the name of Sicilian Ragusa has also been proposed. Putanec (1993) gives a review of etymological suggestion, and favours an explanation of the name as pre-Greek ("Pelasgian"), from a root cognate to Greek ῥαγή "fissure", with a suffix -ussa also found in the Greek name of Brač, Elaphousa.[19]

The classical explanation of the name is due to Constantine VII's De Administrando Imperio (10th century). According to this account, Ragusa (Ῥαούσιν) is the foundation of the refugees from Epidaurum (Ragusa Vecchia), a Greek city situated some 15 km (9 mi) to the south of Ragusa, when that city was destroyed in the Slavic incursions of the 7th century. The name is explained as a corruption of Lausa, the name of the rocky island on which the city was built (connected by Constantine to Greek λᾶας "rock, stone").

History

Origins

According to Constantine Porphyrogenitus's De Administrando Imperio (c. 950), Ragusa was founded in the 7th century, named after a "rocky island" called Lausa, by refugees from Epidaurum (Ragusa Vecchia), a Greek city situated some 15 km to the south, when that city was destroyed in the Slavic incursions.[20]

Excavations in 2007 revealed a Byzantine basilica from the 8th century and parts of the city walls. The size of the old basilica clearly indicates that there was quite a large settlement at the time. There is also evidence for the presence of a settlement in the pre-Christian era.[21]

Antun Ničetić, in his 1996 book Povijest dubrovačke luke ("History of the Port of Dubrovnik"), expounds the theory that Dubrovnik was established by Greek sailors, as a station halfway between the two Greek settlements of Budva and Korčula, 95 nautical miles (176 km; 109 mi) apart from each other.

Republic of Ragusa

Dubrovnik - Croatia
Medieval fortresses, Lovrijenac & Bokar, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik 1667
Dubrovnik before the earthquake in 1667

After the fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, the town came under the protection of the Byzantine Empire. Dubrovnik in those medieval centuries had a Roman population.[22] In 12th and 13th centuries Dubrovnik became a truly oligarchic republic, and benefited greatly by becoming a commercial outpost for the rising and prosperous Serbian state, specially after the signing of a treaty with Stefan the First-Crowned.[23] After the Crusades, Dubrovnik came under the sovereignty of Venice (1205–1358), which would give its institutions to the Dalmatian city. In 1240, Ragusa purchased the island of Lastovo from Stefan Uroš I king of Serbia who had rights over the island as ruler of parts of Hum.[24] After a fire destroyed most of the city in the night of August 16, 1296, a new urban plan was developed.[25][26][27] By the Peace Treaty of Zadar in 1358, Dubrovnik achieved relative independence as a vassal-state of the Kingdom of Hungary. Ragusa experienced further expansion when, in 1333, Serbian emperor Stefan Dušan, sold Pelješac and Ston in exchange for cash and an annual tribute.[28] Thus the city became Slavic-speaking city at the moment when her connection with the rest of Europe, specially Italy, brought her into the full corrent of the Western Renaissance.[29]

Between the 14th century and 1808, Dubrovnik ruled itself as a free state, although it was a vassal from 1382 to 1804 of the Ottoman Empire and paid an annual tribute to its sultan.[30] The Republic reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, when its thalassocracy rivalled that of the Republic of Venice and other Italian maritime republics.

For centuries, Dubrovnik was an ally of Ancona, the other Adriatic maritime republic rival of Venice, which was itself the Ottoman Empire's chief rival for control of the Adriatic. This alliance enabled the two towns set on opposite sides of the Adriatic to resist attempts by the Venetians to make the Adriatic a "Venetian Bay", also controlling directly or indirectly all the Adriatic ports. Ancona and Dubrovnik developed an alternative trade route to the Venetian (Venice-Austria-Germany): starting in Dubrovnik it went on to Ancona, through Florence and ended in Flanders as seen on this map.

The Republic of Ragusa received its own Statutes as early as 1272, which, among other things, codified Roman practice and local customs. The Statutes included prescriptions for town planning and the regulation of quarantine (for sanitary reasons).[31]

The Republic was an early adopter of what are now regarded as modern laws and institutions: a medical service was introduced in 1301, with the first pharmacy, still operating to this day, being opened in 1317. An almshouse was opened in 1347, and the first quarantine hospital (Lazarete) was established in 1377. Slave trading was abolished in 1418, and an orphanage opened in 1432. A 20 km (12 mi) water supply system, instead of a cistern, was constructed in 1438 by the Neapolitan architect and engineer Onofrio della Cava. He completed the aqueduct with two public fountains. He also built a number of mills along one of its branches.

The city was ruled by the local aristocracy which was of Latin-Dalmatian extraction and formed two city councils. As usual for the time, they maintained a strict system of social classes. The republic abolished the slave trade early in the 15th century and valued liberty highly. The city successfully balanced its sovereignty between the interests of Venice and the Ottoman Empire for centuries.

The languages spoken by the people were the Romance Dalmatian and common Croatian. The latter started to replace Dalmatian little by little from the 11th century among the common inhabitants of the city. Italian and Venetian would become important languages of culture and trade in Dubrovnik. At the same time, Dubrovnik became a cradle of Croatian literature.

Onofrio's Fountain, Dubrovnik, Croatia
Big Onofrio's fountain (1438)

The economic wealth of the Republic was partially the result of the land it developed, but especially of seafaring trade. With the help of skilled diplomacy, Dubrovnik merchants travelled lands freely and the city had a huge fleet of merchant ships (argosy) that travelled all over the world. From these travels they founded some settlements, from India to America, and brought parts of their culture and flora home with them. One of its keys to success was not conquering, but trading and sailing under a white flag with the Latin: Libertas word (freedom) prominently featured on it. The flag was adopted when slave trading was abolished in 1418.

