Dravidian folk religion

The early Dravidian religion was basically a form of Animism. The worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife (contrary to the "reincarnation" belief) are basic to the ancient Dravidian religion. Gods and other Spirits are not separate from nature or humanity, but possessing positive and negative, good and evil characteristics.[1][2][3] There is also evidence that a form of shamanism and spirit possession was part of the ancient Dravidian religion.[4] Theyyam or Buta Kola, kinds of shamanistic dances, are one of many rituals that trace their origin back to the ancietn Dravidian folk religion.[5]

These beliefs also had some influence on Hinduism and influenced the creation of the Āgamas.[6] Dravidian linguistic influence on early Vedic religion is evident, many of these features are already present in the oldest known Indo-Aryan language, the language of the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE), which also includes over a dozen words borrowed from Dravidian. The linguistic evidence for Dravidian impact grows increasingly strong as we move from the Samhitas down through the later Vedic works and into the classical post-Vedic literature.[7] This represents an early religious and cultural fusion[8][note 1] or synthesis[10] between ancient Dravidians and Indo-Aryans that went on to influence Indian civilization.[11][9][12][13]

Theyyam entering into fire
Theyyam ceremony
Malaraya 3
Folk ritual to a local deity (Malaraya Daiva)
Daivasaana
A household shrine in Karnataka

History

WLA lacma 12th century Maharishi Agastya
Sage Agastya, father of Tamil literature.

Ancient Tamil grammatical works Tolkappiyam, the ten anthologies Pattuppāṭṭu, the eight anthologies Eṭṭuttokai sheds light on early ancient Dravidian religion. Seyyon was glorified as, the red god seated on the blue peacock, who is ever young and resplendent, as the favored god of the Tamils.[14] Sivan was also seen as the supreme God.[14] Early iconography of Seyyon[15] and Sivan[16][17][18] and their association with native flora and fauna goes back to Indus Valley Civilization.[19][20] The Sangam landscape was classified into five categories, thinais, based on the mood, the season and the land. Tolkappiyam, mentions that each of these thinai had an associated deity such Seyyon in Kurinji-the hills, Thirumaal in Mullai-the forests, and Korravai in Marutham-the plains, and Wanji-ko in the Neithal-the coasts and the seas. Other gods mentioned were Mayyon and Vaali who were all assimilated into Hinduism over time.

Beliefs

01AnnamalaiyarTemple&Thiruvannamalai&TamilNadu&AerialViewfromVirupakshaCave
Typical layout of Dravidian architecture which evolved from koyil as kings residence.

The Dravidian folk religion is based on the native South Asian animism. The belief in an afterlife is common and is contrary to the reincarnation-concept that envolved somewhere in northern India after the Indo-Aryan migration.[21][22]

Throughout Tamilakam, a king was considered to be divine by nature and possessed religious significance.[23] The king was 'the representative of God on earth’ and lived in a “koyil”, which means the “residence of a god”. The Modern Tamil word for temple is koil (Tamil: கோயில்). Titual worship was also given to kings.[24][25] Modern words for god like “kō” (Tamil: கோ “king”), “iṟai” (இறை “emperor”) and “āṇḍavar” (ஆண்டவன் “conqueror”) now primarily refer to gods. These elements were incorporated later into Hinduism like the legendary marriage of Shiva to Queen Mīnātchi who ruled Madurai or Wanji-ko, a god who later merged into Indra.[26] Tolkappiyar refers to the Three Crowned Kings as the “Three Glorified by Heaven”, (Tamilவாண்புகழ் மூவர், Vāṉpukaḻ Mūvar ?).[27] In the Dravidian-speaking South, the concept of divine kingship led to the assumption of major roles by state and temple.[28]

The cult of the mother goddess is treated as an indication of a society which venerated femininity. This mother goddess was conceived as a virgin, one who has given birth to all and one and was typically associated with Shaktism.[29] The temples of the Sangam days, mainly of Madurai, seem to have had priestesses to the deity, which also appear predominantly a goddess.[30] In the Sangam literature, there is an elaborate description of the rites performed by the Kurava priestess in the shrine Palamutircholai.[31] Among the early Dravidians the practice of erecting memorial stones “Natukal’'had appeared, and it continued for quite a long time after the Sangam age, down to about 16th century.[32] It was customary for people who sought victory in war to worship these hero stones to bless them with victory.[33] Many Hindu sects such as Bhakti movement and Lingayatism originated in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka respectively. In addition to literary sources, folk festivals, village deities, shamanism, ritual theater and traditions, which are unique to the region, are also good indicators of what early Dravidian people believed/practiced.

Ayyanar idols near Gobichettipalayam
Ayyanar, guardian folk deity of Tamil Nadu.

The most popular deity is Murugan, he is known as the patron god of the Tamils and is also called Tamil Kadavul (Tamil God).[34][35] In Tamil tradition, Murugan is the youngest son and Pillayar the oldest son of Sivan, this differs from the North Indian tradition, which represents Murugan as the oldest son. The goddess Parvati is often depicted as having a green complexion in Tamil Hindu tradition, implying her association with nature. The worship of Amman, also called Mariamman, who is thought to have been derived from an ancient mother goddess is also very common.[36] Kan̲n̲agi, the heroine of the Cilappatikār̲am, is worshipped as Pattin̲i by many Tamils, particularly in Sri Lanka.[37] There are also many followers of Ayyavazhi in Tamil Nadu, mainly in the southern districts.[38] In addition, there are many temples and devotees of Vishnu, Siva, Ganapathi, and the other Hindu deities.

In rural Tamil Nadu, many local deities, called aiyyan̲ārs, are believed to be the spirits of local heroes who protect the village from harm.[39] Their worship often centres around nadukkal, stones erected in memory of heroes who died in battle. This form of worship is mentioned frequently in classical literature and appears to be the surviving remnants of an ancient Tamil tradition.[40] The early Dravidian religion constituted a non-Vedic form of Hinduism in that they were either historically or are at present Āgamic. The Agamas are non-vedic in origin [41] and have been dated either as post-Vedic texts [42] or as pre-Vedic compositions.[43] A large portion of these deities continue to be worshipped as the Village deities of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka, and their subsequent influence in South-east Asia, examples of which include the Mariamman temples in Singapore and Vietnam. Worship of anthills, snakes and other forms of guardian deities and heroes are still worshiped in the Konkan coast, Maharashtra proper and a few other parts of India including North India which traces its origins to ancient Dravidian religion which has been influencing formation of mainstream Hinduism for thousands of years.

A hero stone, known as “Natukal” by Tamils and “Virgal” by Kannadigas, is a memorial commemorating the honorable death of a hero in battle. Erected between the 3rd century BC and the 18th century AD, hero stones are found all over India, most of them in southern India. They often carry inscriptions displaying a variety of adornments, including bas relief panels, frieze, and figures on carved stone.[44] Usually they are in the form of a stone monument and may have an inscription at the bottom with a narrative of the battle. According to the historian Upinder Singh, the largest concentration of such memorial stones are found in the Indian state of Karnataka. About two thousand six hundred and fifty hero stones, the earliest dated to the 5th century have been discovered in Karnataka.[45] The custom of erecting memorial stones dates back to the Iron Age (1000 BCE–600BCE) though a vast majority were erected between the 5th and 13th centuries AD.

