Drakht-i Asurig

Draxt ī Āsūrīg (meaning "The Assyrian Tree" or "The Babylonian Tree") is a Parthian-language poem consisting of about 120 verses and written in Book Pahlavi script. The language shows influences from Middle Persian.[1] It is one of the oldest existing texts in Parthian language.

The poem is framed as a dialogue between a goat and a palm tree. At the end, the goat is proclaimed to be victorious. The Iranians may have adopted this genre from the oral traditions of ancient Mesopotamia.[1]

Some scholars consider the goat and the palm tree to be the symbols of Zoroastrianism and the Babylonian religion, or simply the pastoral life and agricultural life, respectively.[1]

The poem is also considered wisdom literature.[1]

A similar but less significant story, "The story of the vine and the ewe" (رز و میش raz o mīš), has been recorded in Persian literature.[1]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Ahmad Tafazzoli, "DRAXT Ī ĀSŪRĪG", Encyclopædia Iranica, December 15, 1995.
'Orfi Shirazi

His name is given as Jamāl-al-Din Moḥammad Sidi (or Sayyedi) in the early sources. He lived from 963 AH-999 AH; c. 1556-1590 CE; known by his pen-name Urfi, or Orfi or Urfi Shirazi (Persian: عرفی شیرازی‎), was a 16th-century Persian poet.He was born in Shiraz and in his youth, he migrated to India and became one of the poets of the court of Akbar the Great. He is one of the most prominent Persian poets of Indian style.

Abu-Shakur Balkhi

Abu Shakur Balkhi (Persian: ابوشکور بلخی‎) (born 915) was a Persian poet of the 10th century in Samanid era, an empire originating from Balkh.

He was a contemporary of Rudaki, and wrote three mathnavis, the work Āfarin nama (written in 944) among them. Only 192 scraps of his verses remain today.

Abu-al-Faraj Runi

Abul Faraj Runi (Persian: ابوالفرج رونی‎), born in Lahore, was an 11th-century Persian court poet who wrote Mathnavi. His family came from Nishapur in Khorasan.

He died at the turn of the 11th-12th century.

Abu Tahir Khosrovani

Abu Tahir Khosrovani (Persian: ابو طاهر خسروانی‎) was a 10th-century Persian who lived in the Samanid Empire. He was a native of Khorasan, and lived during the lifetime of the famous Persian poet Rudaki. Much of Khosrovani's poetry, however, has disappeared and only a few are in existence, which are quoted by several Persian poets such as Asadi Tusi. Khosrovani later died in 953.

Adib Sabir

Shihabuddin Sharaful-udaba Sabir, known as Adib Sabir, was a 12th-century royal poet of Persia. Originating from Termedh, he was employed in the court of Sultan Sanjar.

He is said to have also been used by the Sultan as a spy against the Sultan's enemies, who eventually drowned him in the Oxus in 1143 AD.

His Persian poetry writings are fluent and refined in style.

Alireza Koushk Jalali

Alireza Koushk Jalali (Persian: علیرضا کوشک جلالی‎; born March 21, 1958 in Tehran, Iran), is an Iranian theatre director and playwright. Currently he resides in Cologne, Germany, where he also made his first German production in 1986.


Shihabuddin Am'aq (Persian: عمعق‎) was a 12th-century Persian (Tajik) poet.

Originating from Bukhara, he was an imposing poet that carried the title amir al-shu'ara ("Amir of poets") in the Khaqanid courts. An excellent panegyrist and composer of elegies, he was praised by Anvari.

His mathnavi no longer exists, but it is said to have been written on the story of Yusof and Zoleikha (Joseph and Potiphar's wife).

It is said that he lived a long life of over 100 years and died in 1148 CE.


Abu Nazar Abdul Aziz ibn Mansur Asjadi was a 10th-century and 11th century royal Persian poet of Ghaznavid empire located in Ghazni province of current Afghanistan.

Originating from Merv, and in some accounts Herat, he was a follower of the panegyric school of poetry of Unsuri in Khorasan.

His Divan does not remain.

He died in 1040 CE.

Borzu Nama

The Borzu Nama (pronounced as Borzū-Nāma or Borzū-Nāme) (Persian: برزونامه‎) is a Persian epic poem of about 65,000 couplets recounting the exploits and adventures of the legendary hero Borzu, son of Sohrab and grandson of Rostam.