Many Conversos, Jews from Spain and Portugal, were attracted to the city. In May 1544, a ship landed there filled exclusively with Portuguese refugees, as Balthasar de Faria reported to King John. During this time there worked in the city one of the most famous cannon and bell founders of his time: Ivan Rabljanin (Magister Johannes Baptista Arbensis de la Tolle). Already in 1571 Dubrovnik sold its protectorate over some Christian settlements in other parts of the Ottoman Empire to France and Venice. At that time there was also a colony of Dubrovnik in Fes in Morocco. The bishop of Dubrovnik was a Cardinal protector in 1571. At that time there were only 16 other countries which had Cardinal protectors; those being France, Spain, Austria, Portugal, Poland, England, Scotland, Ireland, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Savoy, Lucca, Greece, Illyria, Armenia and Lebanon.

Ragusa
Territory of the Republic before 1808

The Republic gradually declined due to a combination of a Mediterranean shipping crisis and the catastrophic earthquake of 1667[32] which killed over 5,000 citizens, levelled most of the public buildings and, consequently, negatively impacted the whole well-being of the Republic. In 1699, the Republic was forced to sell two mainland patches of its territory to the Ottomans in order to avoid being caught in the clash with advancing Venetian forces. Today this strip of land belongs to Bosnia and Herzegovina and is that country's only direct access to the Adriatic. A highlight of Dubrovnik's diplomacy was the involvement in the American Revolution.[33]

In 1806, the city surrendered to the Napoleonic army,[34] as that was the only way to end a month-long siege by the Russian-Montenegrin fleets (during which 3,000 cannonballs fell on the city). At first, Napoleon demanded only free passage for his troops, promising not to occupy the territory and stressing that the French were friends of Dubrovnik. Later, however, French forces blockaded the harbours, forcing the government to give in and let French troops enter the city. On this day, all flags and coats of arms above the city walls were painted black as a sign of mourning. In 1808, Marshal Auguste de Marmont abolished the republic and integrated its territory first into Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy and later into the Illyrian provinces under French rule. This was to last until 28 January 1814 when the city surrendered to Captain Sir William Hoste leading a body of British and Austrian troops who were besieging the fortress.

Languages

The official language until 1472 was Latin, though the common language was Croatian. Since the Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik, despite obvious connections to the western, Catholic cultural sphere, there have been false claims that Dubrovnik literature was part of Serbian literature.[35][36] Most of the claims are innacurate, have little to no historical evidence.

The Italian language as spoken in the republic was heavily influenced by the Venetian language and the Tuscan dialect. Italian took root among the Dalmatian-speaking merchant upper classes, as a result of Venetian influence.[37]

Austrian rule

When the Habsburg Empire annexed these provinces after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the new authorities implemented a bureaucratic administration, established the Kingdom of Dalmatia, which had its own Sabor (Diet) or Parliament, based in the city of Zadar, and political parties such as the Autonomist Party and the People's Party. They introduced a series of modifications intended to slowly centralise the bureaucratic, tax, religious, educational, and trade structure. These steps largely failed, despite the intention of wanting to stimulate the economy. Once the personal, political and economic damage of the Napoleonic Wars had been overcome, new movements began to form in the region, calling for a political reorganisation of the Adriatic along national lines.

The combination of these two forces—a flawed Habsburg administrative system and new national movement claiming ethnicity as the founding block toward a community—posed a particularly perplexing problem: Dalmatia was a province ruled by the German-speaking Habsburg monarchy, with bilingual (Croatian- and Italian-speaking) elites that dominated the general population consisting of a Croatian Catholic majority (and a Slavic Orthodox minority).

Libertas
The "Libertas" Flag of Dubrovnik

In 1815, the former Dubrovnik Government (its noble assembly) met for the last time in Ljetnikovac in Mokošica. Once again, extreme measures were taken to re-establish the Republic, but it was all in vain. After the fall of the Republic most of the aristocracy was recognised by the Austrian Empire.

In 1832, Baron Šišmundo Getaldić-Gundulić (Sigismondo Ghetaldi-Gondola) (1795–1860) was elected Mayor of Dubrovnik, serving for 13 years; the Austrian government granted him the title of "Baron".

Count Rafael Pucić (Raffaele Pozza), (1828–1890) was elected for first time Podestà of Dubrovnik in the year 1869 after this was re-elected in 1872, 1875, 1882, 1884) and elected twice into the Dalmatian Council, 1870, 1876. The victory of the Nationalists in Split in 1882 strongly affected in the areas of Korčula and Dubrovnik. It was greeted by the mayor (podestà) of Dubrovnik Rafael Pucić, the National Reading Club of Dubrovnik, the Workers Association of Dubrovnik and the review "Slovinac"; by the communities of Kuna and Orebić, the latter one getting the nationalist government even before Split.

In 1889, the Serb-Catholics circle supported Baron Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola, the candidate of the Autonomous Party, vs the candidate of Popular Party Vlaho de Giulli, in the 1890 election to the Dalmatian Diet.[38] The following year, during the local government election, the Autonomous Party won the municipal re-election with Francesco Gondola, who died in power in 1899. The alliance won the election again on 27 May 1894. Frano Getaldić-Gundulić founded the Società Philately on 4 December 1890.

In 1905, the Committee for establishing electric tram service, headed by Luko Bunić – certainly one of the most deserving persons who contributed to the realisation of the project – was established. Other members of the Committee were Ivo Papi, Miho Papi, Artur Saraka, Mato Šarić, Antun Pugliesi, Mato Gracić, Ivo Degiulli, Ernest Katić and Antun Milić.[39] The tram service in Dubrovnik existed from 1910 to 1970.

Pero Čingrija (1837–1921), one of the leaders of the People's Party in Dalmatia,[40] played the main role in the merger of the People's Party and the Party of Right into a single Croatian Party in 1905.

1918–1991

With the fall of Austria–Hungary in 1918, the city was incorporated into the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). Dubrovnik became one of the 33 oblasts of the Kingdom. When in 1929 Yugoslavia was divided among 9 Banovina, the city became part of the Zeta Banovina. In 1939 Dubrovnik became part of the newly created Banovina of Croatia.

