The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major sectors: upstream, midstream, and downstream. The downstream sector is the refining of petroleum crude oil and the processing and purifying of raw natural gas, as well as the marketing and distribution of products derived from crude oil and natural gas. The downstream sector reaches consumers through products such as gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil, heating oil, fuel oils, lubricants, waxes, asphalt, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as well as hundreds of petrochemicals.
Midstream operations are often included in the downstream category and are considered to be a part of the downstream sector.
Crude oil is a mixture of many varieties of hydrocarbons and most usually have many sulfur-containing compounds. The oil refining process commonly includes hydrodesulfurization which converts most of that sulfur into gaseous hydrogen sulfide. Raw natural gas also may contain gaseous hydrogen sulfide and sulfur-containing mercaptans, which are removed in natural-gas processing plants before the gas is distributed to consumers.
The hydrogen sulfide removed in the refining and processing of crude oil and natural gas is subsequently converted into byproduct elemental sulfur. In fact, the vast majority of the 64,000,000 metric tons of sulfur produced worldwide in 2005 was byproduct sulfur from refineries and natural-gas processing plants.
Downstream may refer to:
Downstream (software development)
Downstream (petroleum industry)
Upstream and downstream (DNA), determining relative positions on DNA
Upstream and downstream (transduction), determining temporal and mechanistic order of cellular and molecular events of signal transductionIn entertainment:
Downstream (novella), a novella by Joris-Karl Huysmans
Downstream (1929 film), a British film by Giuseppe Guarino
Downstream (2010 film), an action science fiction film
"Downstream" (Land of the Lost), an episode of the 1974 series '"Land of the lost"
Downstream (album), an album by New Monsoon
"Downstream", a song by Supertramp from Even in the Quietest Moments
"Downstream", a track written by Shira Kammen that was part of the Braid soundtrackInvasion of Kuwait
The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a two-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring state of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country. This invasion and Iraq's subsequent refusal to withdraw from Kuwait by a deadline mandated by the United Nations led to military intervention by a United Nations-authorized coalition of forces led by the United States. These events came to be known as the first Gulf War and resulted in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and the Iraqis setting 600 Kuwaiti oil wells on fire during their retreat.
In early 1990 Iraq was accusing Kuwait of stealing Iraqi petroleum through slant drilling, although some Iraqi sources indicated Saddam Hussein's decision to attack Kuwait was made a few months before the actual invasion. Some feel there were several reasons for the Iraqi move, including Iraq's inability to pay the more than US$14 billion that it had borrowed to finance the Iran–Iraq War, and Kuwaiti high petroleum production levels which kept revenues down for Iraq. The invasion started on 2 August 1990, and within two days most of the Kuwait Armed Forces were either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard or fell back to neighbouring Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Iraq set up a puppet government known as the "Republic of Kuwait" to rule over Kuwait and then annexed it outright, when Saddam Hussein announced a few days later that it was the 19th province of Iraq.KBR (company)
KBR, Inc. (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) is an American engineering, procurement, and construction company, formerly a subsidiary of Halliburton. After Halliburton acquired Dresser Industries in 1998, Dresser's engineering subsidiary, the M. W. Kellogg Co., was merged with Halliburton's construction subsidiary, Brown & Root, to form Kellogg Brown & Root. KBR and its predecessors have received many contracts with the U.S. military including during World War II, the Vietnam War, and the Iraq War.
The company's corporate offices are in the KBR Tower in Downtown Houston.List of terrorist incidents in July–December 2013
This is a timeline of terrorist incidents which took place from July to December 2013, including attacks by non-state actors for political motives. Ongoing military conflicts are listed separately. The list here is incomplete, please add to it to make it better.Midstream
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream. The midstream sector involves the transportation (by pipeline, rail, barge, oil tanker or truck), storage, and wholesale marketing of crude or refined petroleum products. Pipelines and other transport systems can be used to move crude oil from production sites to refineries and deliver the various refined products to downstream distributors. Natural gas pipeline networks aggregate gas from natural gas purification plants and deliver it to downstream customers, such as local utilities.
The midstream operations are often taken to include some elements of the upstream and downstream sectors. For example, the midstream sector may include natural gas processing plants that purify the raw natural gas as well as removing and producing elemental sulfur and natural gas liquids (NGL) as finished end-products.Nimi Barigha-Amange
Nimi Barigha-Amange (born 10 May 1952) is a former Senator for the Bayelsa East constituency of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. He took office on 29 May 2007 serving until 29 May 2011. He is a member of the People's Democratic Party (PDP).Barigha-Amange earned an HND Petroleum Engineering (1981), LL.B (1993) and BL (1995).
