Downtown Los Angeles

Downtown Los Angeles (DTLA) is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found that the district is home to over 500,000 jobs.[2] It is also part of Central Los Angeles.

Downtown Los Angeles is divided into neighborhoods and districts, some overlapping. Most districts are named for the activities concentrated there now or historically, e.g. the Arts, Civic Center, Fashion, Banking, Theater, Toy, and Jewelry districts. It is the hub for the city's urban rail transit system and the Metrolink commuter rail system for Southern California.

Banks, department stores, and movie palaces at one time drew residents and visitors of all socioeconomic classes downtown, but the area declined economically especially after the 1950s. It remained an important center — in the Civic Center, of government business; on Bunker Hill, of banking, and along Broadway, of retail and entertainment for Hispanic Angelenos, especially immigrants. Now Downtown has been experiencing a renaissance that started in the early 2000s. The Staples Center anchors downtown's south end, and along Broadway, pre-war buildings are being restored for new uses, such as a luxury condos, co-working spaces, and a new Apple Store in the grand Los Angeles Theatre.

Downtown Los Angeles
Los Angeles, Winter 2016
L.A Financial district
Artist District, Los Angeles, California, 05-29-2001
JewelryDistLA-042801
Los Angeles City Hall 2013
Clockwise, from top: Skyline from the southwest, the Arts District, City Hall, the Jewelry District and the Financial District in 2001
Nicknames: 
"Downtown L.A.", "DTLA",[1] "Downtown"
Freeway map of the Los Angeles area showing Downtown LA
Freeway map of the Los Angeles area showing Downtown LA
Downtown map as delineated by the Los Angeles Times
Downtown map as delineated by the Los Angeles Times
Coordinates: 34°03′25″N 118°14′17″W / 34.057°N 118.238°W
Country United States of America
State California
County Los Angeles
City Los Angeles
Downtown districts

History

Early-years

The earliest known settlements in the area of what is now Downtown Los Angeles was by the Tongva, a Native American people. Later European settlement arrived after Father Juan Crespí, a Spanish missionary charged with exploring sites for Catholic missions in California, noted in 1769 that the region had "all the requisites for a large settlement".[3] On September 4, 1781, the city was founded by a group of settlers who trekked north from present-day Mexico.

Land speculation increased in the 1880s, which saw the population of the city explode from 11,000 in 1880 to nearly 100,000 by 1896.[4] Infrastructure enhancements and the laying of a street grid eventually brought development south of the Plaza: in the 1800s and 1890s along Main and Spring streets – all of which was razed to make way for today's Civic Center – and after 1900 along Broadway and Spring in what is now called the Historic Core.

Downtown's golden age

By 1920, the city's private and municipal rail lines were the most far-flung and most comprehensive in the world in mileage, even besting that of New York City. By this time, a steady influx of residents and aggressive land developers had transformed the city into a large metropolitan area, with DTLA at its center. Rail lines connected four counties with over 1,100 miles (1,800 km) of track.[5]

During the early part of the 20th century, banking institutions clustered around South Spring Street, forming the Spring Street Financial District. Sometimes referred to as the "Wall Street of the West,"[6] the district held corporate headquarters for financial institutions including Bank of America, Farmers and Merchants Bank, the Crocker National Bank, California Bank & Trust, and International Savings & Exchange Bank. The Los Angeles Stock Exchange was also located on the corridor from 1929 until 1986 before moving into a new building across the Harbor (110) Freeway.[7]

Commercial growth brought with it hotel construction—during this time period several grand hotels, the Alexandria (1906), the Rosslyn (1911), and the Biltmore (1923), were erected — and also the need for venues to entertain the growing population of Los Angeles. Broadway became the nightlife, shopping and entertainment district of the city, with over a dozen theater and movie palaces built before 1932.

Department stores, most that had grown from local dry goods businesses, moved from Spring and Main streets around Temple and 1st, to much larger stores along Broadway, including The Broadway, Hamburger's, which became May Co., Robinson's, Bullock's, Coulter's, Desmond's, Silverwoods, Harris & Frank, and the Fifth Street Store/Walker's, serving a variety of socioeconomic groups from across the city and suburbs. All but Coulter's would, in the 1920s–1950s, launch branches dotting shopping centers across a growing Southern California. Numerous specialty stores also flourished including those in the jewelry business which gave rise to the Downtown Jewelry District. Among these early jewelers included the Laykin Diamond Company (later becoming Laykin et Cie [8]) and Harry Winston & Co., both of which found their beginnings in the Hotel Alexandria at Fifth and Spring streets.

The Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal (Union Station) opened in May 1939, unifying passenger service among various local, regional, and long-distance passenger trains. It was built on a grand scale and would be one of the "last of the great railway stations" built in the United States.

Decline and redevelopment

Angels flight los angeles
Angels Flight, November 2008

Following World War II, suburbanization, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, and increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Many corporate headquarters slowly dispersed to new suburbs or fell to mergers and acquisitions. As early as the 1920s once-stately Victorian mansions on Bunker Hill were dilapidated, serving as rooming houses for 20,000 working-class Angelenos.[8]

From about 1930 onward, numerous more-than-100-year-old buildings in the Plaza area were demolished to make way for street-level parking lots, the high demand for parking making this more profitable than any other options allowing preservation. The drastic loss of local downtown residents further reduced the viability of streetfront, pedestrian-oriented businesses. For middle- and upper-income Angelenos, downtown became a drive-in, drive-out destination.

In an effort to combat blight and lure businesses back downtown, the city's Community Redevelopment Agency undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project in 1955, a massive clearance project that leveled homes and cleared land for future commercial skyscraper development. This period saw the clearing and upzoning of the entire neighborhood, as well as the shuttering of the Angels Flight funicular railway in 1969. Angels Flight resumed operation in 1996 for a period of five years, shutting down once again after a fatal accident in 2001. On March 15, 2010, the railway once again opened for passenger service following extensive upgrades to brake and safety systems.

With Class A office space becoming available on Bunker Hill, many of DTLA's remaining financial corporations moved to the newer buildings, leaving the former Spring Street Financial District devoid of tenants above ground floor. Following the corporate headquarters' moving six blocks west, the large department stores on Broadway shuttered, culminating in the 1980s.

However, the Broadway theaters saw much use as Spanish-language movie houses during this time, beginning with the conversion of the Million Dollar Theater in the 1950s to a Spanish-language theater.[9]

Recent years

Wilshire Grand
The Wilshire Grand Center in Downtown LA is the tallest building in the U.S. west of the Mississippi River at (1,099 feet or 335 meters). It is also currently the tallest building in the state of California.
Los-Angeles-Civic-Center-and-Union-Station-Aerial-view-from-south-August-2014
Aerial view in 2014

In mid-2013, downtown was noted as "a neighborhood with an increasingly hip and well-heeled residential population".[10]

Because of the downtown area's office market's migration west to Bunker Hill and the Financial District, many historic office buildings have been left intact, simply used for storage or remaining empty during recent decades. In 1999, the Los Angeles City Council passed an adaptive reuse ordinance, making it easier for developers to convert outmoded, vacant office and commercial buildings into renovated lofts and luxury apartment and condo complexes.

As of early 2009, 14,561 residential units[11] have been created under the adaptive reuse ordinance, leading to an increase in the residential population. With 28,878 residents in 2006[12] and 39,537 in 2008,[13] a 36.9% increase, Downtown Los Angeles is seeing new life and investment.[14]

  • Staples Center, which opened in 1999, has contributed immensely to the revitalization plans, adding 250 events and nearly 4 million visitors per year to the neighborhood.[15] Since the opening of the Staples Center, the adjacent L.A. Live complex was completed, which includes the Microsoft Theatre and the Grammy Museum.
  • Los Angeles Metro Rail, a rail transit network centered on the downtown area, facilitates access to the city center, especially from the congested West Side.
  • Real estate developers and investors planned a $1.8 billion revitalization project along Grand Avenue, which included the development of Grand Park, a large city park,[16] and the construction of major city landmarks, including the Frank Gehry-designed Walt Disney Concert Hall and contemporary art museum The Broad, which opened in 2015.
  • On August 7, 2007, the Los Angeles City Council approved sweeping changes in zoning and development rules for the downtown area.[17] Strongly advocated by Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, the changes allow larger and denser developments downtown; developers who reserve 15% of their units for low-income residents are now exempt from some open-space requirements and can make their buildings 35% larger than current zoning codes allow.[17]
  • In 2009 Bottega Louie opened on the first floor of the historic Brockman Building on Grand Avenue and Seventh Street. It contributed to the revitalization of DTLA by creating Restaurant Row, which has since brought numerous new restaurants and retail shops to the area.[18] In 2012, the upper 11 floors of the Brockman Building were bought with the intention of being sold as luxury lofts.[19]
  • In October 2015, an outdoor lifestyle center, The Bloc Los Angeles, replaced the old enclosed Macy's Plaza.
  • Several labels of Warner Music moved into the Los Angeles Arts District in 2019 where the company had purchased a former Ford Motor Company assembly plant.[20]
  • Broadway retail is transitioning from a broad mix of stores catering mostly to Hispanic immigrants and a burgeoning sneaker and streetwear retail cluster has emerged from 4th to 9th streets: Sneaker Row.[21]