Veriyattam

"Veriyattam" refers to spirit possession of women, who took part in priestly functions. Under the influence of the god, women sang and danced, but also read the dim past, predicted the future, diagnosed diseases.[46] Twenty two poets of the Sangam age in as many as 40 poems portray Veriyatal. Velan is a reporter and prophet endowed with supernatural powers. Veriyatal had been performed by men as well as women.[47]

Nadukkal

Among the early Tamils the practice of erecting hero stones (nadukkal) had appeared, and it continued for quite a long time after the Sangam age, down to about 11th century.[48] It was customary for people who sought victory in war to worship these hero stones to bless them with victory.[49]

Theyyam

Theyyam is a ritual shaman dance popular in Kerala and parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Theyyam migrates into the artist who has assumed the spirit and it is a belief that the god or goddess comes in the midst of fathering through the medium of possessed dancer. The dancer throws rice on the audience and distributes turmeric powder as symbols of blessing. Theyyam incorporates dance, mime and music and enshrines the rudiments of ancient tribal cultures which attached great importance to the worship of heroes and the spirits of ancestors, is a socio-religious ceremony. There are over 400 Theyyams performed, the most spectacular ones are those of Raktha Chamundi, Kari Chamundi, Muchilottu Bhagavathi, Wayanadu Kulaven, Gulikan and Pottan. These are performed in front of shrines, sans stage or curtains.

The early character of Tamil religion was celebrative. It embodied an aura of sacral immanence, sensing the sacred in the vegetation, fertility, and color of the land. The summum bonum of the religious experience was expressed in terms of possession by the god, or ecstasy. Into this milieu there immigrated a sobering influence—a growing number of Jain and Buddhist communities and an increasing influx of northerners.

The layout of villages can be assumed to be standard across most villages. An Amman (mother goddess) is at the centre of the villages while a male guardian deity (Tamilகாவல் கடவுள், kāval kaṭavuḷ ?) has a shrine at the village borders. Nowadays, Amman can be either worshipped alone or as a part of the Vedic pantheon.[50]

Influence on modern Hinduism

Dravidian influence on early Vedic religion is evident, many of these features are already present in the oldest known Indo-Aryan language, the language of the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE), which also includes over a dozen words borrowed from Dravidian.[7] The linguistic evidence for Dravidian impact grows increasingly strong as we move from the Samhitas down through the later Vedic works and into the classical post-Vedic literature.[7] This represents an early religious and cultural fusion[8][note 1] or synthesis[10] between ancient Dravidians and Indo-Aryans, which became more evident over time with sacred iconography, traditions, philosophy, flora and fauna that went on to influence Hinduism, Buddhism, Charvaka, Sramana and Jainism[11][9][12][13]

Scholars regard the modern Hinduism as a fusion[8][note 1] or synthesis[10][note 2][51] of various Indian cultures and traditions.[10][52][8][note 6]

Among its roots are the historical Vedic religion of Iron Age India,[62][52] itself already the product of "a composite of the indo-Aryan and Harappan cultures and civilizations",[63][note 7] but also the Sramana[65] or renouncer traditions[52] of northeast India,[65] and mesolithic[66] and neolithic[67] cultures of India, such as the religions of the Indus Valley Civilisation,[68][9][69][70] Dravidian traditions,[11][9][12][13] and the local traditions[52] and tribal religions.[11][note 8]

Folk dance rituals

  • Yakshagana literally means the song (gana) of the yaksha, (nature spirits).[71] Yakshagana is the scholastic name (used for the last 200 years) for art forms formerly known as kēḷike, āṭa, bayalāṭa, and daśāvatāra (Kannada: ದಶಾವತಾರ).
  • Koothu (Tamil: கூத்து), and alternatively spelt as kuttu, means dance or performance in Tamil, it is a folk art originated from the early Tamil country.[72][73]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Lockard: "The encounters that resulted from Aryan migration brought together several very different peoples and cultures, reconfiguring Indian society. Over many centuries a fusion of Aryan and Dravidian occurred, a complex process that historians have labeled the Indo-Aryan synthesis."[8] Lockard: "Hinduism can be seen historically as a synthesis of Aryan beliefs with Harappan and other Dravidian traditions that developed over many centuries."[9]
  2. ^ Hiltebeitel: "A period of consolidation, sometimes identified as one of "Hindu synthesis," Brahmanic synthesis," or "orthodox synthesis," takes place between the time of the late Vedic Upanishads (c. 500 BCE) and the period of Gupta imperial ascendency" (c. 320-467 CE)."
  3. ^ Ghurye: He [Hutton] considers modern Hinduism to be the result of an amalgam between pre-Aryan Indian beliefs of Mediterranean inspiration and the religion of the Rigveda. "The Tribal religions present, as it were, surplus material not yet buit into the temple of Hinduism".[54]
  4. ^ Tyler, in India: An Anthropological Perspective(1973), page 68, as quoted by Sjoberg, calls Hinduism a "synthesis" in which the Dravidian elements prevail: "The Hindu synthesis was less the dialectical reduction of orthodoxy and heterodoxy than the resurgence of the ancient, aboriginal Indus civilization. In this process the rude, barbaric Aryan tribes were gradually civilised and eventually merged with the autochthonous Dravidians. Although elements of their domestic cult and ritualism were jealously preserved by Brahman priests, the body of their culture survived only in fragmentary tales and allegories embedded in vast, syncretistic compendia. On the whole, the Aryan contribution to Indian culture is insignificant. The essential pattern of Indian culture was already established in the third millennium B.C., and ... the form of Indian civilization perdured and eventually reasserted itself.[55]
  5. ^ Hopfe & Woodward: "The religion that the Aryans brought with them mingled with the religion of the native people, and the culture that developed between them became classical Hinduism."[60]
  6. ^ See also:
    • J.H. Hutton (1931), in Ghurye, Govind Sadashiv (1980), The Scheduled Tribes of India, Transaction Publishers[53][note 3]
    • Zimmer, Heinrich (1951), Philosophies of India, Princeton University Press[12]
    • Tyler (1973), India: An Anthropological Perspective, Goodyear Publishing Company. In: Sjoberg 1990,[55][note 4]
    • Sjoberg, Andree F. (1990), "The Dravidian Contribution To The Development Of Indian Civilization: A Call For A Reassesment", Comparative Civilizations Review. 23:40-74[56]
    • Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press[52]
    • Nath, Vijay (March–April 2001), "From 'Brahmanism' to 'Hinduism': Negotiating the Myth of the Great Tradition", Social Scientist: 19–50, doi:10.2307/3518337, JSTOR 3518337[57]
    • Werner, karel (2005), A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, Routledge[58]
    • Lockard, Craig A. (2007), Societies, Networks, and Transitions. Volume I: to 1500, Cengage Learning[8]
    • Hiltebeitel, Alf (2007), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge[59]
    • Hopfe, Lewis M.; Woodward, Mark R. (2008), Religions of the World, Pearson Education[60][note 5]
    • Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press[61]
  7. ^ See:
    • David Gordo White: "[T]he religion of the Vedas was already a composite of the indo-Aryan and Harappan cultures and civilizations."[63]
    • Richard Gombrich: "It is important to bear in mind that the Indo-Aryans did not enter an unhabited (sic) land. For nearly two millennia they and their culture gradually penetrated India, moving east and south from their original seat in the Punjab. They mixed with people who spoke Munda or Dravidian languages, who have left no traces of their culture beyond some archaeological remains; we know as little about them as we would about the Indo-Aryans if they had left no texts. In fact we cannot even be sure whether some of the aerchaeological finds belong to Indo-Aryans, autochthonous populations, or a mixture.
      It is to be assumed - though this is not fashionable in Indian historiography - that the clash of cultures between Indo-Aryans and autochtones was responsible for many of the changes in Indo-Aryan society. We can also assume that many - perhaps most - of the indigenous population came to be assimilated into Indo-Aryan culture.[64]
  8. ^ Tiwari mentions the Austric and Mongoloid people.[11] See also Adivasi people for the variety of Indian people.