He became Head of the Lands and Claims department at ELF Petroleum Nigeria, Chairman of Board of the Niger Delta Basin Development Authority and Chairman of the Board of the Federal Medical Centre.After taking his Senate seat in June 2007 Barigha-Amange was appointed to committees on Science & Technology, National Identity Card & Population, Interior Affairs and Capital Markets.
In a mid-term evaluation of Senators in May 2009, ThisDay noted that he had sponsored bills on Technology Innovation Agency Establishment, Interception & monitoring of Communication and Civil Society Organisation. He had also sponsored and co-sponsored five motions.
In an article in the Nigerian Tribune written in January 2010, Barigha-Amange called for full deregulation of the downstream petroleum industry and licensing of small and medium-sized refineries, which would help eliminate corruption and reduce domestic prices.Reduction of unemployment by employing 55 people in his Farm Project.
Rural and Community Development in areas of Scholarship, Free Mobile Boat Clinic, Micro Businesses, Extended Loans to Youths and Women cooperative societies.Petrolsoft Corporation
Petrolsoft Corporation (1989–2000) was a supply chain management software company with a focus on the petroleum industry.
Petrolsoft Corporation was founded at Stanford University in 1989 by Bill Miller and David Gamboa as Petrolsoft Software Group. It was later incorporated in 1992. Petrolsoft introduced demand-driven inventory management to the petroleum industry.Research Institute of Petroleum Industry
The Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, also known as NIOC-RIPI, often shortened to RIPI (Persian: پژوهشگاه صنعت نفت) is a governmental research institute founded in 1959 in Tehran, Iran and is affiliated with National Iranian Oil Company.
The institute is a major research institute in Iran and is the largest of its kind in the Middle East. RIPI has become a major technology provider for Iran’s petroleum industry. In 2002, it developed a technology that converts heavy crude oil into the more desirable, a new generation of GTL technology.Reynolds Bekinbo Dagogo-Jack
Reynolds Bekinbo Dagogo-Jack, OFR (born 4 December 1957), popularly known as Beks, is a Nigerian civil engineer, technocrat and public servant. For over thirty years, Dagogo-Jack has been active in both the public and private sector, especially in areas of government/public administration and project management including engineering, construction and manufacturing.
On 5 September 2012, the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Goodluck Jonathan reconstituted the twin Presidential agencies instituted as special purpose vehicles to fast-track the implementation of the national electric power reform program: the Presidential Action Committee on Power (PACP) and the Presidential Task Force on Power (PTFP), appointing Dagogo-Jack to serve as Chairman of the PTFP and also a member of the PACP. Dagogo-Jack had been with the PTFP from its inception in June 2010, serving as a Senior Special Assistant to the President and also Senior Performance Monitor for the National Integrated Power Projects (NIPP). In this capacity, he led the special team that supervised governmental and private agencies managing over four hundred power infrastructure projects covering gas, generation, transmission and distribution projects.
On 29 September 2014, President Goodluck Jonathan conferred on him the prestigious Officer of the Order of the Federal Republic (OFR).Upstream (petroleum industry)
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major sectors: upstream (or exploration and production- E&P), midstream and downstream. The upstream sector includes searching for potential underground or underwater crude oil and natural gas fields, drilling exploratory wells, and subsequently drilling and operating the wells that recover and bring the crude oil or raw natural gas to the surface.Upstream Industry has traditionally experienced the highest number of Mergers, Acquisitions and Divestitures. M&A activity for upstream oil and gas deals in 2012 totaled $254 billion in 679 deals. A large chunk of this M&A, 33% in 2012, was driven by the unconventional/shale boom especially in the US followed by the Russian Federation and Canada.
The aggregate value of Upstream E&P assets available for sale (Deals in Play) reached a record-high of $135 billion in Q3-2013. The value of Deals in Play doubled from $46 billion in 2009 to $90 billion in 2010. With ongoing M&A activity the level remained almost the same reaching $85 billion in Dec-2012. However, the first half of 2013 saw approximately $48 billion of net new assets coming on the market. Remarkably, the total value of Deals in Play in Q3-2013 nearly tripled over 2009 at $46 billion, in less than four years.