Multiple Olympic and Paralympic events will be held in DTLA during the 2028 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.[22][23]

Geography

Downtown skyline during sunset as seen from Griffith Observatory, October 2006.
Downtown skyline during sunset as seen from Griffith Observatory, October 2006.

Downtown Los Angeles is flanked by Echo Park to the north and northwest, Chinatown to the northeast, Boyle Heights to the east, Vernon to the south, Historic South Central and University Park to the southwest, and Pico-Union and Westlake to the west.[24][25][26]

Downtown is bounded on the northeast by Cesar Chavez Avenue, on the east by the Los Angeles River, on the south by the Los Angeles city line with Vernon, on the southwest by East Washington Boulevard and on the west by the 110 Freeway or Beaudry Avenue, including the entire Four Level Interchange with the 101 Freeway.[25][26]

Districts

Within the neighborhood are included these smaller areas:

Population

Downtown Los Angeles at Night
Downtown Los Angeles at night
OrpheumTheatreMarquee
The Orpheum Theatre, 2007
St Vincent Court - Downtown Los Angeles 03
St Vincent Court in 2017. European-style decorations date to 1957.

The 2000 U.S. census found that just 27,849 residents lived in the 5.84 square miles of downtown—or 4,770 people per square mile, among the lowest densities for the city of Los Angeles but about average for the county. The Southern California Association of Governments estimates that downtown's daytime population is 207,440.[28] The population increased to 34,811 by 2008, according to city estimates. As of 2014, the population of the district had grown to 52,400 residents, and 5200 residential units were under construction.[29] The median age for residents was 39, considered old for the city and the county.[25]

Downtown Los Angeles is almost evenly balanced among the four major racial and ethnic groups — Asian Americans (23%), African Americans (22%), Latinos (25%) and non-Hispanic whites (26%) — according to an analysis of 2010 census data made by Loyola Marymount University researchers.[30]

A study of the 2000 census showed that downtown was the second–most diverse neighborhood in Los Angeles, its diversity index being 0.743, outrated only by Mid-Wilshire.[31] The ethnic breakdown in 2000 was Latinos, 36.7%; blacks, 22.3%; Asians, 21.3%; whites, 16.2%, and others, 3.5%. Mexico (44.7%) and Korea (17%) were the most common places of birth for the 41.9% of the residents who were born abroad, about the same ratio as in the city as a whole.[25]

The median household income in 2008 dollars was $15,003, considered low for both the city and the county. The percentage of households earning $20,000 or less (57.4%) was the highest in Los Angeles County, followed by University Park (56.6%) and Chinatown (53.6%). The average household size of 1.6 people was relatively low. Renters occupied 93.4% of the housing units, and home or apartment owners the rest.[25][32]

In 2000, there were 2,400 military veterans living downtown, or 9.7% of the population, considered a high rate for the city but average for the county overall.[25]

In 2013, a study by Downtown Center Business Improvement District showed that of the 52,400 people resided in Downtown Los Angeles. The demographic breakdown was 52.7% Caucasian, 20.1% Asian, 17.0% Latino, and 6.2% African-American; 52.9% female, 47.1% male; and 74.8% of residents were between the ages of 23-44.The median age for residents was 34. The median household income was $98,700. The median household size was 1.8. In terms of educational attainment, 80.1% of residents had completed at least 4 years of college. The study was a self-selecting sample of 8,841 respondents across the DTLA area. It was not a "census" but rather a comprehensive survey of Downtown LA consumers.[33]

An additional study by the Downtown Center Business Improvement District showed that by 2017 the population has reached 67,324 [34]

Public transportation

Local and regional service

Los Angeles County Metro Rail and Metro Liner map
Current Los Angeles Metro Rail map showing rail and rapid transit lines

Downtown Los Angeles is the center of the region's growing rail transit system, with six commuter lines operated by Metrolink, as well as five rapid-transit rail lines and local and regional bus service operated by Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro).