References

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Brahui people

The Brahui (Brahui: براہوئی) or Brahvi people, are an ethnic group of about 2.2 million people with the vast majority found in Baluchistan, Pakistan. They are a small minority group in Afghanistan, where they are native, but they are also found through their diaspora in Middle Eastern states. They mainly occupy the area in Balochistan from Bolan Pass through the Bolan Hills to Ras Muari (Cape Monze) on the Arabian sea, separating the Baloch people of Balochistan to the west and the Sindhi people of Sindh in the east. The Brahuis are almost entirely Sunni Muslims. There is a varied pattern of language use among the Brahui: some of the constituent groups predominantly speak the Dravidian Brahui language, others are bilingual in Balochi and Brahui, while others are speakers only of Balochi.

Breaking India

Breaking India: Western Interventions in Dravidian and Dalit Faultlines is a book written by Rajiv Malhotra and Aravindan Neelakandan which argues that India's integrity is being undermined by the support of western institutions for the Dravidian movement and Dalit identity. It was published by Amaryllis in 2011. In 2011, this book was in the list of top 10 bestseller books in India.

Dravidian Nationalism

Dravidian nationalism or Dravidianism developed in Madras Presidency which comprises the four major ethno-linguistic groups in South India. This idea was popularized during the 1930s to 1950s by a series of small movements and organizations that contended that the South Indians (Dravidians) formed a racial and a cultural entity that was different from the north Indians. This particular movement claimed that the Brahmins were originally from the north and they imposed their language, Sanskrit, religion and heritage on the southern people.

Dravidian architecture

Dravidian architecture is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century. It consists primarily of Hindu temples where the dominating feature is the high gopura or gatehouse; large temples have several. Mentioned as one of three styles of temple building in the ancient book Vastu shastra, the majority of the existing structures are located in the Southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana. Various kingdoms and empires such as the Cholas, the Chera, the Kakatiyas, the Pandyas, the Pallavas, the Gangas, the Kadambas, the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas, the Hoysalas, and Vijayanagara Empire among others have made substantial contribution to the evolution of Dravidian architecture.

Dravidian languages

The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in Southern India and parts of Central and Eastern India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Singapore. The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam. There are also small groups of Dravidian-speaking scheduled tribes, who live outside Dravidian-speaking areas, such as the Kurukh in Eastern India and Gondi in Central India. The Dravidian languages are spoken by more than 215 million people in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.Though some scholars have argued that the Dravidian languages may have been brought to India by migrations in the fourth or third millennium BCE or even earlier, the Dravidian languages cannot easily be connected to any other language family and they could well be indigenous to India.Epigraphically the Dravidian languages have been attested since the 2nd century BCE as Tamil-Brahmi script on the cave walls discovered in the Madurai and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu. Only two Dravidian languages are spoken exclusively outside the post-1947 state of India: Brahui in the Balochistan region of Pakistan and Afghanistan; and Dhangar, a dialect of Kurukh, in parts of Nepal and Bhutan. Dravidian place names along the Arabian Sea coasts and Dravidian grammatical influence such as clusivity in the Indo-Aryan languages, namely Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati, Marwari, and Sindhi, suggest that Dravidian languages were once spoken more widely across the Indian subcontinent.

Dravidian people

Dravidian people or Dravidians are speakers of any of the Dravidian languages. There are around 245 million native speakers of Dravidian languages. Dravidian speakers form the majority of the population of south India and are natively found in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, the Maldives and Sri Lanka.Proto-Dravidian may have been spoken in the Indus civilization, suggesting a "tentative date of Proto-Dravidian around the early part of the third millennium", after which it branched into various Dravidian languages. South Dravidian I (including pre-Tamil) and South Dravidian II (including pre-Telugu) split around the eleventh century BCE, with the other major branches splitting off at around the same time.The origins of the Dravidians are a "very complex subject of research and debate". They may have been indigenous to the Indian subcontinent, but origins in, or influence from, West-Asia have also been proposed. Their origins are often viewed as being connected with the Indus Valley Civilisation, whence people and language spread east- and southwards after the demise of the Indus Valley Civilisation in the early second century BCE, concurrently with Indo-Aryan speakers, with whom they intensively interacted. From these interactions and migrations arose eventually the so-called "Hindus synthesis", after 500 BCE.The third century BCE onwards saw the development of large Dravidian empires. Medieval Tamil guilds and trading organisations like the "Ayyavole and Manigramam" played an important role in the Southeast Asia trade. and the cultural Indianisation of the region.

Dravidian visual art is dominated by stylised Temple architecture in major centres, and the production of images of stone and bronze sculptures. The sculpture dating from the Chola period has become notable as a symbol of Hinduism.

Dravidian studies

Dravidian studies (also Dravidology) is the academic field devoted to the Dravidian languages, literature and culture. It is a superset of Tamil studies and a subset of South Asian studies.

Elamo-Dravidian languages

The Elamo-Dravidian language family is a hypothesised language family that links the Dravidian languages of India to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam (present-day southwestern Iran). Linguist David McAlpin has been a chief proponent of the Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis. According to McAlpin, the long-extinct Harappan language (the language or languages of the Indus Valley Civilization) might also have been part of this family. The hypothesis has gained attention in academic circles, but has been subject to serious criticism by linguists, and remains only one of several scenarios for the origins of the Dravidian languages. Elamite is accepted by scholars to be a language isolate, unrelated to any other known language.

Friday

Friday is the day of the week between Thursday and Saturday. In countries adopting the "Monday-first" convention it is the fifth day of the week. In countries that adopt the "Sunday-first" convention, it is the sixth day of the week. In some other countries, for example Saudi Arabia and the Maldives, Friday is the first day of the weekend, with Saturday the second. In Afghanistan Friday is the last day of the weekend, with Saturday as the first day of the working week. Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Kuwait also followed this convention until they changed to a Friday–Saturday weekend: on 1 September 2006 in Bahrain and the UAE, and a year later in Kuwait. In Iran, Friday and Thursday are weekend days.

Hinduism in South India

Hinduism in South India refers to the Hindu culture of the people of South India. The Hinduism in South India is characterized by Dravidian customs and traditions. The Dravidians made great contributions to development of Hinduism. South India was the birthplace of many Hindu saints and reformers. The Brahmins (Hindu priests class) of ancient South India (Tamilakam, Telengana, Karnataka) were classified as Pancha-Dravida (The Five Dravidians). The Hindus in South India are followers of various Hindu branches such as Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism, Brahmanism and others. Hinduism was the state religion of most of the South Indian kingdoms. During the Ancient and Middle Ages were built in South India one of the greatest Hindu temples. South Indian kings such as the Cholas spread Hinduism overseas to parts of Southeast Asia. The activities of South India across the Palk Strait led to survival of Hinduism in Sri Lanka. The Tamil Hindus in Sri Lanka are followers of Tamil Shaiva Siddhanta, which is mainly practiced in parts of South India. Some Hindu festivals are celebrated mostly or exclusively in South India and Sri Lanka. In South India are also numerous Hindu pilgrimage site that is visited annually by thousands of devotees. The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Andhra Pradesh is considered to be the most-visited holy place in the world. The Cauvery river that flows through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu is also known as the "Ganges of South" and is one of the most sacred river of the Hindus.

