The three dowitchers are medium-sized long-billed wading birds in the genus Limnodromus. The genus name is Ancient Greek from limne (marsh) and dromos (racer).[1] The English name is from Iroquois (1841).[2]

They resemble godwits in body and bill shape, and the reddish underparts in summer, but are much shorter legged, more like snipe to which they are also somewhat more closely related.[3] All three are strongly migratory.

The two North American species are difficult to separate in most plumages, and were considered a single species for many years. The Asian bird is rare and not well known.

The dowitcher species are:

Long-billed dowitcher
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Scolopacidae
Subfamily: Scolopacinae
Genus: Limnodromus
Wied-Neuwied, 1833
Type species
Scolopax grisea
(Gmelin, 1789)

See text.


  1. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 227. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  2. ^ "Dowitcher". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. ^ Thomas, Gavin H.; Wills, Matthew A. & Székely, Tamás (2004): "A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny".BMC Evol. Biol. 4: 28. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-28 PMID 15329156 Supplementary Material
Asian dowitcher

The Asian dowitcher (Limnodromus semipalmatus) is a rare medium-large wader.

Bar-tailed godwit

The bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) is a large wader in the family Scolopacidae. The genus name Limosa is from Latin and means "muddy", from limus, "mud". The specific lapponica refers to Lapland. The English term "godwit" was first recorded in about 1416–7 and is believed to imitate the bird's call.The bar-tailed godwit breeds on Arctic coasts and tundra mainly in the Old World, and winters on coasts in temperate and tropical regions of the Old World and of Australia and New Zealand. Its migration includes the longest known non-stop flight of any bird and also the longest journey without pausing to feed by any animal.The global population is estimated to number 1,099,000–1,149,000 individuals.

Common gallinule

The common gallinule (Gallinula galeata) is a bird in the family Rallidae. It was split from the common moorhen by the American Ornithologists' Union in July 2011. It lives around well-vegetated marshes, ponds, canals, and other wetlands in the Americas. The species is not found in the polar regions or many tropical rainforests. Elsewhere, the common gallinule is likely the most commonly seen rail species in much of North America, excepting the American coot in some regions.

Cranial kinesis

Cranial kinesis is the term for significant movement of skull bones relative to each other in addition to movement at the joint between the upper and lower jaw. It is usually taken to mean relative movement between the upper jaw and the braincase.Most vertebrates have some form of kinetic skull. Cranial kinesis, or lack thereof, is usually linked to feeding. Animals which must exert powerful bite forces, such as crocodiles, often have rigid skulls with little or no kinesis, for maximum strength. Animals which swallow large prey whole (snakes), which grip awkwardly shaped food items (parrots eating nuts), or, most often, which feed in the water via suction feeding often have very kinetic skulls, frequently with numerous mobile joints. In the case of mammals, which have akinetic skulls (except for perhaps hares), the lack of kinesis is most likely to be related to the secondary palate, which prevents relative movement. This in turn is a consequence of the need to be able to create a suction during suckling.

Ancestry also plays a role in limiting or enabling cranial kinesis. Significant cranial kinesis is rare in mammals (the human skull shows no cranial kinesis at all). Birds have varying degrees of cranial kinesis, with parrots exhibiting the greatest degree. Among reptiles, crocodilians and turtles lack cranial kinesis, while lizards possess some, often minor, degree of kinesis and snakes possessing the most exceptional cranial kinesis of any tetrapod. In amphibians, cranial kinesis varies, but is unknown in frogs and rare in salamanders. Almost all fish have highly kinetic skulls, and teleost fish have developed the most kinetic skulls of any living organism.

Joints are often simple syndesmosis joints, but in some organisms, some joints may be synovial, permitting a greater range of movement.


Cyclocoelidae is a family of trematodes in the order Plagiorchiida.

Fauna of Illinois

The fauna of Illinois include a wide variety of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish and insects (not listed).

The state bird is the Northern cardinal.

The state insect is the monarch butterfly.