Major Metro stations in the district include Los Angeles Union Station, Civic Center/Grand Park station, Pershing Square station, 7th Street/Metro Center station, Pico station, and Little Tokyo/Arts District station.

Amtrak

Union-Station-LA-Waiting-Ro
Los Angeles Union Station main passenger concourse

Amtrak operates intercity passenger train service on five routes through Los Angeles Union Station: the Coast Starlight, Pacific Surfliner, Southwest Chief, Sunset Limited, and Texas Eagle.

Greyhound

Greyhound Lines operates a major bus terminal in Downtown Los Angeles at the intersection of Seventh and Alameda streets.[39]

Service to Los Angeles International Airport

Los Angeles World Airports operates a direct shuttle every 30–60 minutes between Union Station and Los Angeles International Airport.[40]

Transit expansion

Parks and open space

Pershing square los angeles concert series
Pershing Square during the park's Summer Concert Series

Downtown Los Angeles is home to several public parks, plazas, gardens and other open space:

Several future park proposals for the district make use of public-private partnerships between developers and the city of Los Angeles, including a public park at the proposed Nikkei Center development in Little Tokyo;[48] a 1-acre (4,000 m2) park at the Medallion development in the Historic Core; and a pocket park at the Wilshire Grand Hotel replacement project, currently under construction.[49]

Additionally, the city recently completed a new park located on the 400 block of South Spring Street in the Historic Core neighborhood.[50]

Skyline

Los Angeles Skyline
The modern skyline of Los Angeles resulted from the termination of severe height restrictions in 1957

Despite its relative decentralization and comparatively new high-rises (until 1958, the city did not permit any structures taller than the 27-story City Hall building [51]), Los Angeles has one of the largest skylines in the United States, and its development has continued in recent years.

The skyline has seen rapid growth due to improvements in seismic design standards, which has made certain building types highly earthquake-resistant. Many of the new skyscrapers contain a housing or hotel component.

Some current and upcoming examples of skyscraper construction include:

  • 705 Ninth Street, a 35-story residential tower, was completed in 2009.[52]
  • 717 Olympic, a 26-story residential tower, was completed in mid-2008.[53]
  • 888 Olive, a 32-story apartment tower by Vancouver-based Omni Group, opened in 2015.[54]
  • Concerto, a 28-story residential tower, was completed in early 2009. A second phase (Tower II) is currently under construction.
  • The Grand Avenue Project, designed by architect Frank Gehry, is a multi-phase project on four parcels and will include a 39-story hotel tower at the corner of First Street and Grand Avenue and a civic park.[55] The project has been delayed due to funding issues but is now back on track and progressing.[56][57]
  • L.A. Live, a multi-phased dining, entertainment and hotel development that includes a Ritz-Carlton and JW Marriott Hotel hybrid as well as Ritz-Carlton-branded condominiums, was completed in February, 2010.[58]
  • Marriott International completed a 24-story Courtyard and Residence Inn tower near L.A. Live, which opened in July 2014, and plans to build a 20+ story Renaissance hotel to open in 2016.[59][60]
  • Metropolis, a mixed-use four-tower project (60, 50, 38, and 19 stories) at Francisco and Ninth streets, is currently under construction.[61]
  • South, a three-tower complex called Elleven, Luma, and Evo, spans the block from 11th Street and Grand Avenue to 12th Street and Grand Avenue, and was completed in phases ending in early 2009.
  • The Wilshire Grand Tower redevelopment, a 900-room hotel and office project built in 2017, is the tallest tower west of the Mississippi River, at 1,100 feet (340 m).[62]
  • Figueroa Centre, a 975-foot residential and hotel tower proposed across from The Original Pantry restaurant on the Figueroa Corridor. The tower proposed will become the third tallest building in Los Angeles when completed.
  • Angels Landing, a proposed super tall tower at 1020 ft. Currently in the funding stage. Approved by the city council in 2017.

Building height limits: 1904-1957

LA Eastern Columbia Building
The Eastern Columbia Building: the Entrance to the Historic Core and the "Jewel of Downtown"

The first height limit ordinance in Los Angeles was enacted following the completion of the 13-story Continental Building, located at the southeast corner of Fourth and Spring streets. The purpose of the height limit was to limit the density of the city. There was great hostility to skyscrapers in many cities in these years, mainly due to the congestion they could bring to the streets, and height limit ordinances were a common way of dealing with the problem. In 1911, the city passed an updated height limit ordinance, establishing a specific limit of 150 feet (46 m). Exceptions were granted for decorative towers such as those later built on the Eastern Columbia Building and United Artists Theatre, as well as the now-demolished Richfield Tower.[63]

The 1911 ordinance was repealed in 1957. The first private building to exceed the old limit was the 18-story United California Bank Building, located at the southeast corner of Sixth and Spring streets.