Index of Sri Lanka-related articles (D)

This page lists Sri Lanka-related articles with titles beginning with an alphabet letter D.

D Company (film)

D'Lo

D-17 (film)

D. A. M. R. Samarasekara

D. A. Rajapaksa

D. Amaramoorthy

D. Anantaraman

D. B. Dhanapala

D. B. Nihalsinghe

D. B. S. Jeyaraj

D. Babu Paul

D. D. Daniel

D. D. Karunaratne

D. E. W. Gunasekera

D. F. Hettiarachchi

D. Ganesan

D. Gnanasigamony

D. H. Robins' XI cricket team in Sri Lanka in 1977–78

D. Haridoss

D. J. Ambalavanar

D. J. Wimalasurendra

D. Jayakumar

D. K. Aruna

D. K. Raja

D. Kumaradas

D. Liyanarachchi

D. M. Ananda

D. M. Dassanayake

D. M. Jayaratne

D. M. Rajapaksa

D. M. Swaminathan

D. Madhusudhana Rao

D. Moni

D. Murugesan

D. N. Jha

D. N. Samarasekera

D. P. Atapattu

D. P. Jayasuriya

D. Pandian

D. Perera

D. Purushothaman

D. R. Bendre

D. R. Nagaraj

D. R. Nanayakkara

D. R. Rajaram Naidu

D. R. Seenivasagam

D. R. Settinayake

D. R. Wijewardena

D. Raja

D. Rajarathinam

D. Ramanaidu

D. S. A. Sivaprakasam

D. S. Adhimoolam

D. S. C. B. Jansze

D. S. De Silva

D. S. Goonesekera

D. S. Jayasekera

D. S. MacGregor

D. S. Ramanathan

D. S. Senanayake

D. S. Senanayake Central College

D. S. Senanayake College

D. S. Senanayake cabinet

D. Selvaraj

D. Selvaraj (Udumalpet MLA)

D. Shantha

D. Shelton A. Gunaratne

D. Siddarthan

D. Srinivas (politician)

D. Sripada Rao

D. Subasinghe

D. Sudarsanam

D. T. Fernando

D. T. Niles

D. V. Gundappa

D. V. Hunter

D. V. J. Harischandra

D. V. Narasa Raju

D. V. S. Raju

D. Veliah

D. Venugopal

D. Vinayachandran

D. W. A. S. Dissanayake

D. Yasodha

D.S. Senanayake Memorial Public Library

DCS (band)

DD Bihar

DFCC Bank

DJ Nihal

DK (film)

DMOZ

DSI Samson Group

DVV Danayya

Da Thadiya

Daab Chingri

Daada

Daari Tappida Maga

Daasarathi Krishnamacharyulu

Daatu

Dabak Daba Aisa

Dabarella

Dabataw

Dabbawala

Dabeli

Dada Is Back

Dada Sahib

Dadahogama

Dadalla, Galle

Dadar gulung

Dadayama

Daddy (1992 film)

Daddy Cool (2009 Malayalam film)

Dadichiluka Veera Gouri Sankara Rao

Dadohagama

Dagampitiya

Daganapothaha

Daganbhuiyan Upazila

Dagewilla

Daggubati Purandeswari

Daggubati Suresh Babu

Daggubati Venkateswara Rao

Daham Sevane Singiththo

Dahanayake

Dahanayake cabinet

Dahasak Sithuvili

Dahi baigana

Dahi chutney

Dahi machha

Dahi puri

Dahi vada

Dai River (India)

Daily Brahmanbaria

Daily FT

Daily News (Sri Lanka)

Daily Thanthi Group

Dainik Bhaskar

Dainik Jagran

Daintee

Daisy (1988 film)

Daiva Leele

Daivanamathil

Daivathinte Makan

Daivathinte Swantham Cleetus

Daivathinte Vikrithikal

Dak Bungalow Crossing, Patna

Dakhinpat Satra

Dakina Dakina Mal

Dakkhina Stupa

Dakota Express

Dakpathar Barrage

Dakshayagam

Dal

Dal baati

Dal bhat

Dal biji

Dal dhokli

Dal makhani

Dalamarmarangal

Dalcha

Dalda

Dale Steyn

Daler Mehndi

Dalgahakele

Dalhousie, Sri Lanka

Dalia seera

Dalit Ezhilmalai

Dalithoy

Dalmianagar

Dalmore distillery

Dalugama

Dalupitiya

Dalupota

Daluwakgoda

Daluwatumulla

Daluwela

Damacharla Janardhana Rao

Damana Divisional Secretariat

Damayanthi Dharsha

Dambadeniya

Dambadeniya Electoral District

Dambagahamada

Dambagahamuduna

Dambagasare Sumedhankara Thero

Dambagolla

Dambalagala Colony

Dambana, Sri Lanka

Dambarawa

Dambawatawana

Dambulla

Dambulla Divisional Secretariat

Dambulla Electoral District

Dambulla cave temple

Dambullagama

Damian Fernando

Damidu Ashan

Damien Nadarajah

Daminda Kolugala

Daminda Ranawaka

Daminzeikkyi

Damith Indika

Damith Perera

Damith Priyadharshana

Damith Ratnayake

Damitha Abeyratne

Damitha Hunukumbura

Damitha Silva

Dammala

Dammanatenna

Dammantenna

Dammika Perera

Dammika Ranatunga

Damodar Raja Narasimha

Damodaram Sanjivayya

Dampath Fernando

Dampokhtak

Damunumeya

Damunumulla

Damunupola

Damunupola North

Dan Ito

Dan Kiesel

Dan Piachaud

Danam Nagender

Dananja Madushanka

Dananjaya Hettiarachchi

Danapur

Danapur – Anand Vihar Jan Sadharan Express

Danapur railway station

Danaus genutia

Dances of Sri Lanka

Dancing Star (film)

Dandagamuwa Electoral District

Dandakam

Dandam Dashagunam

Dandenikumbura

Dandeniya Gamage Jayanthi

Dandeniya Hemachandra de Silva

Dandugama

Dandupalya (film)

Dandupalya 2

Daniel Gogerly

Daniel Lee (swimmer)

Daniel Negers

Daniel Overbeek

Daniel Poor

Daniel Poor Memorial Library in Madurai

Daniel Thiagarajah

Daniel Vettori

Danielle de Niese

Dankanda

Dankotuwa

Dankotuwa Divisional Secretariat

Danny Nalliah

Danowita

Danture

Danush Peiris

Danushka Gunathilaka

Danushka Samarakoon

Danusika Bandara

Dany (film)

Daoyi Zhilüe

Daphniphyllum neilgherrense

Dappula I of Anuradhapura

Dappula II of Anuradhapura

Dappula III of Anuradhapura

Dappula IV of Anuradhapura

Dappula V of Anuradhapura

Dara-oya

Daramutu

Darjeeling tea

Dark-fronted babbler

Darling Darling (2000 film)

Darrell Lieversz

Darren Bravo

Darren Sammy

Darren Stevens (cricketer)

Darshan (film)

Darshan Dharmaraj

Darshana Ashoka Kumara

Darshana Sandakalum

Darshini (restaurant)

Darubhatika Tissa of Anuradhapura

Daruwane

Darvinte Parinamam

Daryl Tuffey

Dasa sil mata

Dasakuta

Dasarathi Satakam

Dasari

Dasari Narayana Rao

Dasari Subrahmanyam

Dasari Venkataramana

Dasari Yoganand

Dasavala

Dashamukha

Dasharatham

Dashavathara (film)