Dadestan-i Denig

Dādestān ī Dēnīg (IPA: [daːdestaːn iː deːniːɡ] "Religious Judgments") or Pursišn-Nāmag (IPA: [puɾsiʃnaːmaɡ] "Book of Questions") is a 9th-century Middle Persian work written by Manushchihr (Manūščihr), who was high priest of the Persian Zoroastrian community of Pārs and Kermān, son of Gušn-Jam and brother of Zadspram. The work consists of an introduction and ninety-two questions along with Manūščihr's answers. His questions varies from religious to social, ethical, legal, philosophical, cosmological, etc. The style of his work is abstruse, dense, and is heavily influenced by New Persian.

Esmail Khoi

Esmail Khoi (Persian: اسماعیل خویی‎; born in 1938 in Mashhad, Iran), is an Iranian poet, . He currently living in the United Kingdom after exile from Iran during the 1980s. Khoi was originally a lecturer in Philosophy before the Iranian Revolution.

Falaki Shirvani

Abu Nizam Muhammad Falaki Shirvani (1107 in Shamakhi – 1157 in Shamakhi) was a Persian poet from Shirvan (today in Azerbaijan). His contemporary and rival was the famous Khaqani Shirvani.

Kisai Marvazi

Abul Hasan Abu Ishaq Kisa'i Marvazi (953-1002) was a 10th Persian poet.

Born in 953 CE and originating from Merv, he paid flattery first and foremost to the courts of the Samanids, but also to the Abbasids and Ghaznavids, particularly Mahmud of Ghazni.

He is said to have later converted to Shia Islam.

Middle Persian literature

Middle Persian literature is the corpus of written works composed in Middle Persian, that is, the Middle Iranian dialect of Persia proper, the region in the south-western corner of the Iranian plateau. Middle Persian was the prestige dialect during the era of Sassanid dynasty.

The rulers of the Sassanid Empire (224–654 CE) were natives of that south-western region, and through their political and cultural influence, Middle Persian became a prestige dialect and thus also came to be used by non-Persian Iranians. Following the Arab conquest of the Sassanian Empire in the 7th century, shortly after which Middle Persian began to evolve into New Persian, Middle Persian continued to be used by the Zoroastrian priesthood for religious and secular compositions. These compositions, in the Aramaic-derived Book Pahlavi script, are traditionally known as "Pahlavi literature". The earliest texts in Zoroastrian Middle Persian were probably written down in late Sassanid times (6th–7th centuries), although they represent the codification of earlier oral tradition. However, most texts, including the zand commentaries and translations of the Zoroastrian canon, date from the 9th to the 11th century, when Middle Persian had long ceased to be a spoken language, so they reflect the state of affairs in living Middle Persian only indirectly. The surviving manuscripts are usually 14th-century copies.Other, less abundantly attested varieties of Middle Persian literature include the 'Manichaean Middle Persian' corpus, used for a sizable amount of Manichaean religious writings, including many theological texts, homilies and hymns (3rd–9th, possibly 13th century). Even less-well attested are the Middle Persian compositions of Nestorian Christians, evidenced in the Pahlavi Psalter (7th century); these were used until the beginning of the second millennium in many places in Central Asia, including Turfan (in present-day China) and even localities in Southern India.

Mohammad Ghazi (translator)

Mohammad Ghazi (Persian: محمد قاضی‎, Kurdish: محەممەد قازی‎; also Romanized as Muhammad Qazi) (August 3, 1913 in Mahabad, Iran – January 14, 1998 in Tehran) was a prolific, renowned Iranian translator and writer of Kurdish origin who translated numerous books mainly from French into Persian. He wrote/ translated nearly 70 books.

Ghazi studied literature at Darolfonoun, Tehran.

He died on January 14, 1998, in Day Hospital, Tehran, at the age of 85.

Naw'i Khabushani

Mohammad Reza Khabushani also known as Naw'i Khabushani (1563-1610) was a Persian Poet of 16th and early 17th centuries. He was born in Khabushan, a city between Quchan and Nishapur in Khurasan Persia. He migrated to India and spent rest of his life and served Akbar, King of Mughal Empire and his son, Daniyal Mirza and he returned to Iran once before his permanent

inhabitancy in India. He was pupil of Muhtasham Kashani.he has poems in various in various Poetry Forms such as Ghazal, Mathnawi and Qasida. his famous work is Suz o godāz (Burning and Melting). Moreover, he has another poetry book which its name is divān of Nawʿi.

Nosrat Rahmani

Nosrat Rahmani (نصرت رحمانی; in Persian; (March 1, 1930 – June 16, 2000) was an Iranian poet and writer .

Zu'l-Fiqar Shirvani

Zu'l Fiqar Shirvani (died c. 1291) was a Persian poet of the Ilkhanid-era. His divan consists of 9,000 verses. Mohammad Dabirsiaqi / Encyclopædia Iranica notes that "he was generally recognized as a master of versification".

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