Flat Roof Ordinance

The pattern of buildings in Los Angeles to feature these "flat roofs" was the result of a 1974 fire ordinance which required all tall buildings in the city to include rooftop helipads in response to the devastating 1974 Joelma Fire in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in which helicopters were used to affect rescues from the flat rooftop of the building.[64] The Wilshire Grand Center was the first building granted an exception by the Los Angeles City Fire Department in 2014. However, as the building was under construction, L.A. City Council removed the flat roof ordinance as of 2015.[65]

Government and infrastructure

Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, Los Angeles
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, Los Angeles Branch. This building is now loft apartments.

The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Central Health Center in Downtown Los Angeles.[66]

The Southern California Liaison of the California Department of Education has its office in the Ronald Reagan State Building in Downtown Los Angeles.[67]

The Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, Los Angeles Branch is located in Downtown Los Angeles.[68]

Economy

DTLA is a node in the tech economy that extends beyond Silicon Beach. A venture capital firm counted 78 tech-oriented firms in DTLA in 2015. This included mobile apps, hardware, digital media and clean-tech companies plus co-working spaces, start-up incubators, and other related businesses.[69]

The Arts District has become a popular spot for companies seeking out something different than typical modern offices. The central location is accessible from various parts of the Los Angeles Basin. The cultural life has also made the area attractive to young tech employees.[69]

Anschutz Entertainment Group has its corporate headquarters in Downtown Los Angeles.[70]

BYD Company, a Chinese technology firm, has its North American headquarters in Downtown Los Angeles.[71]

Cathay Bank has its headquarters in the Los Angeles Chinatown.[72]

Education

ColburnSchoolFront
Colburn School on Grand Boulevard
Central LA High School for the Visual and Performing Arts
Ramon C. Cortines High School for the Visual and Performing Arts

Downtown residents aged 25 and older holding a four-year degree amounted to 17.9% of the population in 2000, about average in the city and the county, but there was a high percentage of residents with less than a high school diploma.[25]

These are the elementary or secondary schools within the neighborhood's boundaries:[73]

The Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising is at 800 S. Hope St.,[26][74] and the Colburn School for music and the performing arts is at 200 S. Grand Ave.[75]

Emergency services

Hospitals

Dignity Health-California Hospital Medical Center is located in the South Park district of Downtown LA at 1401 S. Grand Ave. The 318-bed community hospital has been providing high-quality care to residents of the district and its neighboring communities for over 126 years. Dignity Health-California Hospital Medical Center is known for its wide range of medical services, from women's health and maternal child to orthopedics and cardiology. The hospital also operates the only Level II Trauma Center in Downtown Los Angeles, and its emergency room treats over 70,000 patients each year. The hospital's neighbors include Staples Center, L.A. Live, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising and the Fashion District.

Fire services

City hall triforium
The Triforium sculpture with Los Angeles City Hall in the background

The Los Angeles Fire Department operates the following fire stations in Downtown Los Angeles:

Police services

The Los Angeles Police Department operates the Central Area Community Police Station in Downtown Los Angeles.[76]

Downtown LA panorama 2013
Downtown Los Angeles panorama, with San Gabriel Mountains as backdrop, 2013

See also

References

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External links

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1st Street, Los Angeles

1st Street is an east–west thoroughfare in Los Angeles and Monterey Park, California. It serves as a postal divider between north and south and is one of a few streets to run across the Los Angeles River. Though it serves as a major road east of downtown Los Angeles, it is a mostly residential street to the west.

For over a mile between Hoover Street and Glendale Boulevard, 1st Street is synonymous with Beverly Boulevard.

7th Street/Metro Center station

7th Street/Metro Center, officially 7th Street/Metro Center/Julian Dixon, is a metro station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system located in the Financial District of Downtown Los Angeles at the intersection of 7th Street and Flower Street.The station is served by the light rail Blue Line and Expo Line, heavy rail Red Line and Purple Line, and by the bus rapid transit Silver Line. The Blue Line and Expo Line currently have their downtown terminus at this station. Many bus routes also serve the station.

