Dry weight

Dry weight is the weight of a vehicle without any consumables, passengers, or cargo. It is significantly less than the weight of a vehicle in a driveable condition and therefore rarely used. Quoting a dry weight can make a car’s weight and power-to-weight figures appear far more favorable than those of rival cars using curb weight.[1][2]

Fluids in a car include the following:

The difference between dry weight and curb weight depends on many variables such as the capacity of the fuel tank. There is no standard for dry weight, so it's open to interpretations.[2]

Over time, most domestic vehicle manufacturers have more commonly used the term 'shipping weight', which refers to the vehicle in as-built, no-option condition. This would include engine oil, coolant, brake fluid and at least some small quantity of fuel, as vehicles have traditionally been driven off the assembly line and these fluids were necessary to do so.

Motorcycles

The dry weight of a motorcycle excludes some or all of the following: gasoline (or other fuel), engine oil, coolant, brake fluid, or battery.

There is no standardized way to test the dry weight of a motorcycle. Inconsistencies will almost always be found between a motorcycle manufacturer's published dry weight and motorcycle press and media outlet's published dry weight. This is due to different testing techniques, differences in what is being excluded, and a lack of defining how testing was conducted by the organization doing the testing.

Spacecraft

The dry weight of a spacecraft is the mass of the spacecraft without oxidiser, fuel or other consumables. It is not necessarily the same as burnout mass, as burnout mass may have residual propellant and consumables.

References

  1. ^ https://www.carsales.com.au/editorial/details/vehicle-weights-whats-the-difference-109425/
  2. ^ a b https://www.evo.co.uk/features/21040/what-is-kerb-weight-and-how-much-does-your-car-weigh
5-Bromo-DMT

5-Bromo-DMT (5-bromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a psychedelic brominated indole alkaloid found in the sponges Smenospongia aurea and Smenospongia echina, as well as in Verongula rigida (0.00142% dry weight) alongside 5,6-Dibromo-DMT (0.35% dry weight) and seven other alkaloids. It is the 5-bromo derivative of DMT, a psychedelic found in many plants and animals.

5-Bromo-DMT has a pEC50 value of 5.51 for the 5-HT2A receptor.Animal studies on 5-Bromo-DMT showed that it produces effects suggestive of sedative and antidepressant activity and caused significant reduction of locomotor activity in the rodent FST model.5-Bromo-DMT was reported to be psychoactive at 20–50 mg via vaporization with mild psychedelic-like activity.

Chondrus crispus

Chondrus crispus—commonly called Irish moss or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, "little rock")—is a species of red algae which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. In its fresh condition this protist is soft and cartilaginous, varying in color from a greenish-yellow, through red, to a dark purple or purplish-brown. The principal constituent is a mucilaginous body, made of the polysaccharide carrageenan, which constitutes 55% of its dry weight. The organism also consists of nearly 10% dry weight protein and about 15% dry weight mineral matter, and is rich in iodine and sulfur. When softened in water it has a sea-like odour and because of the abundant cell wall polysaccharides it will form a jelly when boiled, containing from 20 to 100 times its weight of water.

Continental IO-550

The Continental IO-550 engine is a large family of fuel injected six-cylinder, horizontally opposed, air-cooled aircraft engines that were developed for use in light aircraft by Teledyne Continental Motors. The first IO-550 was delivered in 1983 and the type remains in production.The IOF-550 is an Aerosance FADEC equipped version of the same basic engine, the TSIO-550 is a dual turbocharged version and the TSIOL-550 is a liquid-cooled variant.There is no O-550 engine, which would be a carburetor-equipped variant, hence the base model is the IO-550.This engine family competes with the Lycoming IO-580 series which are also six-cylinder engines with similar power output and weight.

Continental O-170

The Continental O-170 engine is the collective military designation for a family of small aircraft engines, known under the company designation of A50, A65, A75 and A80. The line was designed and built by Continental Motors commencing in the 1940s. It was employed as the powerplant for civil and military light aircraft.The horizontally opposed, four-cylinder engines in this family are all identical in appearance, bore, stroke, dry weight, and piston displacement. All feature a bottom-mounted updraft carburetor fuel delivery system. The higher power variants differ only in compression ratio and maximum allowable rpm, plus minor modifications. The lower power versions are fully convertible to the higher rated versions.

Continental O-470

The Continental O-470 engine is a family of carbureted and fuel-injected six-cylinder, horizontally opposed, air-cooled aircraft engines that was developed especially for use in light aircraft by Continental Motors. Engines designated "IO" are fuel-injected.The family also includes the E165, E185, E225 and the E260 engines, and several specialty variants. It has been in production since 1950.