The state animal is the white-tailed deer.

The state fish is the bluegill.

The state fossil is the tully monster.

The state amphibian is the eastern tiger salamander.

The state reptile is the painted turtle.

Joulter Cays

Joulter Cays are small uninhabited islands to the north of Andros Island in the Bahamas. Oolitic sand dominates the intertidal zone around the small islands that are covered with vegetation.

The Joulter Cays were designated as an Important Bird Area for the endangered piping plover and short-billed dowitcher in 2012. The National Audubon Society's International Alliances Program and the Bahamas National Trust was working together to establish, in 2015, the Joulter Cays as a national park. The islands are known as a flyfishing destination for bonefish and permit (fish).Matt Jeffery, Deputy Director of Audubon’s International Alliances Program, called Joulter Cays a true paradise and treasure of the Bahamas, rich in birds, fisheries, and other wildlife. However, some local residents are concerned that a national park status would prohibit their bonefish guiding service to tourists.

List of birds of Aleutian Islands

This list of birds of the Aleutian Islands is a comprehensive listing of all bird species known from the Aleutian Islands, as documented by Gibson and Byrd (2007) and eBird.The known avifauna of the Aleutian Islands total 304 species as of late July 2019. Of that number, 44 (15%) are year-round residents and breeders, 27 (9%) migrate to the Aleutians to breed, 18 (6%) migrate to the Aleutians to winter, 6 (2%) are non-breeding summer residents, 37 (12%) are annual through-migrants, and the remaining 172 (56%) are vagrants of less-than-annual occurrence. Several of the vagrants have only a single record.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North and Middle American Birds, 7th edition through the 60th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

The following terms used to denote the annual and seasonal status of each species are from Gibson and Byrd (2007):

Accidental – one or two records

Casual – recorded in <30% of years in the appropriate season, but in at least three calendar years

Intermittent – recorded in ≥30% of years in the appropriate season, but not annually

Migrant – annual through-migrant in spring or fall

Resident – substantial numbers present throughout the year

Summer – migrates to the Aleutians to breed or to summer offshore

Winter – migrates to the Aleutians to winter

Annual breeders are designated with an asterisk (*), as in Resident* or Summer*.

List of birds of North America (Charadriiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Charadriiformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of Oregon

This list of Oregon birds lists wild bird species found in the U.S. state of Oregon and accepted by the Oregon Bird Records Committee (OBRC). As of November 2018, there are 537 species on the list. Of them, 153 are on the review list (see below). Eight species have been introduced to Oregon or elsewhere in North America and three have been extirpated from the state.

Bird counts often change depending on factors such as the number and training of the observers, as well as opinions about what constitutes an officially recognized subspecies. Though northern climes typically do not support as many species as southerly locations, Oregon is fifth in bird species diversity in the United States, behind Florida, New Mexico, Texas and California. This amount of diversity is attributable to Oregon's numerous distinctive ecoregions and relatively mild winter weather, which make it an important wintering ground for migratory bird species, especially waterfowl, on the Pacific Flyway.

Another result of the state's varying ecology is the 120 Important Bird Areas, such as the Jackson Bottom Wetlands Preserve, that are recognized as important conservation sites for birds. Many of these dedicated wildlife refuges have become meccas for birding enthusiasts, and Oregon has participated in formally organized birding activities such as the Christmas Bird Count since the early 1900s. Other areas are closed to human access but are very popular with birds, such as Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge which spans some 250 miles (400 km) of the Oregon Coast.

As an important U.S. region of bird diversity, Oregon has faced some serious challenges in protecting endangered and threatened avian species. In addition to high profile, threatened species such as the northern spotted owl and snowy plover, even many common species—including Oregon's state bird, the western meadowlark—have declined considerably due to hunting, habitat loss and other factors.This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North and Middle American Birds, 7th edition through the 60th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Oregon as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. These tags are used to annotate some species:

(R) Review list - birds that if seen require more comprehensive documentation than regularly seen species.