This is one of only two stations in the entire system that has an underground side platform, the other being the Wilshire/Vermont station.

Ace Hotel Los Angeles

Ace Hotel Downtown Los Angeles, originally built as the United Artists Building and later known as the Texaco Building, is a 243 ft (74 m), 13-story highrise hotel and theater building located at 937 South Broadway in downtown Los Angeles, California. It was the tallest building in the city for one year after its completion in 1927, and was the tallest privately owned structure in Los Angeles until 1956. Its style is Spanish Gothic, patterned after Segovia Cathedral in Segovia, Spain.

The building contains the historic United Artists Theater, the flagship theater built for the United Artists motion picture studio. The theater was later used as a church by pastors Gene Scott and his widow Melissa Scott under the name "Los Angeles University Cathedral". In October 2011, Scott's Wescott Christian Center Inc. sold the building to Greenfield Partners, a real estate investment company located in Westport, Connecticut, for $11 million. It was converted to a hotel, and opened in 2014. The hotel is part of the Ace Hotels chain.

FIGat7th

FIGat7th (formally 7+Fig Shopping Center) is an open-air shopping mall located in the Financial District of Downtown Los Angeles. It is nestled between two office skyscrapers, 777 Tower and Ernst & Young Plaza. Some of its current retailers include Target, Starbucks Coffee, Morton's Steakhouse, Victoria's Secret, and California Pizza Kitchen. There are also weekly and monthly events hosted by the mall, such as a farmer's market and art exhibitions.

The mall primarily catered to office workers in Downtown Los Angeles. With the rapid growth of the area's population, however, the mall has started to reposition itself to better serve the needs of the residential community.

Grand Park

Grand Park is a 12-acre (4.9 ha) park located in the civic center of Los Angeles, California. It is part of the larger Grand Avenue Project, with its first phase having opened in July 2012. Grand Park is part of a joint venture by the city of Los Angeles and Los Angeles County. It was designed and built by the Los-Angeles-based multidisciplinary design firm Rios Clementi Hale Studios. Park programming and entertainment, security and upkeep are maintained by the nearby Los Angeles Music Center.Grand Park stretches between the Los Angeles City Hall and the Los Angeles Music Center on Grand Avenue. It is designed to be pedestrian friendly and connects Bunker Hill to the civic center. The park plans include tree-shaded sidewalks, drought-tolerant plants, an interactive fountain plaza, performance lawns and courtyards, plenty of street lights, movable park furniture, and kiosks to encourage the walking and exploration of the area. City officials and some visitors have compared Grand Park to other well-established urban parks such as New York's Central Park or San Francisco's Union Square.Prior to the creation of Grand Park, the area was already a public space with plazas, fountains and a Court of Flags.

List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in Downtown Los Angeles

Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments (LAHCMs) in Downtown Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California are designated by the City's Cultural Heritage Commission.

There are more than 120 LAHCMs in the downtown area. These include the Old Plaza Historic District, Little Tokyo, Chinatown, the Broadway Theater District, the Spring Street Financial District, and the Fashion District.

Los Angeles City Hall

Los Angeles City Hall, completed in 1928, is the center of the government of the city of Los Angeles, California, and houses the mayor's office and the meeting chambers and offices of the Los Angeles City Council. It is located in the Civic Center district of downtown Los Angeles in the city block bounded by Main, Temple, First, and Spring streets.

Los Angeles Convention Center

The Los Angeles Convention Center is a convention center in the southwest section of downtown Los Angeles. It hosts multiple annual conventions and has often been used as a filming location in TV shows and movies (notably as a spaceport for Starship Troopers and used for the climactic fight scene in Rush Hour).

Los Angeles Music Center

The Music Center (officially named the Performing Arts Center of Los Angeles County) is one of the largest performing arts centers in the United States. Located in downtown Los Angeles, The Music Center is home to the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Ahmanson Theater, Mark Taper Forum, Roy and Edna Disney / CalArts Theatre, and Walt Disney Concert Hall. Each year, The Music Center welcomes more than 1.3 million people to performances by its four internationally renowned resident companies: Los Angeles Philharmonic, Los Angeles Opera, Los Angeles Master Chorale, and Center Theatre Group (CTG) as well as performances by the dance series Glorya Kaufman Presents Dance at The Music Center. The center is home to on-going community events, arts festivals, outdoor concerts, participatory arts activities and workshops, and educational programs.