Hodoyoshi 4

Hodoyoshi-4 is a Japanese micro-satellite launched in 2014. The satellite is built in 0.5x0.6x0.7m box-shape bus, optimized for piggy-back launch.

All instruments are powered by solar cells mounted on the spacecraft body and two stub wings, with estimated electrical power of 50W. For orbit-keeping, a "miniature" (5 kg dry weight) ion thruster with specific impulse 1100s and operating power 20W is integrated into the body. The satellite was developed under the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovation R&D on Science and Technology.

Honda CBR600RR

The Honda CBR600RR is a 599 cc (36.6 cu in) sport bike, part of the CBR series that was introduced by Honda in 2003 as a race replica version of Honda's CBR600F series. It won every Supersport World Championship title from 2002 to 2008, and again in 2010 and 2014. The engine for the Moto2 World Championship in MotoGP was also based on the CBR600RR since the class débuted in 2010, and was used until the end of the 2018 season before they are replaced by 765cc (46.7 cu in) triple engines supplied by Triumph Motorcycles for the 2019 season.

Honda Gold Wing

The Honda Gold Wing is a series of touring motorcycles manufactured by Honda. Gold Wings feature shaft drive, and a flat engine. Introduced at the Cologne Motorcycle Show in October 1974, the Gold Wing went on to become a popular model in North America, Western Europe and Australia, as well as Japan.

Krill fishery

The krill fishery is the commercial fishery of krill, small shrimp-like marine animals that live in the oceans world-wide. The present estimate for the biomass of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is 379 million tonnes. The total global harvest of krill from all fisheries amounts to 150–200,000 tonnes annually, mainly Antarctic krill and North Pacific krill (E. pacifica).

Krill are rich in protein (40% or more of dry weight) and lipids (about 20% in E. superba). Their exoskeleton amounts to some 2% of dry weight of chitin. They also contain traces of a wide array of hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases, carbohydrases, nucleases and phospholipases, which are concentrated in the digestive gland in the cephalothorax of the krill.

Most krill is used as aquaculture feed and fish bait; other uses include livestock or pet foods. Only a small percentage is prepared for human consumption. Their enzymes are interesting for medical applications, an expanding sector since the early 1990s.

Lycoming GSO-580

The Lycoming GSO-580 is a family of eight-cylinder horizontally opposed, supercharged, carburetor-equipped aircraft engines for both airplanes and helicopters, manufactured by Lycoming Engines in the late 1950s and early 1960s.The family includes the original GSO-580 fixed-wing aircraft engine series, as well as the later SO-580 and VSO-580 helicopter engines. There is no non-supercharged, non-geared version of the engine, which would have been designated O-580 and therefore the base model is the GSO-580.

Lycoming O-235

The Lycoming O-235 is a family of four-cylinder, air-cooled, horizontally opposed piston aircraft engines that produce 100 to 135 hp (75 to 101 kW), derived from the earlier O-233 engine.Well-known designs that use versions of the O-235 included the Cessna 152, Grumman American AA-1 series, Beechcraft Model 77 Skipper, Piper Tomahawk, American Champion Citabria, Piper Clipper, and the Piper PA-22-108 Colt.

Lycoming O-290

The Lycoming O-290 is a dual ignition, four-cylinder, air-cooled, horizontally opposed aircraft engine. It was first run in 1939, and entered production three years later.

A common variant of the type is the O-290-G, a single ignition model which was designed to drive a generator as part of a ground power unit.

Lycoming TIO-541

The Lycoming TIO-541 engine is a turbocharged, fuel-injected, horizontally opposed, six-cylinder aircraft engine featuring three cylinders per side, manufactured by Lycoming Engines.The TIO-541 family of engines includes the TIGO-541 turbocharged, fuel-injected, geared, horizontally opposed engine.There is no carburetted, non-turbocharged version of the engine, which would have been designated O-541 and therefore the base model is the TIO-541.

Motorcycle testing and measurement

Motorcycle testing and measurement includes a range of more than two dozen statistics giving the specifications of the motorcycle, and the actual performance, expressed by such things as the output of the engine, and the top speed or acceleration of the motorcycle. Most parameters are uncontroversial and claims made by manufacturers are generally accepted without verification. These might include simple measurements like rake, trail, or wheelbase, or basic features, such as the type of brakes or ignition system.

Other measurements are often doubted or subject to misunderstandings, and the motorcycling press serves as an independent check on sometimes unrealistic sales and marketing claims. Many of these numbers are subject to variable methods of measurements, or disagreement as to the definition of the statistic. The parameters most often in contention for motorcycles are the weight, the engine output (power and torque), and the overall performance, especially acceleration, top speed, and fuel economy. With electric motorcycles and scooters, the range between charges is often a pivotal measurement.

