Drekavac

Drekavac (Cyrillic: дрекавац, Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [drɛkaʋats], literally "the screamer" or "the yeller"[1]), also called drekalo, krekavac, zdrekavac or zrikavac, is a mythical creature in South Slavic mythology. The name is derived from the adjective "drečati"'

Description

In South Slavic mythology and folk tales this creature has been variously described:

  • In some folk tales it has been depicted in the form of an undead man that came out of the grave during night time and haunt people.[2]
  • Also in some folk tales it has been depicted in the form of an undead unbaptised child that rose out from its grave during night time to haunt its parents. Also this creature is known for calling out to people passing near cemeteries to baptise it.[2]
  • In Eastern Serbia it has been depicted in the form of a humanoid canine creature that walks on its back legs.
  • In the vicinity of Maglaj it has been depicted in the form of ghosts of soldiers that wander around during night time, scaring people.[2]
  • In the vicinity of Kozarska Dubica it has been depicted as a vampire-like undead man that rises out of the grave during night time, and wanders around scaring people.[2]
  • In the vicinity of Arilje it has been depicted in form of a long-necked long-legged creature with a cat-like head.[2]
  • In Sredačka župa it has been depicted in the form of a one-legged humanoid creature with glowing eyes that wanders around during night time and scares people.[2]
  • In the vicinity of Prijepolje, Lešak and Dragačevo it has been depicted as an apparition that can be seen in form of a dappled foal, dog, cat, or bird.[2]
  • In the vicinity of Gruža it has been depicted in the form of a creature having a dappled, elongated and spindle-thin body with a disproportionately large head. This creature can fly and it is believed to be the soul of a dead child.[2]

A modern description of a supposed drekavac describes it as a canine creature similar to a dog[3] or some kind of bird.[4]

Original beliefs

The drekavac was originally thought to have come from the souls of sinful men, or from children who died unbaptised.[2]

It was popularly believed to be visible only at night, especially during the twelve days of Christmas (called unbaptised days in Serbo-Croatian) and in early spring, when other demons and mythical creatures were believed to be more active.[2] When assuming the form of a child, it predicts someone's death, while in its animal form, it predicts cattle disease.[2] The drekavac is believed to avoid dogs and bright light.[2] Also, it is believed that if the shadow of drekavac falls upon some person then that person will turn sick and die.[2]

Modern sightings

Though the creature is used in precautionary tales for children, there are adults who still believe in its existence. According to the guide of a reporter of Duga magazine, numerous villagers on the mountain of Zlatibor report seeing it, and many inhabitants claim to have heard it.[5]

Some modern sightings happened:

  • In 1992, it was reported that in the Krvavica, the villagers found remains of an animal unlike any known from the area, and claimed it was a drekavac. It was described as looking like a dog, but with a "snake-like" head and hind legs "similar" to those of a kangaroo.[3] Later, it was revealed to be just a rotten carcass of a fox;
  • In 2003, in the village of Tometino Polje near Divcibare, a series of attacks on sheep occurred, with some villagers concluding that they had been perpetrated by a drekavac. Other villagers disagreed, seeing as the attacks took place in the daytime, as opposed to night, when the drekavac is supposedly more active.[4]

Appearances and references in fiction

In literature

  • Drekavac is mentioned in a short story by Branko Ćopić, "Brave Mita and drekavac from the pond" (Cyrillic: "Храбри Мита и дрекавац из рита") in which a group of superstitious fishermen stop fishing because they hear mysterious yells in the pond, where they were usually fishing, and start believing that they hear a drekavac, which leads to hunger in the village. The protagonist of the story, a courageous village boy named Mita, investigates this mystery and captures the "drekavac", which turns out to be a great bittern, a bird very rare for the area.[6]
  • Drekavac is also mentioned in Ćopić's book Eagles Fly Early.[7]

In video games and roleplaying games

Drekavac is rarely depicted in video and roleplaying games.

  • In the Magic: The Gathering has a card of drekavac from the Dissension set.[8]
  • In Eve Online: A Battle cruiser of Triglavian design.
  • Serbian trading card game "Izvori Magije" has numerous cards of drekavac type creatures, one of them named Drekavac iz vira (meaning "Drekavac from the whirlpool"). This creature is described as: Big-headed and with long thin necks, drekavac often jump out of whirpools to attack people who are returning home from watermills.[9]
  • In DmC: Devil May Cry, a demon named Drekavac appears as a recurrent enemy. It is not named as such until your final encounter with it. Rather than claws, it possesses long thin swords.