Dasia haliana

Daskara

Daskon (TV series)

Dassanayake

Dastarkhān

Dasun Madushan

Dasun Paranavithana

Dasun Pathirana

Dasun Senevirathna

Dasun Shanaka

Dasyam Pranay Bhasker

Dasyam Vinaya Bhasker

Dathappabhuti of Anuradhapura

Dathopa Tissa I of Anuradhapura

Dathopa Tissa II of Anuradhapura

Datla Satyanarayana Raju

Dattha

Daudkandi Upazila

Daulagala

Daulatpur Union

Daung Kyun

Dav Whatmore

David & Goliath (film)

David Aiers

David Arumugam

David Blacker

David Dean Shulman

David Douglas Wemyss

David Gallagher (footballer)

David Heyn

David Hussey

David Kalupahana

David Miller (South African cricketer)

David Nitschmann der Syndikus

David Obuya

David Paynter (artist)

David Raitt Robertson Burt

David Ratnavale

David Sanders (gastroenterologist)

David Spenser

David Tatham

David Wilkie (swimmer)

David Young (bishop)

David de Kretser

Davidsea

Davuldena Gnanissara Thero

Dawala Pawura

Dawasa

Dawatagahamulatenna

Dawei

Dawei Airport

Dawei District

Dawei River

Dawei Township

Dawkinsia singhala

Dawkinsia srilankensis

Dawlat Ujir Bahram Khan

Dawson Tower

Dawsonne Drake

Daya (film)

Daya Dissanayake

Daya Gamage

Daya Master

Daya Perera

Daya Rajasinghe Nadarajasingham

Daya Ratnasooriya

Daya Ratnayake

Daya Sahabandu

Daya Sandagiri

Dayan Jayatilleka

Dayan Rajapakse

Dayananda Gunawardena

Dayananda de Silva

Dayanidhi Azhagiri

Dayanidhi Maran

Dayantha Liyanage

Dayantha Wijeyesekera

Dayasiri Jayasekara

Dayasritha Thissera

Dayavittu Gamanisi

Dayom Panthrandum

Days of Despair

De Abrew

De Alwis

De Ghuma Ke

De Ingottu Nokkiye

De La Salle College, Colombo

De Mazenod College

De Soysa Stadium

DeLon

Deadly Soma

Deadly-2

Deal Raja

Death in custody of Gunasegaran Rajasundram

Deathwave

Debabrata Barua Paul

Debidwar Upazila

December (1988 film)

December 31 (film)

December-1

Decent Parties

Declaration recognising the Right to a Flag of States having no Sea-coast

Dedigama

Dedigama Electoral District

Dedimunda deviyo

Dedunu Akase

Dedunu Gunaratne

Dedunu Silva

Dedunu Wessa

Dedunupitiya

Deduru Oya Dam

Deedarganj railway station

Deeder Zaman

Deenabandhu

Deep Foods

Deepa Jayakumar

Deepa Miriam

Deepak Dev

Deepal Gunasekara

Deepal Gunawardene

Deepal Peiris

Deepal Silva

Deepali Kishore

Deepali Wijesundera

Deepavali (2000 film)

Deepika (newspaper)

Deepika Rasangika

Deepika Udagama

Deepthi Kumara Gunarathne

Deepu

Deergha Sewa Padakkama

Deergha Sumangali

Defence Headquarters Complex, Sri Lanka

Defence Island Wildlife Sanctuary

Defence Islands, Andaman

Defence Services Command and Staff College

Defence Services School, Colombo

Defence.lk

Deforestation in Sri Lanka

Degaldoruwa Raja Maha Vihara

Dehianga

Dehiange

Dehiattakandiya Divisional Secretariat

Dehiattawala

Dehideniya

Dehideniya Madige

Dehigahatule

Dehigama

Dehigastenna

Dehintalawa

Dehiovita Divisional Secretariat

Dehiowita Electoral District

Dehipagoda

Dehipe

Dehipitiya

Dehiwala

Dehiwala Divisional Secretariat

Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia

Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia Electoral District

Dehri

Dehri Nagar Parishad

Dehri Rohtas Light Railway

Dehri-on-Sone railway station

Deiannewela

Deiva Zivarattinam

Deiyandara National College, Deiyandara

Deiyannewela

Dekinda

Deldeniya

Delft Divisional Council

Delft Divisional Secretariat

Delft Island fort

Delft National Park

Delgamuwa Raja Maha Vihara

Delgasyaya

Delhi Gadhakal

Delhi Public School, Patna

Delias eucharis

Deliwela

Delmada

Delovak Athara

Delpatkada

Delpawana

Delpitiya

Delsy Ninan

Delta Gemunupura College

Delthota

Delthota Divisional Secretariat

Deltota

Demada-oya

Demala Hatpattu

Demala diviyan keliya

Demalagattara

Dematagoda

Dematamal Viharaya

Dembatagastenna

Dembawa

Demintha Dahanayake

Democratic Left Front (Sri Lanka)

Democratic National Alliance (Sri Lanka)

Democratic Party (Sri Lanka)

Democratic People's Front

Democratic People's Liberation Front

Democratic Tamil National Front

Democratic United National Front

Democratic Unity Alliance

Democratic Workers Congress

Demodara

Demodara railway station

Demons of Sri Lanka

Demunapola North

Denagama Siriwardena

Denapitiya

Denawaka Ganga Mini Hydro Power Project

Denawaka Hamine

Dendrelaphis bifrenalis

Dendrelaphis oliveri

Dendrelaphis sinharajensis

Dendrelaphis tristis

Dendrobium anosmum

Dendrocalamus giganteus

Dendrolobium triangulare

Denham Madena

Denikaina Ready

Denike

Denis Perera

Denis Price

Deniyaya

Deniyaya Electoral District

Denmark–Sri Lanka relations

Dennis Hapugalle

Denuwan Fernando

Denuwan Rajakaruna

Denzil Kobbekaduwa

Department of Agriculture (Sri Lanka)

Department of Archaeology (Sri Lanka)

Department of Computer Engineering, University of Peradeniya

Department of Examinations

Department of Forest Conservation (Sri Lanka)

Department of National Archives

Department of National Museum (Sri Lanka)

Department of Prisons

Department of Registration of Persons

Department of Survey (Sri Lanka)

Department of Wildlife Conservation (Sri Lanka)

Depinder Singh

Deputy Chairman of Committees

Deputy Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu

Deputy High Commission of Sri Lanka, Chennai

Deputy inspector general of police

Deputy speaker and chairman of committees of the Parliament of Sri Lanka

Der Stein des Todes

Derana Film Awards

Deraniyagala

Deraniyagala Divisional Secretariat

Deraniyagala Electoral District

Derek Perera

Desa Nisa

Desadanam

Desamuduru

Desatanakkili Karayarilla

Desha Putra Sammanaya

Desha Putra Sammanaya (Police)

Desha Vimukthi Janatha Pakshaya

Deshabandu

Deshabhimani

Deshabhimani (Sri Lanka)

Deshamanya

Deshan Dias

Deshan Withanage

Desi

Desi Obbattu

Desi daru

Desi hip hop

Desigar Ramanujam

Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam

Desmond Fernando

Desmond Kelly

Desmond Lorenz de Silva

Desmond de Silva

Desperately Seeking Helen

Detective (2007 film)

Dev Son of Mudde Gowda

Deva (1989 film)