During World War II, Dubrovnik became part of the Nazi-puppet Independent State of Croatia, occupied by the Italian army first, and by the German army after 8 September 1943. In October 1944 Yugoslav Partisans occupied Dubrovnik, arresting more than 300 citizens and executing 53 without trial; this event came to be known, after the small island on which it occurred, as the Daksa Massacre.[41][42] Communist leadership during the next several years continued political prosecutions, which culminated on 12 April 1947 with the capture and imprisonment of more than 90 citizens of Dubrovnik.[43]

Under communism Dubrovnik became part of the Socialist Republic of Croatia and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1979, the city joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

Since 1991: Breakup of Yugoslavia and its aftermath

Dubrovnik shelling
Dubrovnik shelling (black dots) 1991 to 1992

In 1991 Croatia and Slovenia, which at that time were republics within Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, declared their independence. At that event, Socialist Republic of Croatia was renamed Republic of Croatia.

Despite demilitarisation of the old town in early 1970s in an attempt to prevent it from ever becoming a casualty of war, following Croatia's independence in 1991 Yugoslavia's Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), by then composed primarily of Serbs, attacked the city. The new Croatian government set up military outpost in the city itself. Montenegro, led by president Momir Bulatović, and prime minister Milo Đukanović, coming to power in the Anti-bureaucratic revolution and allied to Slobodan Milošević in Serbia, declared that Dubrovnik would not remain in Croatia because they claimed it historically had never been part of Croatia. This was in spite of the large Croat majority in the city and that very few Montenegrins resided there, though Serbs accounted for 6.8 percent of the population.[8]

On October 1, 1991 Dubrovnik was attacked by JNA with a siege of Dubrovnik that lasted for seven months. The heaviest artillery attack was on December 6 with 19 people killed and 60 wounded. The number of casualties in the conflict, according to Croatian Red Cross, was 114 killed civilians, among them poet Milan Milišić. Foreign newspapers were criticised for placing heavier attention on the damage suffered by the old town than on human casualties.[44] Nonetheless, the artillery attacks on Dubrovnik damaged 56% of its buildings to some degree, as the historic walled city, a UNESCO world heritage site, sustained 650 hits by artillery rounds.[45] The Croatian Army lifted the siege in May 1992, and liberated Dubrovnik's surroundings by the end of October, but the danger of sudden attacks by the JNA lasted for another three years.[46]

Following the end of the war, damage caused by the shelling of the Old Town was repaired. Adhering to UNESCO guidelines, repairs were performed in the original style. Most of the reconstruction work was done between 1995 and 1999.[47] The inflicted damage can be seen on a chart near the city gate, showing all artillery hits during the siege, and is clearly visible from high points around the city in the form of the more brightly coloured new roofs. ICTY indictments were issued for JNA generals and officers involved in the bombing.

General Pavle Strugar, who coordinated the attack on the city, was sentenced to a seven-and-a-half-year prison term by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia for his role in the attack.[48]

The 1996 Croatia USAF CT-43 crash, near Dubrovnik Airport, killed everyone on a United States Air Force jet with United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown, The New York Times Frankfurt Bureau chief Nathaniel C. Nash and 33 other people.

Geography

Climate

Dubrovnik has a borderline humid subtropical (Cfa) and Mediterranean climate (Csa) in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than 40 mm (1.6 in) of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as solely humid subtropical or Mediterranean. Dubrovnik has hot, muggy, moderately dry summers and mild to cool wet winters. The bora wind blows cold gusts down the Adriatic coast between October and April, and thundery conditions are common all the year round, even in summer, when they interrupt the warm, sunny days. The air temperatures can slightly vary, depending on the area or region. Typically, in July and August daytime maximum temperatures reach 28 °C (82 °F), and at night drop to around 23 °C (73 °F). In Spring and Autumn maximum temperatures are typically between 20 °C (68 °F) and 28 °C (82 °F). Winters are among the mildest of any Croatian city, with daytime temperatures around 13 °C (55 °F) in the coldest months. Snow in Dubrovnik is very rare.