Mark Taper Forum

The Mark Taper Forum is a 739-seat thrust stage at the Los Angeles Music Center designed by Welton Becket and Associates on the Bunker Hill section of Downtown Los Angeles. Named for real estate developer Mark Taper, the Forum, the neighboring Ahmanson Theatre and the Kirk Douglas Theatre are all operated by the Center Theatre Group.

Microsoft Theater

The Microsoft Theater (formerly Nokia Theatre L.A. Live) is a music and theater venue in downtown Los Angeles, California, at L.A. Live. The theater auditorium seats 7,100 and holds one of the largest indoor stages in the United States.

Olympic Boulevard (Los Angeles)

Olympic Boulevard (formerly 10th Street) is a major arterial road in Los Angeles, California. It stretches from Ocean Avenue on the western end of Santa Monica to East Los Angeles—farther than Wilshire Boulevard and most other streets.

Its path runs parallel to and north of Pico Boulevard from Santa Monica to Downtown Los Angeles, and parallel to and south of Santa Monica Boulevard on its western end and Wilshire Boulevard past Beverly Hills.

Like other major Los Angeles streets, Olympic is at least four lanes in width. Unlike other east-west arterial roads such as Wilshire Boulevard, Santa Monica Boulevard, and Sunset Boulevard, it does not cross major attractions and sites and therefore contains far less traffic. While Wilshire crosses through the heart of Los Angeles, Olympic runs through the southern end of principal areas such as West Los Angeles, Westwood, Century City, Beverly Hills, Hancock Park, Koreatown, Westlake and Downtown Los Angeles. Little Ethiopia is east of Fairfax Avenue and Olympic. Proceeding east on Olympic, it breaks off in Downtown LA's Fashion District but continues on from there, passing the southern areas of Boyle Heights, East Los Angeles and Montebello with an eastern terminus in Montebello as a small neighborhood street.

Olympic Boulevard is primarily a commercial, urban street. There is a grass divider with trees in the Santa Monica portion. Around Carthay, Olympic passes through residential neighborhoods. A number of schools are located on Olympic as well. Crossroads School is located at Olympic and 20th in Santa Monica, New Roads Middle School is located at the Franklin/Berkeley St. area in Santa Monica. and Wildwood School is located in between Bundy and Barrington. Los Angeles High School is located slightly to the east of Olympic and Highland Avenue.

Olympic expands to six lanes starting east of Santa Monica and generally maintains a speed limit of 45 miles per hour (72 km/h). Even so, due to Los Angeles traffic, Olympic often becomes congested.

It was originally named 10th Street, but was renamed Olympic Boulevard for the 1932 Summer Olympics, as that was the occasion of the tenth modern event. Tenth Street School, at Olympic and Grattan, was founded in 1888 and has kept the original name. Parts of the old 10th Street exist as smaller streets near Hancock Park, in Westlake, and in the Central City East area southeast of Downtown.

Pico station

Pico is an at-grade light rail station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located in the South Park neighborhood of Downtown Los Angeles, on Flower Street and Pico Boulevard. The station is served by the Metro Blue Line and the Metro Expo Line. The Metro Silver Line buses heading northbound to El Monte Station stop one block west of the station at Figueroa Street and Pico Boulevard. Southbound Silver Line buses heading to Harbor Gateway Transit Center stop at Flower St./Pico Blvd.

The full (official) station name is Pico/Chick Hearn. This name memorializes sportscaster Francis Dayle "Chick" Hearn (1916–2002), longtime play-by-play announcer for the Los Angeles Lakers. On April 13, 2016, the station was temporarily renamed "Kobe" to commemorate professional basketball player Kobe Bryant's last game. Since then, the station is listed on Metro maps as "Pico Station" only.

San Pedro Street

San Pedro Street is a major north-south thoroughfare in Los Angeles, California, running from Little Tokyo in Downtown Los Angeles to West Rancho Dominguez.

San Pedro Street was one of the earliest roadways, along with Alameda Street, between central Los Angeles and the Port of Los Angeles; much of the road's original alignment south of Jefferson Boulevard has been renamed Avalon Boulevard.

The portion of San Pedro Street north of 1st Street was renamed Judge John Aiso Street in 1999.

Skid Row, Los Angeles

Skid Row is an area of Downtown Los Angeles. As of the 2000 census, the population of the district was 17,740. Skid Row was defined in a decision in Jones v. City of Los Angeles as the area east of Main Street, south of Third Street, west of Alameda Street, and north of Seventh Street. Skid Row contains one of the largest stable populations (between 5,000 and 8,000) of homeless people in the United States.