Deva Katta

Deva Maanava

Deva Sundari

Deva people

Devadarshini

Devadas

Devahandiya West

Devaka Fernando

Devaki Krishnan

Devalegama

Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura

Devanapatissa Vipassana International Meditation Centre

Devaneya Pavanar

Devanur Mahadeva

Devapathiraja College

Devapriya

Devara Duddu

Devara Gedda Manava

Devara Kannu

Devara Maga

Devara Makkalu

Devara Naadalli

Devaraagam

Devarakonda Balagangadhara Tilak

Devarakonda Vittal Rao

Devaru Kotta Thangi (1973 film)

Devaru Kotta Thangi (2009 film)

Devaru Kotta Vara

Devasish Roy

Devasundari

Devasuram

Devathura Falls

Devayani (actress)

Devdas Chakraborty

Deveeri

Development Management Institute

Devendra Bishoo

Devendra Prasad Gupta

Devendra pardalis

Devendra pumilus

Devendra seriatus

Devendranath Sharma

Deveni Gamana

Deveni Warama

Devi Balika Vidyalaya

Devi Sri Prasad

Devil Bird

Devinda Kalupahana

Devineni Uma Maheswara Rao

Devinnegama

Devinuwara Divisional Secretariat

Devinuwara Electoral District

Devita

Devol (deity)

Devon Falls

Devon Smith

Devon Thomas

Devudu Narasimha Sastri

Devulapalli Krishnasastri

Dewa (people)

Dewa people of Sri Lanka

Dewahandiya

Dewahandiya East

Dewahandiya West

Dewahuwa

Dewalapola

Dewatagahamulatenna

Dhadu Monara

Dhairyam (2017 film)

Dhakirgaon

Dham

Dhamatthar

Dhamika Bulankulame

Dhamma Jagoda

Dhammananda Bhikkhuni

Dhammika Dasanayake

Dhammika Kitulgoda

Dhammika Niroshana

Dhammika Perera

Dhammika Prasad

Dhammika Siriwardana

Dhammika Sudarshana

Dhana Pishachi

Dhana jiru

Dhanalakshmi

Dhanam (2008 film)

Dhanam (business magazine)

Dhananjaya de Silva

Dhananjayan Sriskandarajah

Dhanbad – Patna Intercity Express

Dhand (film)

Dhandayuthapani Pillai

Dhannapur

Dhansak

Dhansiri Weerasinghe

Dhanuka Pathirana

Dhanushka Dharmasiri

Dhanushka Jayakody

Dhanushkodi

Dhanushkodi (film)

Dhanyam

Dhanyawadi

Dharani (director)

Dharani Mandala Madhyadolage

Dharapuram (state assembly constituency)

Dharga Town

Dharma Bhiksham

Dharma Puthra

Dharma Sri Munasinghe

Dharma Vijaya

Dharmadasa Banda

Dharmadasa Walpola

Dharmadasa Wanniarachchi

Dharmana Prasada Rao

Dharmapala Vidyalaya

Dharmapala of Kotte

Dharmapur Union

Dharmapuri (state assembly constituency)

Dharmaraja College

Dharmaraja Vidyalaya

Dharmaraja–Kingswood Cricket Encounter

Dharmaratne Brothers

Dharmasagar (pond)

Dharmasena Attygalle

Dharmasena Pathiraja

Dharmasere

Dharmashree

Dharmasiri Bandaranayake

Dharmasiri Dassanayake

Dharmasiri Gamage

Dharmasiri Senanayake

Dharmasoka College

Dharmasoka of Polonnaruwa

Dharmatma Inter College, Arrah

Dharmavarapu Subramanyam

Dharmaveera K. Govindaswamy Naidu

Dharmayuddhaya

Dharshana Gamage

Dharshini David

Dharumar

Dharwad pedha

Dhathuputhri

Dhatusena of Anuradhapura

Dhavala Satyam

Dhawala Pushpaya

Dhebra

Dheem Tharikida Thom

Dheepan

Dheewarayo

Dheewari

Dhilip Varman

Dhiloraj Canagasabey

Dhiman Ghosh

Dhinarathrangal

Dhiraj Choudhury

Dhirendranath Datta

Dhivyadharshini

Dhokla

Dhol Academy

Dholak

Dhondas

Dhool (2011 film)

Dhoomakethu

Dhooska

Dhowa rock temple

Dhruvam

Dhumdumia

Dhumm

Dhushantha Ranatunga

Dhwani

Dhātuvansa

Diaea placata

Dialium ovoideum

Diallomus

Diallomus fuliginosus

Diallomus speciosus

Dialog Axiata

Dialog Broadband Networks

Dialog TV

Diamond Necklace (film)

Diana Pereira Hay

Dibang Dam

Dibang River

Dibburuwela

Dicellostyles

Dichaetaria

Dichaetaria wightii

Dichapetalum gelonioides

Dichilanthe zeylanica

Dick Perera

Dickoya

Dickoya Maskeliya Cricket Club

Dickson Sarathchandra Dela

Dickwella

Dickwella Divisional Secretariat

Dictionarium Latino Canarense

Didarganj Yakshi

Diddeniya

Diederik van Domburg

Diet in Hinduism

Digahawatura

Digala

Digambara Samiyar

Digana

Digane

Digavalli Venkata Siva Rao

Diggajaru

Diggala

Digha, Patna

Dighavapi

Digha–Sonpur Bridge

Dighinala Upazila

Digitaria ciliaris

Diglipur

Digvijay Narain Singh

Digvijaya

Dihing River

Dihintalawa

Dikirillagolla

Dikkumbura

Dikoya

Dil Raju

Dil Wickremasinghe

DilKhushaal

Dilan Fernando

Dilan Jayalath

Dilan Jayawardane

Dilan Perera

Dilan Woutersz

Dilango Racing

Dilani Manodara

Dilantha Malagamuwa

Dileepa Wickramasinghe

Dileesh

Dilesh Gunaratne

Dilhan Cooray

Dilhan Perera

Dilhani Ekanayake

Dilhani Lekamge

Dilhara Fernando

Dilhara Lokuhettige

Dilhara Salgado

Dilip Sinha

Dilip Wedaarachchi

Dilith Jayaweera

Dillenia retusa

Dillenia suffruticosa

Dillenia triquetra

Dilli Haat

Dillon du Preez

Dilmah

Dilruk Laurence

Dilruwan Perera

Dilshan Abeysinghe

Dilshan Munaweera

Dilshan Sanjeewa

Dilshan Vitharana

Dilshan de Soysa

Dilum Amunugama

Dilup Gabadamudalige

Dilupa Perera

Dilwala

Dimbula

Dimbula Athletic & Cricket Club

Dimbulagala

Dimbulagala Divisional Secretariat

Dimbulagala Raja Maha Vihara

Dimbulgahakotuwa

Dimbulgoda

Dimbulkumbura

Dimitri Mascarenhas

Dimitri Ratnayake

Dimorphocalyx glabellus

Dimuth Karunaratne

Dimuth Warapitiya

Dimuthu Bandara Abayakoon

Dimuthu Naveendra

Dina Astita

Dinakaran attack case

Dinakshie Priyasad

Dinamina

Dinanath Puthenchery

Dinapathi

Dinapur Cantonment

Dinavartamani

Dindigul (state assembly constituency)