  • Air temperature
    • average annual: 16.4 °C (61.5 °F)
    • average of coldest period: January, 10 °C (50 °F)
    • average of warmest period: August, 25.8 °C (78.4 °F)
  • Sea temperature
    • average May–September: 18.7–25.5 °C (65.7–77.9 °F)
  • Salinity
    • approximately 3.8%
  • Precipitation
    • average annual: 1,020.8 mm (40.19 in)
    • average annual rain days: 109.2
  • Sunshine
    • average annual: 2629 hours
    • average daily hours: 7.2 hours
Climate data for Dubrovnik (1971–2000, extremes 1961–2018)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.4
(65.1)
24.1
(75.4)
26.8
(80.2)
30.2
(86.4)
32.9
(91.2)
35.7
(96.3)
37.9
(100.2)
38.4
(101.1)
33.5
(92.3)
30.5
(86.9)
25.4
(77.7)
20.3
(68.5)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F) 12.3
(54.1)
12.6
(54.7)
14.4
(57.9)
16.9
(62.4)
21.5
(70.7)
25.3
(77.5)
28.2
(82.8)
28.5
(83.3)
25.1
(77.2)
21.1
(70.0)
16.6
(61.9)
13.4
(56.1)
19.7
(67.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.2
(48.6)
9.4
(48.9)
11.1
(52.0)
13.8
(56.8)
18.3
(64.9)
22.0
(71.6)
24.6
(76.3)
24.8
(76.6)
21.4
(70.5)
17.6
(63.7)
13.3
(55.9)
10.3
(50.5)
16.3
(61.3)
Average low °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
6.8
(44.2)
8.4
(47.1)
11.0
(51.8)
15.3
(59.5)
18.9
(66.0)
21.4
(70.5)
21.6
(70.9)
18.4
(65.1)
14.9
(58.8)
10.7
(51.3)
7.8
(46.0)
13.5
(56.3)
Record low °C (°F) −7.0
(19.4)
−5.2
(22.6)
−4.2
(24.4)
1.6
(34.9)
5.2
(41.4)
10.0
(50.0)
14.1
(57.4)
14.1
(57.4)
8.5
(47.3)
4.5
(40.1)
−1.0
(30.2)
−6.0
(21.2)
−7.0
(19.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 98.3
(3.87)
97.9
(3.85)
93.1
(3.67)
91.4
(3.60)
70.1
(2.76)
44.0
(1.73)
28.3
(1.11)
72.5
(2.85)
86.1
(3.39)
120.1
(4.73)
142.3
(5.60)
119.8
(4.72)
1,064
(41.89)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11.2 11.2 11.2 12.0 9.4 6.4 4.7 5.1 7.2 10.8 12.4 12.0 113.6
Average relative humidity (%) 59.9 58.4 61.2 64.2 66.7 63.8 58.2 59.2 61.9 62.2 62.4 60.3 61.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 130.2 144.1 179.8 207.0 266.6 312.0 347.2 325.5 309.0 189.1 135.0 124.0 2,669.5
Source: Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service[49][50]
Climate data for Dubrovnik
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 14.1
(57.4)
14.2
(57.6)
14.4
(57.9)
15.6
(60.1)
18.7
(65.7)
23.1
(73.6)
25.5
(77.9)
25.4
(77.7)
24.3
(75.7)
20.7
(69.3)
18.2
(64.8)
15.7
(60.3)
19.2
(66.5)
Mean daily daylight hours 9.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.2
Average Ultraviolet index 1 2 4 5 7 8 9 8 6 4 2 1 4.8
Source: Weather Atlas [51]

Heritage

Old City of Dubrovnik
Native name
Croatian: Stari grad Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik1
The Old Harbour at Dubrovnik
LocationDubrovnik-Neretva County, Croatia
TypeCultural
Criteriai, iii, iv
Designated1979 (3rd Session)
Reference no.95
Extension1994
Endangered1991–1998
Official name: Stari grad Dubrovnik

The annual Dubrovnik Summer Festival is a 45-day-long cultural event with live plays, concerts, and games. It has been awarded a Gold International Trophy for Quality (2007) by the Editorial Office in collaboration with the Trade Leaders Club.

The patron saint of the city is Sveti Vlaho (Saint Blaise), whose statues are seen around the city. He has an importance similar to that of St. Mark the Evangelist to Venice. One of the larger churches in city is named after Saint Blaise. February 3 is the feast of Sveti Vlaho (Saint Blaise), who is the city's patron saint. Every year the city of Dubrovnik celebrates the holiday with Mass, parades, and festivities that last for several days.[52]

Lapad - poluotok
Lapad peninsula
Banje beach, Dubrovnik, Croatia
Banje beach, Dubrovnik

The Old Town of Dubrovnik is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 50 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2002.[53]

The city boasts of many old buildings, such as the Arboretum Trsteno, the oldest arboretum in the world, dating back to before 1492. Also, the third oldest European pharmacy is located in the city, which dates back to 1317 (and is the only one still in operation today). It is located at Little Brothers monastery in Dubrovnik.[54]

In history, many Conversos (Marranos) were attracted to Dubrovnik, formerly a considerable seaport. In May 1544, a ship landed there filled exclusively with Portuguese refugees, as Balthasar de Faria reported to King John. Another admirer of Dubrovnik, George Bernard Shaw, visited the city in 1929 and said: "If you want to see heaven on earth, come to Dubrovnik."[55][56]

In the bay of Dubrovnik is the 72-hectare (180-acre) wooded island of Lokrum, where according to legend, Richard the Lionheart, King of England, was cast ashore after being shipwrecked in 1192. The island includes a fortress, botanical garden, monastery and naturist beach.

Among the many tourist destinations are a few beaches. Banje, Dubrovnik's main public beach, is home to the Eastwest Beach Club. There is also Copacabana Beach, a stony beach on the Lapad peninsula,[57] named after the popular beach in Rio de Janeiro.

By 2018, the city had to take steps to reduce the excessive number of tourists, especially in the Old Town. One method to moderate the overcrowding was to stagger the arrival/departure times of cruise ships to spread the number of visitors more evenly during the week.[58]

Important monuments

Dubrovnik - roofs
Rooftops in Dubrovnik's Old City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Old City of Dubrovnik-108792
Remote view of Dubrovnik Cathedral
Bokar
Bokar fortress
Dalmatia IMG 9840 dubrovnik
Aerial view of Dubrovnik from the southwest

Few of Dubrovnik's Renaissance buildings survived the earthquake of 1667 but enough remained to give an idea of the city's architectural heritage.[59] The finest Renaissance highlight is the Sponza Palace which dates from the 16th century and is currently used to house the National Archives.[60] The Rector's Palace is a Gothic-Renaissance structure that displays finely carved capitals and an ornate staircase. It now houses a museum.[61][62] Its façade is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 50 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2002.[53] The St. Saviour Church is another remnant of the Renaissance period, next to the much-visited Franciscan Church and Monastery.[54][63][64] The Franciscan monastery's library possesses 30,000 volumes, 216 incunabula, 1,500 valuable handwritten documents. Exhibits include a 15th-century silver-gilt cross and silver thurible, and an 18th-century crucifix from Jerusalem, a martyrology (1541) by Bemardin Gucetic and illuminated psalters.[54]

Dubrovnik's most beloved church is St Blaise's church, built in the 18th century in honour of Dubrovnik's patron saint. Dubrovnik's Baroque Cathedral was built in the 18th century and houses an impressive Treasury with relics of Saint Blaise. The city's Dominican Monastery resembles a fortress on the outside but the interior contains an art museum and a Gothic-Romanesque church.[65][66] A special treasure of the Dominican monastery is its library with 216 incunabula, numerous illustrated manuscripts, a rich archive with precious manuscripts and documents and an extensive art collection.[67][68][69]

The Neapolitan architect and engineer Onofrio della Cava completed the aqueduct with two public fountains, both built in 1438. Close to the Pile Gate stands the Big Onofrio's Fountain in the middle of a small square. It may have been inspired by the former Romanesque baptistry of the former cathedral in Bunić Square. The sculptural elements were lost in the earthquake of 1667. Water jets gush out of the mouth of the sixteen mascarons. The Little Onofrio's Fountain stands at the eastern side of the Placa, supplying water the market place in the Luža Square. The sculptures ware made by the Milanese artist Pietro di Martino (who also sculpted the ornaments in the Rector's Palace and made a statue – now lost – for the Franciscan church).