Similar mythical creatures

  • Bukavac – recorded in Srem, a six-legged monster with gnarled horns, slimy skin and long tail, that lives in water (rivers, swamps and creeks) and comes out of it during the night. It is known that it makes loud noises, and it will try to strangle people and animals that it encounters;[10]
  • Jaud (pronounced [jaud]) – a vampirised premature baby;[11]
  • Myling – from Scandinavian folklore, a phantasmal incarnations of the souls of unbaptized children that had been forced to roam the earth;
  • Nav – the soul of dead child that died before its third age;
  • Plakavac – recorded in Herzegovina, is a newborn strangled by its mother, which will rise from its grave at night as small vampire-like creature, return to its house and scream around it, but otherwise can't do anyharm;[12]
  • Poroniec – a hostile and malicious demon from Slavic mythology. They were believed to come into existence from stillborn fetuses, but also from improperly buried remains of children who had died during infancy.

See also

References

  1. ^ Levi, Pavle (2007.) Disintegration in frames: aesthetics and ideology in the Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav cinema Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, page 181, ISBN 978-0-8047-5368-5
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Š. Kulišić; P. Ž. Petrović; N. Pantelić (1970). "Дрекавац". Српски митолошки речник (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade: Nolit. p. 110.
  3. ^ a b "Gimnastika na poledici". Nezavisna Svetlost #216. 1999. Archived from the original on 2008-04-09.
  4. ^ a b Z. Šaponjić (2003-10-20). "I drekavac sumnjiv". Glas Javnosti (in Serbo-Croatian). Retrieved 2006-09-22.
  5. ^ "Ljudi i vreme".
  6. ^ Ćopić, Branko. "Hrabri Mita i drekavac iz rita". U svijetu medvjeda i leptirova. Archived from the original on 2007-01-28. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
  7. ^ Ćopić, Branko. "Chapter I". Orlovi rano lete. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
  8. ^ "Dissension Sortable Spoiler". Wizards of the Coast. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
  9. ^ "Drekavac iz vira". Izvorimagije.com. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
  10. ^ Š. Kulišić; P. Ž. Petrović; N. Pantelić (1970). "Букавац". Српски митолошки речник (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade: Nolit. p. 48.
  11. ^ Š. Kulišić; P. Ž. Petrović; N. Pantelić (1970). "Јауд". Српски митолошки речник (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade: Nolit. p. 157.
  12. ^ Š. Kulišić; P. Ž. Petrović; N. Pantelić (1970). "Плакавац". Српски митолошки речник (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade: Nolit. p. 236.
Bukavac

Bukavac (Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [bǔːkaʋat͡s]) is a demonic mythical creature in Slavic mythology. Belief in it existed in Srem.Bukavac was sometimes imagined as a six-legged monster with gnarled horns. It lives in lakes and pools, coming out of the water during the night to make a loud noise (hence the name: buka – noise),it would jump onto people and animals, and strangle them.

Domestic sheep predation

Along with parasites and disease, predation is a threat to sheep health and consequently to the profitability of sheep raising. Sheep have very little ability to defend themselves, even when compared with other prey species kept as livestock. Even if sheep are not directly bitten or survive an attack, they may die from panic or from injuries sustained.However, the impact of predation varies dramatically with region. In Africa, Australia, the Americas, and parts of Europe and Asia predators can be a serious problem. In contrast, some nations are virtually devoid of sheep predators. Many islands that are known for extensive sheep husbandry are suitable largely because of their predator-free status.Worldwide, canids—including the domestic dog—are responsible for the majority of sheep deaths. Other animals that prey on sheep include: felines, bears, birds of prey, bats, moths, feral hogs,, goat, and hyenas. Sheep deaths have even been attributed to cryptids such as the Chupacabra, big cats in Britain, and the Drekavac.

Drekale

Drekale (Serbian Cyrillic: Дрекале) was according to tradition the chieftain (vojvoda, "duke") of the Kuči tribe and founder of the Drekalović brotherhood which produced the chieftains of Kuči for three centuries.

Eagles Fly Early (novel)

Orlovi rano lete (Eagles Fly Early) is a Yugoslavian children's novel written by Branko Ćopić and published in 1959. It was made into a film in 1966.

