Dryinidae

Dryinidae (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea) is a cosmopolitan family of solitary wasps. Dryinidae comes from the Greek (Dryinus = Oak). Latreille named this family because the first species was collected in an Oak plant in Spain. The larvae are parasitoids of the nymphs and adults of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera).[1] Dryinidae comprises approximately 1800 described species, distributed in 15 subfamilies and 50 genera.[2][3][4]

Dryinidae
Gonatopus alpinus 2
Gonatopus alpinus female
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Superfamily: Chrysidoidea
Family: Dryinidae
Subfamilies

Anteoninae
Aphelopinae
Apoaphelopinae
Apodryininae
Bocchinae
Conganteoninae
Dryininae
Erwiniinae
Gonatopodinae
Plesiodryininae
Transdryininae

Description

The adult wasp can measure from 0.9 to 5.0 mm in length and in some cases can reach 13 mm.[5] The body of the adult wasp has a 'waist' where it is constricted in the middle. The rear legs have spurs which may be used for grooming. The antennae have 10 segments. Many species have a marked sexual dimorphism, where males are totally different from the females in the size and shape of the body.[6][7] Males have wings while females are often wingless and resemble worker ants. The ovipositor is retractable and not visible when retracted.

Life History

The female dryinid injects an egg into the host insect with her ovipositor. Females may also have front legs modified with a pinching apparatus which they use to restrain the hosts for their larvae during oviposition. The larvae are legless or have only vestigial legs. The larva feeds on the internal structures of the host, and as it grows larger it begins to protrude from the body. It develops a hardened sac (called a "thylacium") around its body for protection. The host is eventually killed and the larva leaves the dead body and spins a cocoon.[8]

Gallery

Issus.coleoptratus.nymph.with.Dryininae.larva

Issus coleoptratus nymph with dryinid larva under right wing

Aphelopus varicornis (9690904230)

Aphelopus varicornis

Dryinus koebelei female

Dryinus koebelei female

See also

References

  1. ^ Guglielmino, A.; Olmi, M.; Bückle, C. (2013). "An updated host-parasite catalogue of world Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea)". Zootaxa. 3740 (1): 1–113. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3740.1.1. PMID 25112881.
  2. ^ Olmi, M.; Virla, E.G. (2014). "Dryinidae of the Neotropical region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea)". Zootaxa. 3792 (1): 001–534. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3792.2.1. PMID 24869997.
  3. ^ Olmi, M.; ZXu, Z. (2015). "Dryinidae of the Eastern Palaearctic region (Hymenoera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa". Zootaxa. 3996 (1): 001–253. doi:10.11646/zooatxa.3996.1.1 (inactive 2019-07-10).
  4. ^ Martins, A.L; Lara, R.I.R.; Perioto, N. W.; Olmi, M. (2015). "Two new species of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) from areas of Atlantic Rainforest at São Paulo State, Brazil". Brazilian Journal of Biology. 75 (2): 455–9. doi:10.1590/1519-6984.19613. PMID 26132032.
  5. ^ Olmi, M.; Virla, E.G. (2006). "Família Dryinidae". In Fernández, F.; Sharkey, M. J. (eds.). Introducción a los Hymenoptera de La Región Neotropical. Bogotá. Sociedad Colombiana de Entomoloia y Universidad Nacional de Colombia. cap. 35, pp. 401–418.
  6. ^ Olmi, M.; Virla, E.G. (2014). "Dryinidae of the Neotropical region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea)". Zootaxa. 3792 (1): 001–534. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3792.1.1 (inactive 2019-07-10).
  7. ^ Olmi, M. (1994). The Dryinidae and Embolemidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. 30. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica. pp. 1–100.
  8. ^ Dryinidae. Identification of Principal Groups of Insects. Discoveries in Natural History & Exploration. UC Riverside.

External links

Anteon

Anteon is the largest genus in the subfamily Anteoninae of the family Dryinidae, it occurs globally and there is a current total of 423 species described. The species in the genus Anteon are parasitoids of leafhoppers from the family Cicadellidae. The female wasps of the family Dryinidae almost always possess a chelate protarsus, as do females of species within Anteon. The chelae are used to capture and immobilise the host leafhopper to allow the wasp to oviposit and feed on it.

Anteoninae

Anteoninae are a subfamily of Dryinidae. There are 4 recent and 2 fossil genera, including Anteon.

Chrysidoidea

The superfamily Chrysidoidea is a very large cosmopolitan group (some 6,000 described species, and many more undescribed), including many parasitoid or cleptoparasitic wasps. There are three large, common families (Bethylidae, Chrysididae, and Dryinidae) and four small, rare families (Embolemidae, Plumariidae, Sclerogibbidae, and Scolebythidae). Most species are small (7 mm or less), almost never exceeding 15 mm. This superfamily is traditionally considered to be the basal taxon within the Aculeata, and, as such, some species can sting, though the venom is harmless to humans.