The 31-metre-high (102 ft) bell tower, built in 1444, is one of the symbols of the free city state of Ragusa. It was built by the local architects Grubačević, Utišenović and Radončić. It was rebuilt in 1929 as it had lost its stability through an earthquake and was in danger of falling. The brass face of the clock shows the phases of the moon. Two human figures strike the bell every hour. The tower stands next to the House of the Main Guard, also built in Gothic style. It was the residence of the admiral, commander-in-chief of the army. The Baroque portal was built between 1706 and 1708 by the Venetian architect Marino Gropelli (who also built St Blaise's church).

The Republic of Ragusa, as Dubrovnik was then named, erected in 1418 the statue of Roland (Ital. Orlando) as a symbol of loyalty to Sigismund of Luxembourg (1368–1437), King of Hungary and Croatia (as of 1387), Prince-Elector of Brandenburg (between 1378 and 1388 and again between 1411 and 1415), German King (as of 1411), King of Bohemia (as of 1419) and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (as of 1433), who helped by a successful war alliance against Venice to retain Ragusa's independence. It stands in the middle of Luža Square. Roland statues were typical symbols of city autonomy or independence, often erected under Sigismund in his Electorate of Brandenburg. In 1419 the sculptor Bonino of Milano, with the help of local craftsmen, replaced the first Roland with the present Gothic statue. Its forearm was for a long time the unit of measure in Dubrovnik: one ell of Dubrovnik is equal to 51.2 cm (20.2 in).

Walls of Dubrovnik

A feature of Dubrovnik is its walls (1.2 million visitors in 2017) that run almost 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) around the city. The walls are 4 to 6 metres (13–20 feet) thick on the landward side but are much thinner on the seaward side. The system of turrets and towers were intended to protect the vulnerable city. The walls of Dubrovnik have also been a popular filming location for the fictional city of King's Landing in the HBO television series, Game of Thrones.[70]

Demographics

Historical populations
of Dubrovnik
YearPop.±%
1880 15,666—    
1890 15,329−2.2%
1900 17,384+13.4%
1910 18,396+5.8%
1921 16,719−9.1%
1931 20,420+22.1%
1948 21,778+6.7%
1953 24,296+11.6%
1961 27,793+14.4%
1971 35,628+28.2%
1981 46,025+29.2%
1991 51,597+12.1%
2001 43,770−15.2%
2011 42,615−2.6%
Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005

The total population of the city is 42,615 (census 2011), in the following settlements:[1]

  • Bosanka, population 139
  • Brsečine, population 96
  • Čajkovica, population 160
  • Čajkovići, population 26
  • Donje Obuljeno, population 210
  • Dubravica, population 37
  • Dubrovnik, population 28,434
  • Gornje Obuljeno, population 124
  • Gromača, population 146
  • Kliševo, population 54
  • Knežica, population 133
  • Koločep, population 163
  • Komolac, population 320
  • Lopud, population 249
  • Lozica, population 146
  • Ljubač, population 69
  • Mokošica, population 1,924
  • Mravinjac, population 88
  • Mrčevo, population 90
  • Nova Mokošica, population 6,016
  • Orašac, population 631
  • Osojnik, population 301
  • Petrovo Selo, population 23
  • Pobrežje, population 118
  • Prijevor, population 453
  • Rožat, population 340
  • Suđurađ, population 207
  • Sustjepan, population 323
  • Šipanska Luka, population 211
  • Šumet, population 176
  • Trsteno, population 222
  • Zaton, population 985

The population was 42,615 in 2011,[1] down from 49,728 in 1991[71] In the 2011 census, 90.34% of the population was Croat.[72]

Transport

Croatia dbv 3
Dubrovnik Airport is the third busiest airport in Croatia.[73]

Dubrovnik has an international airport of its own. It is located approximately 20 km (12 mi) southeast of Dubrovnik city centre, near Čilipi. Buses connect the airport with the Dubrovnik old main bus station in Gruž. In addition, a network of modern, local buses connects all Dubrovnik neighbourhoods running frequently from dawn to midnight. However, Dubrovnik, unlike Croatia's other major centres, is not accessible by rail;[74] until 1975 Dubrovnik was connected to Mostar and Sarajevo by a narrow gauge railway (760 mm)[75][76] built during the Austro-Hungarian rule of Bosnia.

The A1 highway, in use between Zagreb and Ploče, is planned to be extended all the way to Dubrovnik. Because the area around the city is disconnected from the rest of Croatian territory, the highway will either cross the Pelješac Bridge whose construction is in preparation as of 2018,[77] or run through Neum in Bosnia and Herzegovina and continue to Dubrovnik.

Education

Dubrovnik has a number of higher educational institutions. These include the University of Dubrovnik, the Libertas University (Dubrovnik International University), Rochester Institute of Technology Croatia (former American College of Management and Technology), a University Centre for Postgraduate Studies of the University of Zagreb, and an Institute of History of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.