Eurasian bittern

The Eurasian bittern or great bittern (Botaurus stellaris) is a wading bird in the bittern subfamily (Botaurinae) of the heron family Ardeidae. There are two subspecies, the northern race (B. s. stellaris) breeding in parts of Europe and Asia, as well as on the northern coast of Africa, while the southern race (B. s. capensis) is endemic to parts of southern Africa. It is a secretive bird, seldom seen in the open as it prefers to skulk in reed beds and thick vegetation near water bodies. Its presence is apparent in the spring, when the booming call of the male during the breeding season can be heard. It feeds on fish, small mammals, fledgling birds, amphibians, crustaceans and insects.

The nest is usually built among reeds at the edge of bodies of water. The female incubates the clutch of eggs and feeds the young chicks, which leave the nest when about two weeks old. She continues to care for them until they are fully fledged some six weeks later.

With its specific habitat requirements and the general reduction in wetlands across its range, the population is thought to be in decline globally. However the decline is slow, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its overall conservation status as being of "least concern". Nevertheless, some local populations are at risk and the population of the southern race has declined more dramatically and is cause for concern. In the United Kingdom it is one of the most threatened of all bird species.

List of Lord Marksman and Vanadis characters

The Lord Marksman and Vanadis light novel series features an extensive cast of characters created by Tsukasa Kawaguchi and illustrated by Yoshi☆o and Hinata Katagiri. The series takes place in an alternate version of Europe, where wars are waged to maintain peace and equality. The protagonist of the series is Tigrevurmud Vorn, a Count from the Brune principality of Alsace who is taken prisoner by Zhcted war maiden Eleonora Viltaria. Tigre, Elen, and their allies interact with various groups and organizations, which some are involved in civil wars.

List of Lord Marksman and Vanadis episodes

Lord Marksman and Vanadis is an anime series adapted from the light novel of the same title by written by Tsukasa Kawaguchi and illustrated Yoshi☆o and Hinata Katagiri. Set during a civil war in an alternate Europe, the series follows the adventures of Tigrevurmud Vorn who is a nobleman from the Brunish town of Alsace that participates in a failed invasion attempt. Eleonora Viltaria is a war maiden from Leitmeritz. She captures Tigre and recruits him into her army. Elen and Tigre are inevitably drawn into the conflict when Tigre's homeland Alsace is invaded. They must stop Duke Felix Aaron Thenardier's plot for power. The anime adapts material from the first five volumes of the light novel series.

Produced by Satelight and written and directed by Tatsuo Satō, the series premiered on October 4, 2014 on AT-X with later broadcasts on MBS, Tokyo MX, TVA and BS11, with advance screenings held on September 20, 2014 at United Cinemas Toyosu. In conjunction with the anime adaptation, a weekly mini series called Tigre and Vanadish (ティグルくんとヴァナディーちゅ, Tigre-kun to Vanadi-chu) and a short narration by Yuka Iguchi as Limalisha called the Lim's Report was streamed online. Tigre and Vanadish is 2D animated with chibi sized characters that play out short segments of the light novel that were edited out of the anime. Lim's Report is a brief summary and analysis of the war tactics used by each forces in each episode. The first Blu-ray and DVD compilation was released by Media Factory on December 24, 2014, with later volumes being released monthly until May 27, 2015 for a total of six volumes. The volumes also includes the Tigre and Vanadish mini-series and other bonus material.In North America, Funimation licensed the series for simulcast on their official website. After Funimation's one week exclusive rights ended, the anime was made available through the Hulu service in the United States. Crunchyroll has the streaming rights in Middle East, North Africa, and Europe excluding the Nordics, UK, and Ireland. Funimation scheduled the release of Lord Marksman and Vanadis in a complete Blu-ray/DVD boxset on February 9, 2016. In the United Kingdom, Lord Marksman and Vanadis is licensed by Anime Limited. It was released in a complete boxset on February 29, 2016. In Australia and New Zealand, the series is licensed by Madman Entertainment.The background music for the series was composed by Masaru Yokoyama and Nobuaki Nobusawa. Three pieces of theme music are used throughout the series. The opening theme is titled "Ginsen no Kaze" (銀閃の風, lit. "Wind of the Silver Flash"). It is performed by Konomi Suzuki. The first ending theme is used for most of the series. The first ending theme is titled "Schwarzer Bogen" (lit. Black Bow). It is performed by Hitomi Harada. She is Valentina's voice actress. The second ending theme is used for the tenth episode. The second ending theme is titled Ryūsei Requiem (竜星鎮魂歌 (レクイエム), Ryūsei Rekuiemu, lit. "Dragon Star Requiem"). It is also performed by Konomi Suzuki.