Members of the families Dryinidae and Embolemidae are the only parasitoids among the Hymenoptera to have a life cycle in which the wasp larva begins its life inside the body of the host, and then later forms a sac (called a thylacium) that protrudes out of the host's abdomen. The closely related family Sclerogibbidae contains more traditional ectoparasitoids, attacking the nymphs of webspinners.

The extinct, monotypic family Plumalexiidae was described in 2011 from fossils preserved in Turonian age New Jersey amber.

Deinodryinus? aptianus

Deinodryinus? aptianus is an extinct species of Deinodryinus in the wasp family Dryinidae. The species is solely known from a Cretaceous fossil found in Mongolia.

Deinodryinus areolatus

Deinodryinus areolatus is an extinct species of Deinodryinus in the wasp family Dryinidae. The species is solely known from an Eocene fossil found in the Baltic region.

Deinodryinus velteni

Deinodryinus velteni is an extinct species of Deinodryinus in the wasp family Dryinidae. The species is known solely from an Eocene fossil found in the Baltic region.

Dichoptera

Dichoptera is a genus of plant-hoppers found in tropical Asia. They were formerly placed in the family Dictyopharidae.

They have large and stout bodies with long membranous forewings. The head is short and may have a long process. There are 11 species in the genus.Often found on the bark of Ficus trees, they are tended by ants and sometimes parasitized by Dryinidae.

Dryinus grimaldii

Dryinus grimaldii is an extinct species of wasp in the dryinid genus Dryinus. The species is solely known from the early Miocene, Burdigalian stage, Dominican amber deposits on the island of Hispaniola.

Dryinus rasnitsyni

Dryinus rasnitsyni is an extinct species of wasp in the dryinid genus Dryinus. The species is solely known from the early Miocene, Burdigalian stage, Dominican amber deposits on the island of Hispaniola.

Gonatopodinae

Gonatopodinae are a subfamily of Dryinidae with wingless, ant-like females, but winged males. Females have a chela on each front leg. There are 17 genera, including Gonatopus.

Gonatopus (wasp)

Gonatopus is a genus of solitary wasps of the family Dryinidae, sometimes called hump-backed pincer wasps. The wingless females have large scissor-like appendages at the tips of the front legs which are used to catch the leafhopper grubs which act as hosts to the larvae of these wasps. The larva consumes the leafhopper grub from the inside. An indication that a leafhopper is hosting a grub is a cyst of accumulated shed integuments which surround and protect the growing wasp larva.

Gonatopus clavipes

Gonatopus clavipes is a species of small wasp in the family Dryinidae. It is a solitary wasp that superficially resembles an ant, and its larva is a parasitoid of leafhoppers in the subfamily Deltocephalinae. It has a Palaearctic distribution, and within Europe parasitises at least eleven genera and thirty-one species of leafhopper.

Gonatopus jacki

Gonatopus jacki is a species of small wasp in the family Dryinidae. It is found in United States.

Ismaridae

Ismaridae is a family of insects belonging to the order Hymenoptera. About 50 species are known in this small relictual group; all the species for which the biology is known appear to be hyperparasitoids that parasitize Dryinidae (that attack leafhoppers).

This lineage was formerly included in the family Diapriidae, as the subfamily Ismarinae, but differ from diapriid wasps by lacking a facial projection from which the antenna arise, and characterized by various degrees of fusion of the metasomal terga. The family historically included only two genera, Ismarus and Szelenyioprioides, though the latter genus was recently synonymized with the diapriid genus Spilomicrus, thereby restricting the family to solely Ismarus.

Ismarus (wasp)

Ismarus is a genus of wasps belonging to the family Ismaridae, and presently the sole extant genus in the family (a second genus was recently removed). About 50 species are known in this small relictual group, all of which appear to be hyperparasitoids that parasitize Dryinidae (that attack leafhoppers).

Ismarus was formerly included in the family Diapriidae, but differ from diapriid wasps by lacking a facial projection from which the antenna arise, and characterized by various degrees of fusion of the metasomal terga.

Liopteridae

Liopteridae is a family of wood-boring parasitoid wasps. They occur worldwide with concentrations in the African Tropics.

These insects have a petiolate abdomen. There are 13 genera and more than 143 species known.

List of Parasitica of Great Britain

This page contains a list of wasps of Great Britain. The following species are of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor ant.

List of hymenopterans of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is a tropical island situated close to the southern tip of India. The invertebrate fauna is as large as it is common to other regions of the world. There are about 2 million species of arthropods found in the world, and still it is counting. So many new species are discover up to this time also. So it is very complicated and difficult to summarize the exact number of species found within a certain region.

This a list of the hymenopterans found from Sri Lanka.

Thaumatodryinus tuukkaraski

Thaumatodryinus tuukkaraski is a wasp species in the family Dryinidae. This tiny insect is endemic to Kenya where it is only known from the Taita Hills. In 2015, this newly discovered species was named in direct reference to the Boston Bruins (NHL) goaltender, Tuukka Rask.

Extant Hymenopteran families
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