Notable people

Sister cities

Dubrovnik is twinned with:

Gallery

Dubrovnik Harbor1
Dubrovnik Harbor2
Dubrovnik Harbor3
Adriatic Sea Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik Harbor4
Dubrovnik Main Street
Courtyard in Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik Facade
Dubrovnik Street and Facade
Dubrownik Sunset
Adriatic Sea from the Dubrovnik Wall
Dubrovnik Under the fortress
Orlando Sculpture
Water-fountain in Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik Walls
Street in Dubrovnik, Croatia
Street in Dubrovnik, Croatia1
Dubrovnik Waves
2011 Dubrownik, Widok ze starego portu na wybrzeże (06)
Dubrovački trombunjeri u Čakovcu
Dubrovnik as seen from Srđ - September 2017
Saint Blaise's Church, Dubrovnik - September 2017
Saint Ignatius Church, Dubrovnik - September 2017
Stradun, Dubrovnik - September 2017

Panorama

Panoramic view of the Old Town of Dubrovnik
Panoramic view of the Old Town of Dubrovnik
Aerial view
Aerial view

In popular culture

The HBO series Game of Thrones used Dubrovnik as a filming location, representing the cities of King's Landing and Qarth.[82] Parts of Star Wars: The Last Jedi were filmed in Dubrovnik in March 2016, in which Dubrovnik was used as the setting for the casino city of Canto Bight.[83][84] Dubrovnik was one of the European sites used in the Bollywood movie Fan (2016), starring Shah Rukh Khan. In early 2017, Robin Hood was filmed on locations in Dubrovnik.[85] In Kander and Ebb's song "Ring Them Bells," the protagonist, Shirley Devore, goes to Dubrovnik to look for a husband and meets her neighbor from New York.[86] The text-based video game Quarantine Circular[87] is set aboard a ship off the coast of Dubrovnik, and a few references to the city are made throughout the course of the game.

See also

References

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Bibliography

Further reading

External links

Cavtat

Cavtat (Croatian pronunciation: [t͡sǎʋtat], Italian: Ragusa Vecchia, lit. 'Old Ragusa') is a town in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County of Croatia. It is on the Adriatic Sea coast 15 kilometres (9 miles) south of Dubrovnik and is the centre of the Konavle municipality.

Church of the Holy Annunciation, Dubrovnik

The Church of the Holy Annunciation (Croatian: Crkva svetih Blagovijesti; Serbian: Crkva Svetog blagovještenja / Црква Светог благовјештења) is a Serbian Orthodox church in Dubrovnik, south Croatia. In April 30, 1867, in the Municipal Assembly, Božo Bošković bought three houses of baron Frano Gondola with a garden behind them for a sum of 28,500 fiorins inside the Walls of Dubrovnik in the old town. It was built in 1877. It's the Assembly The church sustained damage from bombing during the Siege of Dubrovnik.

D118 road

D118 is the main state road on island of Korčula in Croatia connecting towns of Vela Luka and Korčula and ferry ports in those two towns, from where Jadrolinija ferries fly to the mainland, docking in Split and the D410 state road (from Vela Luka) and Orebić and the D414 state road (from Korčula). The road is 43.5 km (27.0 mi) long.The road, as well as all other state roads in Croatia, is managed and maintained by Hrvatske ceste, a state-owned company.

D223 road

D223 is a state road in the southern Croatia connecting the Brgat border crossing to Bosnia and Herzegovina to the D8 state road near Dubrovnik. The road is 4.6 km (2.9 mi) long.The road, as well as all other state roads in Croatia, is managed and maintained by Hrvatske ceste, state owned company.

D420 road

D420 is a state road in the northern outskirts of the city of Dubrovnik, Croatia, connecting the Port of Gruž to the D8 state road. The road is 2.8 km (1.7 mi) long.The road, as well as all other state roads in Croatia, is managed and maintained by Hrvatske Ceste, state owned company.

Dalmatia

Dalmatia (; Croatian: Dalmacija [dǎlmaːtsija]; Italian: Dalmazia; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.

Dalmatia is a narrow belt of the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The hinterland (Dalmatian Zagora) ranges in width from fifty kilometres in the north, to just a few kilometres in the south; it is mostly covered by the rugged Dinaric Mountains. Seventy-nine islands (and about 500 islets) run parallel to the coast, the largest (in Dalmatia) being Brač, Pag and Hvar. The largest city is Split, followed by Zadar, Dubrovnik and Šibenik.

The name of the region stems from an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae, who lived in the area in classical antiquity. Later it became a Roman province, and as result a Romance culture emerged, along with the now-extinct Dalmatian language, later largely replaced with related Venetian. With the arrival of Croats to the area in the 8th century, who occupied most of the hinterland, Croatian and Romance elements began to intermix in language and culture. During the Middle Ages, its cities were often conquered by, or switched allegiance to, the kingdoms of the region. The longest-lasting rule was the one of the Republic of Venice, which controlled most of Dalmatia between 1420 and 1797, with the exception of the small but stable Republic of Ragusa (1358–1808) in the south. Between 1815 and 1918, it was a province of the Austrian Empire known as the Kingdom of Dalmatia. After the Austro-Hungarian defeat in the First World War, Dalmatia was split between the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes which controlled most of it, and the Kingdom of Italy which held several smaller parts, and after World War II, SFR Yugoslavia took complete control over the area.

Dubrovnik-Neretva County

The Dubrovnik-Neretva County (pronounced [dǔbroːʋniːk-něreːtʋa]; Croatian: Dubrovačko-neretvanska županija [dǔbroʋat͡ʃko-nerěːtʋanskaː ʒupǎnija]) is the southernmost Croatian county, located in south Dalmatia. The county seat is Dubrovnik and other large towns are Korčula, Metković, Opuzen and Ploče. The Municipality of Neum, which belongs to neighbouring Bosnia and Herzegovina, divides the county in two parts.