List of legendary creatures (D)

Dactyl (Greek) - Little people and smith and healing spirits

Daemon (Greek) - Incorporeal spirit

Dahu (France, Switzerland and the north of Italy) - Like a deer or ibex with legs on one side of its body are shorter than on the other side

Daidarabotchi (Japanese) - Giant responsible for creating many geographical features in Japan

Daitengu (Japanese) - Most powerful class of tengu, each of whom lives on a separate mountain

Daitya (Hindu) - Giant

Danava (Hindu) - Water demon

Daphnaie (Greek) - Laurel tree nymph

Datsue-ba (Japanese) - Old woman who steals clothes from the souls of the dead

Dead Sea Apes (Islamic) - Human tribe turned into apes for ignoring Moses' message

Deer Woman (Native American) - Human-deer hybrid

Deity (Global) - Preternatural or supernatural possibly immortal being

Demon (Global) - From the Greek daímon, chthonic entities of Hell often seen as Satan's minions who are inimical to mankind; the counterparts of Angels.

Demigod (Global) - Half human, half god

Dhampir (Balkans) - Human/vampire hybrid

Diao Si Gui (Chinese) - Hanged ghost

Dilong (Chinese) - Earth dragon

Dip (Catalan) - Demonic and vampiric dog

Di Penates (Roman) - House spirit

Dipsa (Medieval Bestiaries) - Extremely venomous snake

Dirawong (Australian Aboriginal) - Goanna spirit

Di sma undar jordi (Gotland) - Little people and nature spirits

Diwata (Philippine) - Tree spirit

Djall (Albanian)- Devil

Dobhar-chu (Irish) - King otter

Do-gakw-ho-wad (Abenaki) - Little people

Dokkaebi (Korean) - Grotesque, horned humanoids

Dökkálfar (Norse) - Male ancestral spirits; the Dark Elves

Dola (Slavic) - Tutelary and fate spirit

Domovoi (Slavic) - House spirit

Doppelgänger (German) - Ghostly double

Drac (Catalan) - Lion or bull-faced dragon

Drac (French) - Winged sea serpent

Drakon (Greek) - Greek dragons

Drakaina (Greek) - Dragons depicted with female characteristics

Dragon (Many cultures worldwide) - Fire-breathing and (normally) winged reptiles

Dragon turtle (Chinese) - Giant turtle with dragon-like head

Drangue (Albanian) - Semi-human winged warriors

Draugr (Norse) - Undead

Drekavac (Slavic) - Restless ghost of an unbaptised child

Drop Bear (Australian) Large carnivorous koala that hunts by dropping on its prey from trees

Drow (Scottish) - Cavern spirit

Drude (German) - Possessing demon

Druk (Bhutanese) - Dragon

Dryad (Greek) - Tree nymph

Duende (Spanish and Portuguese) - Little people and forest spirits

Duergar (English) - Malevolent little people

Dullahan (Irish) - Headless death spirit

Duwende (Philippine) - Little people, some are house spirits, others nature spirits

Dvergr (Norse) - Subterranean little people smiths

Dvorovoi (Slavic) - Courtyard spirit

Dwarf (Germanic) - Little people nature spirits

Dybbuk (Jewish) - Spirit (sometimes the soul of a wicked deceased) that possesses the living

Dzee-dzee-bon-da (Abenaki) - Hideous monster

Dzunukwa (Kwakwaka'wakw) - Child-eating hag

List of theological demons

This is a list of demons that appear in religion, theology, demonology, mythology, and folklore. It is not a list of names of demons, although some are listed by more than one name.

The list of fictional demons includes those from literary fiction with theological aspirations, such as Dante's Inferno. Because numerous lists of legendary creatures concern mythology, folklore, and folk fairy tales, much overlap may be expected.

Myling

In Scandinavian folklore, the mylingar are the phantasmal incarnations of the souls of unbaptized children that had been forced to roam the earth until they could persuade someone (or otherwise cause enough of a ruckus to make their wishes known) to bury them properly.

Poroniec

Poroniec [ˈpɔrɔɲɛt͡s] is a hostile and malicious demon from Slavic mythology. They were believed to come into existence from stillborn fetuses, but also from improperly buried remains of children who had died during infancy.

Supernatural beings in Slavic religion

Other than the many gods and goddesses of the Slavs, the ancient Slavs believed in and revered many supernatural beings that existed in nature. These supernatural beings in Slavic religion come in various forms, and the same name of any single being can be spelled or transliterated differently according to language and transliteration system.

Deities
Legendary heroes
Unquiet dead
Place spirits
Entities
Ritual figures
Mythological places
Related topics

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