South Park (Downtown Los Angeles)

South Park is a commercial district in southwestern Downtown Los Angeles, California. It is the location of the Los Angeles Convention Center, the Staples Center, and the "L.A. Live" entertainment complex.

"The District includes all property within a boundary that begins on the north at 9th Street and the 110 Freeway and runs east to Flower Street then south to Olympic Boulevard, east on Olympic Boulevard to mid-block across Hill Street then south to 11th Street then east to mid-block across Broadway forming the northern boundary. From there the eastern boundary runs south across 12th Street, past Pico Boulevard, past 14th Street, past 15th Street, across Venice Boulevard to the centerline of 17th Street. From there the southern boundary runs west along 17th Street/Santa Monica (10) Freeway across Broadway, past Hill Street, past Olive Street, past Grand Avenue, past Hope Street, past Flower Street, across Figueroa Street to behind the Convention Center along Convention Center Drive. From there the western boundary runs north along L.A. Live Way (Cherry Street) across Pico Boulevard, past 12th Street, past Chick Hearn Court (11th Street) across Olympic Boulevard to 9th Street and the Harbor (110) Freeway." Bordering the district are Pico-Union on the west, West Adams on the southwest, South Los Angeles district on the southeast, the Warehouse District on the southeast, and the Financial District on the northeast. Major thoroughfares include Venice, Pico and Olympic Boulevards, Grand Avenue, and Figueroa Street. The Blue Line light rail line and Expo Line light rail line stop in the district at the Pico/Chick Hearn station.

At the beginning of the 21st century the area began to rapidly transform with infill development. Luxury apartments and condominiums with ground floor retail began construction in the 2000s. The district's proximity to the University of Southern California, as well as the Blue Line and Expo Line light rail lines, have made it an attractive area for young professionals. As with many neighborhood transformations, this change in demographics has a few concerned about displacement and gentrification issues.

Staples Center

Staples Center, officially stylized as STAPLES Center, is a multi-purpose arena in Downtown Los Angeles. Adjacent to the L.A. Live development, it is located next to the Los Angeles Convention Center complex along Figueroa Street. The arena opened on October 17, 1999.

It is owned and operated by the Arturo L.A. Arena Company and Anschutz Entertainment Group. The arena is home to the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League (NHL), the Los Angeles Lakers and the Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). The Los Angeles Avengers of the Arena Football League (AFL) and the Los Angeles D-Fenders of the NBA D-League were also tenants; the Avengers were folded in 2009, and the D-Fenders moved to the Lakers' practice facility at the Toyota Sports Center in El Segundo, California for the 2011–12 season. Staples Center is also host to over 250 events and nearly 4 million guests each year. It is the only arena in the NBA shared by two teams, as well as one of only two North American professional sports venues to host two teams from the same league; MetLife Stadium, the home of the National Football League's New York Giants and New York Jets, is the other. Staples Center is the venue of the Grammy Awards ceremony and will host the basketball competition during the 2028 Summer Olympics.

The Bloc Los Angeles

The Bloc, formerly Macy's Plaza and Broadway Plaza, is an open-air plaza in downtown Los Angeles at 700 South Flower Street, in the Financial District. Its tenants include the downtown Los Angeles Macy's store, LA Fitness, Nordstrom Local, UNIQLO and the Sheraton Grand Los Angeles hotel. The plaza has its own access

to the LA Metro at the 7th Street/Metro Center station.

Wilshire Grand Center

Wilshire Grand Center is a 1,100-foot (335.3 m) skyscraper in the Financial District of Downtown Los Angeles, California, occupying the entire city block between Wilshire Blvd. and 7th, Figueroa and Francisco streets. It is the tallest building in Los Angeles, the tallest building in California, the tallest building west of the Mississippi River and outside of New York City, Chicago, and Philadelphia, and the 11th tallest building in the United States. Its height surpasses the U.S. Bank Tower by 82 ft (25 m). The building is part of a mixed-use hotel, retail, observation decks, shopping mall, and office complex, expected to revitalize downtown Los Angeles and the area surrounding the building. The development of the complex is estimated to cost $1.2 billion. The plans include 67,000 square feet (6,225 m2) of retail, 677,000 square feet (62,895 m2) of Class A office space and 900 hotel rooms. InterContinental is the tower's hotel component, comprising 900 rooms and suites.

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