The southern part of the county consists of Dubrovnik and the surrounding area, including the Pelješac peninsula, and the islands of Korčula, Lastovo, Mljet, Šipan, Lopud and Koločep. The northern part of the county includes the Neretva Delta, the Baćina lakes north of Ploče, and a swath of hinterland near the southernmost slopes of Biokovo and around the hill of Rujnica.

Although the 9 kilometres-long stretch of coast belonging to Neum effectively makes the southern part of the county an exclave (disconnecting it from mainland Croatia) it is still connected with the rest of the country via territorial waters. Road traffic going to and from Dubrovnik through Neum is usually less subject to customs controls in order to reduce the traffic congestion. The road connecting Dubrovnik to the rest of the country via Neum has one lane per direction and bus lines passing through Neum often make rest stops there so that passengers can take advantage of lower Bosnian taxes and purchase tobacco and alcoholic beverages as they tend to be cheaper there.

The Croatian and Bosnian governments are planning to build an expressway that would connect Dubrovnik through the Neum municipality and would not require any border control. The regional government of the county is also planning to build a sea bridge at Komarna that would directly connect the southern tip of the northern part of the county to the Pelješac peninsula (the Pelješac bridge), thereby linking the southern part of the county as well.

The northern part of the Mljet island is a national park. The Lastovo archipelago is a designated nature park. The southernmost tip of the county is the demilitarized Prevlaka peninsula at the border with Montenegro.

It is the only Croatian county that borders Montenegro.

Dubrovnik Airport

Dubrovnik Airport (Croatian: Zračna luka Dubrovnik; IATA: DBV, ICAO: LDDU), also referred to as Čilipi Airport (Croatian pronunciation: [tʃǐlipi]), is the international airport of Dubrovnik, Croatia. The airport is located approximately 15.5 km (9.5 mi) from Dubrovnik city centre, near Čilipi. It was the third-busiest airport in Croatia in 2017 after Zagreb Airport and Split Airport in terms of passenger throughput. It also has the country's longest runway, allowing it to accommodate heavy long-haul aircraft. The airport is a major destination for leisure flights during the European summer holiday season.

HNK Dubrovnik 1919

HNK Dubrovnik 1919 was a Croatian football club based in the city of Dubrovnik.

Konavle

Konavle (pronounced [kɔ̌naːv̞lɛ]) is a small region and municipality located southeast of Dubrovnik, Croatia.

It is administratively part of the Dubrovnik-Neretva County and forms a municipality with its center at Cavtat.

NK GOŠK Dubrovnik

NK GOŠK 1919 Dubrovnik is a football club based in the city of Dubrovnik, Croatia. Its name comes from the Gruž neighbourhood of the city (Gruški Omladinski Športski Klub, in English Gruž Youth Sports Club).

Operation Tiger (1992)

Operation Tiger (Croatian: Operacija Tigar) was a Croatian Army (HV) offensive conducted in areas of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina near Dubrovnik between 1 and 13 July 1992. It was designed to push the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) away from the city towards Popovo field and secure a supply route via Rijeka Dubrovačka, which was gained in early June as the Siege of Dubrovnik by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) was lifted. The operation's success was facilitated by the establishment of the HV's Southern Front command and the successful conclusion of the May–June 1992 operations against the VRS in the Neretva River valley, which concluded with Operation Jackal.

Although Operation Tiger captured only 40 square kilometres (15 square miles) of territory, it secured the Ploče–Dubrovnik road and placed the HV in a position to capture the rest of southern Dalmatia over the following three-and-a-half months. That was achieved through a negotiated JNA withdrawal from Konavle followed by a HV amphibious operation in the area of Cavtat—capturing Konavle before the VRS could move in and reach the Adriatic Sea coast. Two additional HV offensives aimed at securing the Dubrovnik area defences—Operation Liberated Land and an assault on the Vlaštica Peak—stabilized the HV hold on the area and threatened VRS-held Trebinje in the eastern Herzegovina. As a result of the JNA pullback, the Prevlaka peninsula was demilitarized and placed under United Nations control until 1996.

Republic of Ragusa

The Republic of Ragusa (Croatian; Dubrovačka Republika) was a aristocratic maritime republic centered on the city of Dubrovnik (Ragusa in Italian, German and Latin; Raguse in French) in Dalmatia (today in southernmost Croatia) that carried that name from 1358 until 1808. It reached its commercial peak in the 15th and the 16th centuries, before being conquered by Napoleon's French Empire and formally annexed by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy in 1808. It had a population of about 30,000 people, out of whom 5,000 lived within the city walls. Its Latin motto was "Non bene pro toto libertas venditur auro", which means "Liberty is not well sold for all the gold".

Roman Catholic Diocese of Dubrovnik

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Dubrovnik (Croatian: Dubrovačka biskupija); or Ragusa (Latin: Dioecesis Ragusiensis) is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in southern Croatia. The diocese is centred in the city of Dubrovnik. It was first erected in 990. From 1120 to 1828 it was elevated to the status of archdiocese. By papal bull Locum Beati Petri it was degraded at the level of the diocese in 1828.

The Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary in Dubrovnik was built in 1713 after the previous cathedral was destroyed in an earthquake. Current Bishop Mate Uzinić is head of the diocese. He was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI in 2011.

Dubrovnik's patron saint is Saint Blaise (locally called Sveti Vlaho).

Siege of Dubrovnik

The Siege of Dubrovnik (Serbo-Croatian: Opsada Dubrovnika, Опсада Дубровника) was a military engagement fought between the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and Croatian forces defending the city of Dubrovnik and its surroundings during the Croatian War of Independence. The JNA started its advance on 1 October 1991 and by late October had captured virtually all of the land between the Pelješac and Prevlaka peninsulas on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, with the exception of Dubrovnik itself. The siege was accompanied by a Yugoslav Navy blockade. The JNA's bombardment of Dubrovnik, including that of the Old Town—a UNESCO World Heritage Site—culminated on 6 December 1991. The bombardment provoked international condemnation, and became a public relations disaster for Serbia and Montenegro, contributing to their diplomatic and economic isolation, as well as the international recognition of Croatia's independence. In May 1992, the JNA retreated to Bosnia and Herzegovina, less than 1 kilometre (0.62 miles) from the coast in some places, and handed over its equipment to the newly formed Army of Republika Srpska (VRS). During this time, the Croatian Army (HV) attacked from the west and pushed back the JNA/VRS from the areas east of Dubrovnik, both in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and by the end of May linked up with the HV unit defending the city. Fighting between the HV and Yugoslav troops east of Dubrovnik gradually died down.