Dindigul Thalappakatti Restaurant

Dinesh Abeywickrama

Dinesh Chandimal

Dinesh Chandra Sinha

Dinesh Daminda

Dinesh Fernando

Dinesh Gunawardena

Dinesh Kanagaratnam

Dinesh Kumara

Dinesh Lalinda

Dinesh Lalintha

Dinesh Nandan Sahay

Dinesh Palipana

Dinesh Priyantha

Dinesh Saparamadu

Dinesh Subasinghe

Dinesh Subasinghe discography

Dinesh Weerawansa

Dinesh de Zoysa

Dineth Thimodya

Dingiri Banda Wijetunga

Dingiri Bandara Welagedara

Dinidu Marage

Dinkan

Dinuk

Dinuk Wijeratne

Dinuk Wikramanayaka

Dinuka Hettiarachchi

Dinuka Karunaratne

Dinusha Fernando

Diocese of Colombo

Diogo de Melo

Diogo de Melo Coutinho

Diogo de Melo de Castro

Diopsiulus ceylonicus

Diopsiulus greeni

Diopsiulus madaraszi

Dioscorea alata

Dioscorea oppositifolia

Diospyros acuminata

Diospyros atrata

Diospyros attenuata

Diospyros candolleana

Diospyros chaetocarpa

Diospyros ferrea

Diospyros hirsuta

Diospyros insignis

Diospyros melanoxylon

Diospyros montana

Diospyros oocarpa

Diospyros oppositifolia

Diospyros ovalifolia

Diospyros quaesita

Diospyros racemosa

Diospyros thwaitesii

Diospyros walkeri

Dipa Ma

Dipavamsa

Dipika Chanmugam

Diplodiscus verrucosus

Diplospora erythrospora

Diplothele halyi

Dipoena sertata

Dippitiya

Dipterocarpus hispidus

Dipti Saravanamuttu

Director General of Sri Lanka Coast Guard

Director's Special (film)

Director's Special (whisky)

Directorate of Military Intelligence (Sri Lanka)

Dirk Nannes

Dirty Picture: Silk Sakkath Maga

Disability in Sri Lanka

Disce aut discede

Discospermum sphaerocarpum

Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention

Dish TV Sri Lanka

Disnaka Manoj

Disproportionate assets case against Jayalalithaa

Dissanayake

Dissava

Distilleries Company of Sri Lanka

District Administration, Rangamati

District Courts of Sri Lanka

Districts of Sri Lanka

Divaina

Divisional Secretariats of Sri Lanka

Divisions of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

Divulapitiya

Divulapitiya Divisional Secretariat

Divulapitiya Electoral District

Divulgaskotuwa

Divurum Bodhi Viharaya

Divya Padmini

Divya S. Menon

Diwali

Dixy Chicken

Diya Yata Gindara

Diyabath

Diyabubula

Diyaluma Falls

Diyaminauclea zeylanica

Diyapalagoda

Diyatalawa

Diyatalawa Garrison

Diyatha Uyana

Diyawadana Nilame

Diyawanna Lake

Djay Adx

Doce (sweet)

Doctor Innocent aanu

Doctor Krishna

Doctor Love (film)

Dodamitiyawa

Dodandeniya

Dodanga cristata

Dodanga lobipennis

Dodangaslanda Electoral District

Dodangoda Divisional Secretariat

Dodangolla

Dodankumbura

Dodanwala

Dodda Balakoti Reddy

Doddahundi nishidhi inscription

Doddarange Gowda

Doddmane Hudga

Dodol

Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol

Dohan river

Dohazari

Dokka Manikya Vara Prasad

Dolapihilla

Dolar Mahmud

Dolichognatha neitneri

Dolls (2013 film)

Dolomedes karschi

Dolosbage

Dolosbage Bazaar

Dolphin Beach Resort

Doluwa

Doluwa Divisional Secretariat

Dombagammana

Dombagasdeniya

Dombagoda

Dombawala

Dombawela

Dombemada

Dominic Jeeva

Dominic Vendargon

Dominick Chilcott

Dominicus Corea

Dominion of Ceylon

Dommie Jayawardena

Dompe Divisional Secretariat

Dompe Electoral District

Don (2007 film)

Don Anurasiri

Don Baron Jayatilaka

Don Bosco Academy, Patna

Don Bosco SC

Don Carlin Gunawardena

Don Carolis Hewavitharana

Don Constantine

Don Jayasundera

Don Kulasiri

Don Martino de Zilva Wickremasinghe

Don Somasiri

Don Spater Senanayake

Don't Stop Dreaming

Dona Catherina of Kandy

Dona Indralatha

Donald Dissanayake

Donald Hewagama

Donald Obeyesekere

Donald Perera

Donald R. Toussaint

Donald Rutnam

Donald Smith (cricketer, born 1923)

Donatius Victoria

Dondra

Dondra Head Lighthouse

Doni (film)

Doni Sagali

Donoughmore Commission

Donoughmore Constitution

Doo Daruwo

Doodh pati chai

Doodhpak

Dookudu

Dooland Buultjens

Doora saridaru

Doorada Betta

Doore Doore Oru Koodu Koottam

Doovili Ella Falls

Dopiaza

Dorababu Pendem

Doragomuwa

Dorakada Marawa

Dorakumbura

Doraliyadda

Doranegama

Dore (film)

Doreen Cooper

Doreen Sansoni

Doreen Young Wickremasinghe

Doric Bungalow

Doric de Souza

Dorla people

Dornhorst Memorial Prize

Dorothy Cayley

Dorstenia indica

Dosa

Dosa plaza

Double Decker (2011 film)

Double Mooring Thana

Double Seven (soft drink)

Double ka meetha

Doubles (2011 film)

Doug Bollinger

Douglas Devananda

Douglas Dias Jayasinha

Douglas Liyanage

Douglas Meerwald

Douglas St. Clive Budd Jansze

Douglas Walatara

Douthyam

Dowita

Dowitagammedda

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (film)

Dr. Bhupen Hazarika Setu

Dr. Harisankar (singer)

Dr. Khastagir Government Girls' High School

Dr. M. G. R. Home and Higher Secondary School for the Speech and Hearing Impaired

Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute

Dr. MGR-Janaki College of Arts and Science for Women

Dr. Nawariyan

Dr. Patient

Dr. Radhakrishnan Nagar

Dracula 2012

Drago Štambuk

Dragon (Kalapugama short story)

Drama (2012 film)

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

Dravida Peravai

Dravidar Kazhagam

Dravidian Linguistics Association

Dravidian University

Dravidian folk religion

Dravidian languages

Dravidian parties

Dravidian people

Dravidian studies

Dravido-Korean languages

Dreamz

Drepanosticta adami

Drepanosticta austeni

Drepanosticta brincki

Drepanosticta digna

Drepanosticta fraseri

Drepanosticta hilaris

Drepanosticta lankanensis

Drepanosticta montana

Drepanosticta nietneri

Drepanosticta sinhalensis

Drepanosticta starmuehlneri

Drepanosticta submontana

Drepanosticta subtropica

Drepanosticta tropica

Drepanosticta walli

Drishtantham

Drishya

Drishyam

Driver Hanumanthu

Driving licence in Sri Lanka

Drona 2010

Dronamraju Satyanarayana

Drypetes sepiaria

Duarte de Eça

Dubai (2001 film)

Dubai Babu

Dudde Doddappa

Dude, Where's the Party?