Peptidoglycan

Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall. The sugar component consists of alternating residues of β-(1,4) linked N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM). Attached to the N-acetylmuramic acid is a peptide chain of three to five amino acids. The peptide chain can be cross-linked to the peptide chain of another strand forming the 3D mesh-like layer. Peptidoglycan serves a structural role in the bacterial cell wall, giving structural strength, as well as counteracting the osmotic pressure of the cytoplasm. Peptidoglycan is also involved in binary fission during bacterial cell reproduction.

The peptidoglycan layer is substantially thicker in Gram-positive bacteria (20 to 80 nanometers) than in Gram-negative bacteria (7 to 8 nanometers). Peptidoglycan forms around 90% of the dry weight of Gram-positive bacteria but only 10% of Gram-negative strains. Thus, presence of high levels of peptidoglycan is the primary determinant of the characterisation of bacteria as Gram-positive. In Gram-positive strains, it is important in attachment roles and serotyping purposes. For both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, particles of approximately 2 nm can pass through the peptidoglycan.

Psilocybe azurescens

Psilocybe azurescens is a psychedelic mushroom whose main active compounds are psilocybin and psilocin. It is among the most potent of the tryptamine-bearing mushrooms, containing up to 1.8% psilocybin, 0.5% psilocin, and 0.4% baeocystin by dry weight, averaging to about 1.1% psilocybin and 0.15% psilocin, makes it one of the strongest mushrooms in psilocybe genus. It belongs to the family Hymenogastraceae in the order Agaricales.

Sister ship

A sister ship is a ship of the same class or of virtually identical design to another ship. Such vessels share a nearly identical hull and superstructure layout, similar size, and roughly comparable features and equipment. They often share a common naming theme, either being named after the same type of thing (places, constellations, monarchs) or with some kind of alliteration. Often, sisters become more differentiated during their service as their equipment (in the case of naval vessels, their armament) are separately altered.

For instance, the U.S. warships USS Iowa, USS New Jersey, USS Missouri, and USS Wisconsin are all sister ships, each being an Iowa-class battleship.

The most famous sister ships were the White Star Line's RMS Olympic, RMS Titanic and HMHS Britannic. As with some other liners, the sisters worked as running mates. Other sister ships include the Royal Caribbean International's Explorer of the Seas and Adventure of the Seas.

Half-sister refers to a ship of the same class but with some significant differences. One example of half-sisters are the First World War-era British Courageous-class battlecruisers where the first two ships had four 15-inch (381 mm) guns, but the last ship, HMS Furious, had two 18-inch (457 mm) guns instead. Another example is the American Essex-class aircraft carriers of the Second World War that came in "long-hull" and "short-hull" versions.

Notable airships include the American sister ships USS Akron and USS Macon, and the German Hindenburg class airship's Hindenburg and Graf Zeppelin II.

The generally accepted commercial distinctions of a sister ship are the following:

Type: Identical main type (bullk, tank, RoRo, etc.)

Dry weight (DWT): ± 10% on the DWT (If the ship is 100,000 DWT, 90,000 to 110,000 DWT)

Builder: Identical shipbuilding company name (not the ship yard location or the country of build)The critical overriding criteria are the same hull design. For example, the popular TESS-57 standard design built by Tsunishi Shipbuilding are built in Japan, China, and the Philippines. All the ships of this design are classed as sister ships.

The International Maritime Organization defined sister ship in IMO resolution MSC/Circ.1158 in 2006. Criteria included these:

A sister ship is a ship built by the same yard from the same plans.

The acceptable deviation of lightship displacement should be between 1 and 2% of the lightship displacement of the lead ship, depending on the length of the ship.

Total suspended solids

Total suspended solids (TSS) is the dry-weight of suspended particles, that are not dissolved, in a sample of water that can be trapped by a filter that is analyzed using a filtration apparatus. It is a water quality parameter used to assess the quality of a specimen of any type of water or water body, ocean water for example, or wastewater after treatment in a wastewater treatment plant. It is listed as a conventional pollutant in the U.S. Clean Water Act. Total dissolved solids is another parameter acquired through a separate analysis which is also used to determine water quality based on the total substances that are fully dissolved within the water, rather than undissolved suspended particles.

TSS was previously called non-filterable residue (NFR), but was changed to TSS because of ambiguity in other scientific disciplines.

Warner Scarab

The Warner Scarab is an American seven-cylinder radial aircraft engine, that was manufactured by the Warner Aircraft Corporation of Detroit, Michigan in 1928 through to the early 1940s. In military service the engine was designated R-420.

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