The siege resulted in the deaths of 194 Croatian military personnel, as well as 82–88 Croatian civilians. The JNA suffered 165 fatalities. The entire region was recaptured by the HV in Operation Tiger and the Battle of Konavle by the end of 1992. The offensive resulted in the displacement of 15,000 people, mainly from Konavle, who fled to Dubrovnik. Approximately 16,000 refugees were evacuated from Dubrovnik by sea, and the city was resupplied by blockade-evading runabouts and a convoy of civilian vessels. More than 11,000 buildings were damaged and numerous homes, businesses, and public buildings were looted or torched.

The operation was part of a plan drawn up by the JNA aimed at securing the Dubrovnik area and then proceeding north-west to link up with the JNA troops in northern Dalmatia via western Herzegovina. The offensive was accompanied by a significant amount of war propaganda. In 2000, Montenegrin President Milo Đukanović apologized for the siege, eliciting an angry response from his political opponents and from Serbia. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) convicted two Yugoslav officers for their involvement in the siege and handed a third over to Serbia for prosecution. The ICTY indictment stated that the offensive was designed to detach the Dubrovnik region from Croatia and integrate it into a Serb-dominated state through an unsuccessful proclamation of the Dubrovnik Republic on 24 November 1991. In addition, Montenegro convicted four former JNA soldiers with prisoner abuse at the Morinj camp. Croatia also charged several former JNA or Yugoslav Navy officers and a former Bosnian Serb leader with war crimes but no trials have yet resulted from these indictments.

Ston

Ston (pronounced [stɔ̂n]; Italian: Stagno) is a city and municipality in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County of Croatia, located at the south of isthmus of the Pelješac peninsula. The town of Ston is the center of the Ston municipality.

VK Jug

Vaterpolski klub Jug (English: Jug Water Polo Club) is a professional water polo club based in Dubrovnik, Croatia. The club was established in 1923 as part of sports society "JUG". As of 2018–19 season, VK Jug competes in the Croatian League, Regional League A1 and LEN Champions League.

Walls of Dubrovnik

The Walls of Dubrovnik (Croatian: Dubrovačke gradske zidine) are a series of defensive stone walls surrounding the city of Dubrovnik in southern Croatia. With numerous additions and modifications throughout their history, they have been considered to be amongst the great fortification systems of the Middle Ages, as they were never breached by a hostile army during this time period. In 1979, the old city of Dubrovnik, which includes a substantial portion of the old walls of Dubrovnik, joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.The oldest systems of fortifications around the town were likely wooden palisades. Today's intact city walls, constructed mainly during the 12th–17th centuries, mostly a double line, have long been a source of pride for Dubrovnik. The walls run an uninterrupted course of approximately 1,940 metres (6,360 ft) in length, encircling most of the old city, and reach a maximum height of about 25 metres (82 ft). The bulk of the existing walls and fortifications were constructed during the 14th and 15th centuries, but were continually extended and strengthened up until the 17th century.This complex structure, amongst the largest and most complete in Europe, protected the freedom and safety of a "civilised" and "sophisticated" republic that flourished in peace and prosperity for some five centuries. The walls were reinforced by three circular and 14 quadrangular towers, five bastions (bulwarks), two angular fortifications and the large St. John's Fortress. Land walls were additionally reinforced by one larger bastion and nine smaller semicircular ones, like the casemate Fort Bokar, the oldest preserved fort of that kind in Europe. The moat that ran around the outside section of the city walls, which were armed by more than 120 cannons, provided superb city defense capabilities.

Yugoslav destroyer Dubrovnik

Dubrovnik was a flotilla leader built for the Royal Yugoslav Navy by Yarrow Shipbuilders in Glasgow in 1930 and 1931. She was one of the largest destroyers of her time. Resembling contemporary British designs, Dubrovnik was a fast ship with a main armament of four Czechoslovak-built Škoda 140 mm (5.5 in) guns in single mounts. She was intended to be the first of three flotilla leaders built for Yugoslavia, but was the only one completed. During her service with the Royal Yugoslav Navy, Dubrovnik undertook several peacetime cruises through the Mediterranean, the Turkish Straits and the Black Sea. In October 1934, she conveyed King Alexander to France for a state visit, and carried his body back to Yugoslavia following his assassination in Marseille.

During the German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, Dubrovnik was captured by the Italians. After a refit, which included the replacement of some of her weapons and the shortening of her mainmast and funnels, she was commissioned into the Royal Italian Navy as Premuda. In Italian service she was mainly used as an escort and troop transport. In June 1942, she was part of the Italian force that attacked the Allied Operation Harpoon convoy attempting to relieve the island of Malta. In July 1943, she broke down and was brought to Genoa for repair and a refit. Premuda was the most important and effective Italian war prize ship of World War II.

At the time of the Italian surrender to the Allies in September 1943, Premuda was still docked in Genoa, and was seized by Germany. Plans to convert her into a radar picket for night fighters were abandoned. In August 1944, following the replacement of her armament, she was commissioned into the German Navy as a Torpedoboot Ausland (foreign torpedo boat) with the designation TA32. The ship saw action shelling Allied positions on the Italian coast and laying naval mines. In March 1945, she took part in the Battle of the Ligurian Sea against two Royal Navy destroyers, during which she was lightly damaged. She was scuttled the following month as the Germans retreated from Genoa.

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