Dudley Lincoln Steinwall

Dudley Senanayake

Dudley Senanayake Maha Vidyalaya

Dudley de Silva

Duggirala Gopalakrishnayya

Duhulu Malak

Duilong River

Duke and Sons

Duke's Lemonade

Duke's Mangola

Dukhan Ram

Dulalpur

Dulanga Lakmal

Dulani Anuradha

Dulanjana Mendis

Dulanjana Seneviratne

Dulash Udayanga

Duleeka Marapana

Duleep De Chickera

Duleep Mendis

Duleep Wijesekera

Dulhazra Safari Park

Dulip Gayan

Dulip Liyanage

Dulip Samaraweera

Dulith Herath

Dull-blue flycatcher

Dullas Alahapperuma

Dullewa

Dulmure

Dulwala

Dulwela

Dum (2016 film)

Dum Aloo

Dumbukola

Dumidu Hettiarachchi

Dumila Dedunu

Duminda Dissanayake

Duminda Perera

Duminda Silva

Duminda Wijeweera

Dumlong

Dumpa Mary Vijayakumari

Dunagaha

Duncan White

Dundicut

Dunesh Gankanda

Dunhinda Falls

Dunil Abeydeera

Duniya (2007 film)

Dunkumbura

Dunsinane Falls

Dunukaula

Dunukebedda

Dunukeula

Dunukewatta

Dunuwila

Dunuwila Megodagama

Duplicate (2009 film)

Durai (director)

Durai Chandrasekaran

Durai Govindarajan

Durai Murugan

Durai Ramasamy

Durai Vaiyapuri

Durai. Manivel

Duraiappa stadium mass grave

Durava

Durdans Hospital

Durgaastamana

Durgabai Deshmukh

Durgasimha

Durgi (film)

Durio ceylanicus

Durio rosayroanus

Duruwa language

Durvinita

Dushan Vimukthi

Dushmantha Chameera

Dushmantha Mithrapala

Dushy Ranetunge

Dushyanth Weeraman

Dusky leaf-nosed bat

Dusky palm squirrel

Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon

Dutch Burghers

Dutch Ceylon

Dutch East India Company coinage

Dutch Reformed Church, Kalpitiya

Dutch Reformed Church, Matara

Dutch–Portuguese War

Duttaphrynus atukoralei

Duttaphrynus kotagamai

Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Duttaphrynus noellerti

Duttaphrynus scaber

Dutugamunu

Duvindu Tillakaratne

Duvvuri Venkata Ramana Shastri

Duvvuru Ramireddy

Duwana Muwan

Duya, Mon

Dvora-class fast patrol boat

Dwarf gulper shark

Dwayne Bravo

Dweepa

Dwivedula Visalakshi

Dysoxylum

Dysoxylum championii

Kodava Maaple

The Kodava Maaple, also known as Jamma Maaple, is a Muslim community residing in Kodagu district of Karnataka in southern India. They are believed to be descendants of Kodavas who were forcibly converted to Islam (citation needed). during their captivity at Seringapatam in the late 18th century. They are Sunnis of the Shafi'i madhab, and contract marriage alliances with Mappilas and Bearys. They have maintained their original Kodava clan names and dress habits and speak Kodava takk, although now they do follow some Mappila and Beary customs also.

List of ethnic religions

Ethnic religions (also "indigenous religions") are generally defined as religions which are related to a particular ethnic group, and often seen as a defining part of that ethnicity's culture, language, and customs.

List of religions and spiritual traditions

While religion is hard to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz, who defined it as a

[…] system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic." A critique of Geertz's model by Talal Asad categorized religion as "an anthropological category." Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. They tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws, or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature. According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world.The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with "faith" or "belief system", but religion differs from private belief in that it has a public aspect. Most religions have organized behaviours, including clerical hierarchies, a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, congregations of laity, regular meetings or services for the purposes of veneration of a deity or for prayer, holy places (either natural or architectural) or religious texts. Certain religions also have a sacred language often used in liturgical services. The practice of a religion may also include sermons, commemoration of the activities of a god or gods, sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trance, rituals, rites, ceremonies, worship, initiations, funerals, marriages, meditation, invocation, mediumship, music, art, dance, public service or other aspects of human culture. Religious beliefs have also been used to explain parapsychological phenomena such as out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences and reincarnation, along with many other paranormal and supernatural experiences.Some academics studying the subject have divided religions into three broad categories: world religions, a term which refers to transcultural, international faiths; indigenous religions, which refers to smaller, culture-specific or nation-specific religious groups; and new religious movements, which refers to recently developed faiths. One modern academic theory of religion, social constructionism, says that religion is a modern concept that suggests all spiritual practice and worship follows a model similar to the Abrahamic religions as an orientation system that helps to interpret reality and define human beings, and thus religion, as a concept, has been applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures that are not based upon such systems, or in which these systems are a substantially simpler construct.

Malayali

The Malayali people (also spelt Malayalee) are a multi ethnic linguistic group originating from the present-day state of Kerala in India. They are identified as native speakers of the Malayalam language, which is classified as part of the Dravidian family of languages.

According to the Indian census of 2011, there are approximately 33 million Malayalis in Kerala, making up 96.7% of the total population of the state. Malayali minorities are also found in the neighboring state of Tamil Nadu, mainly in Kanyakumari district and also in other metropolitan areas of India. Over the course of the later half of the 20th century, significant Malayali communities have emerged in Persian Gulf countries, including the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and Kuwait, and to a lesser extent, other developed nations with a primarily immigrant background such as the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. As of 2013, there were an estimated 1.6 million ethnic Malayali expatriates worldwide. According to A. R. Raja Raja Varma, Malayalam was the name of the place, before it became the name of the language spoken by the people.

Proto-Dravidian language

Proto-Dravidian is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Dravidian languages. It is thought to have differentiated into Proto-North Dravidian, Proto-Central Dravidian, and Proto-South Dravidian, although the date of diversification is still debated.

Tamil language

Tamil (; தமிழ் Tamiḻ [t̪ɐmɨɻ], pronunciation ) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Douglas, and Chindians. Tamil is an official language of two countries: Sri Lanka and Singapore and official language of the Indian state Tamil Nadu. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry. It is used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English, Malay and Mandarin. Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Tamil is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. A. K. Ramanujan described it as "the only language of contemporary India which is recognizably continuous with a classical past." The variety and quality of classical Tamil literature has led to it being described as "one of the great classical traditions and literatures of the world".A recorded Tamil literature has been documented for over 2000 years. The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from ca. 300 BC – AD 300. It has the oldest extant literature among Dravidian languages. The earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and 'hero stones' date from around the 3rd century BC. More than 55% of the epigraphical inscriptions (about 55,000) found by the Archaeological Survey of India are in the Tamil language. Tamil language inscriptions written in Brahmi script have been discovered in Sri Lanka and on trade goods in Thailand and Egypt. The two earliest manuscripts from India, acknowledged and registered by the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997 and 2005, were written in Tamil.In 1578, Portuguese Christian missionaries published a Tamil prayer book in old Tamil script named Thambiran Vanakkam, thus making Tamil the first Indian language to be printed and published. The Tamil Lexicon, published by the University of Madras, was one of the earliest dictionaries published in the Indian languages. According to a 2001 survey, there were 1,863 newspapers published in Tamil, of which 353 were dailies.

Tamilakam

Tamilakam or Ancient Tamil country refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people. Tamilakam covered today's Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, Lakshadweep and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Traditional accounts and Tholkāppiyam referred these territories as a single cultural area, where Tamil was the natural language and culture of all people. The ancient Tamil country was divided into kingdoms. The best known among them were the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyans and Pallavas. During the Sangam period, Tamil culture began to spread outside Tamilakam. Ancient Tamil settlements were also found in Sri Lanka (Sri Lankan Tamils) and the Maldives (Giravarus).

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