(I) Introduced - a species established as a result of human action

List of birds of Santa Cruz County, California

List of birds of Santa Cruz County, California. The county is in Northern California, located on the California coast, including northern Monterey Bay, and west of the San Francisco Bay and Silicon Valley. It includes the southwestern Santa Cruz Mountains.Avian habitats include: coastal prairie, Northern coastal scrub, Maritime Ponderosa Pine forests, Coast redwood forests, Interior chaparral and woodlands, and mixed evergreen forests.

Included are: common (C), fairly common (F), and uncommon (U) sightings/occurrences. Not included are: rare, casual, and irregular sightings.

Lois Hole Centennial Provincial Park

Lois Hole Centennial Provincial Park is a provincial park in Alberta, Canada, located immediately west from Edmonton and St. Albert. It was named after Lois Hole, former Lieutenant Governor of Alberta.

The park is situated on the shores of Big Lake, on the lower course of the Sturgeon River, at an elevation of 660 m (2,170 ft). It is maintained by Alberta Tourism, Parks and Recreation and was established on April 19, 2005, on lands designated in 1999 as Big Lake Natural Area (part of the Special Places program). It is the latest provincial park to be established in the province, and Alberta's 69th provincial park.

Long-billed dowitcher

The long-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus) is a medium-sized shorebird. The genus name Limnodromus is Ancient Greek from limne, "marsh" and dromos, "racer". The specific scolopaceus is New Latin for "snipe-like", from Latin scolopax, scolopacis, a snipe or woodcock. The English name is from Iroquois and was first recorded in 1841.Adults have yellowish legs and a long straight dark bill. The body is dark brown on top and reddish underneath with spotted throat and breast, bars on flanks. The tail has a black and white barred pattern. The winter plumage of both an adult and a juvenile is largely grey.

Their breeding habitat is wet tundra in the far north of North America and eastern Siberia. They nest on the ground, usually near water.

They migrate to the southern United States and as far south as Central America. Long-billed dowitcher is a rare but regular visitor to western Europe, with some individuals staying for long periods.

These birds forage by probing in shallow water or on wet mud. They mainly eat insects, mollusks, crustaceans and marine worms, but also eat some plant material.

They are more likely to be seen near fresh water than the short-billed dowitcher.

Pantai Leka

Pantai Leka is a beach and bird sanctuary in Parit Jawa, about 10 kilometres from Muar, in Johor, Malaysia; it has an area of approximately twenty hectares and provides food and shelter for migratory birds. The conservation of the local mangrove forests in these areas is paramount in protecting these rare species - this is done by controlling the cutting of mangrove trees, to protect the birds' habitat.

Five types of migratory birds have been seen recently for the first time in 30 years:

The Asian dowitcher (Limnodromus semipalmatu)

The Chinese egret (Egretta eulophotes)

The grey-tailed tattler (Heteroscelus brevipes)

The great knot (Calidris tenuirostris)

The bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica)

Phang Nga Bay

Phang Nga Bay (Thai: อ่าวพังงา, RTGS: ao phangnga, Thai pronunciation: [ʔàːw pʰāŋ.ŋāː]) is a 400 km2 bay between the island of Phuket and the mainland of the Kra Isthmus of southern Thailand. Since 1981, an extensive section of the bay has been protected as the Ao Phang Nga National Park. The park is in Phang Nga Province, at 08°17'N 098°36'E.

Limestone cliffs with caves, collapsed cave systems, and archaeological sites are found about Phang Nga Bay. Around 10,000 years ago, when sea levels were lower, it was possible to walk from Phuket and Krabi.

RSPB Frampton Marsh

Frampton Marsh is a nature reserve in Lincolnshire, England. The reserve is situated on the coast of The Wash, some 4 miles from the town of Boston, between the outfalls of the Rivers Welland and Witham (covering an area of mature salt marsh known as The Scalp), and near the village of Frampton. Most of the reserve is managed by the RSPB with part managed by the Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust. There is a small visitor centre at the entrance to the reserve.

Thousands of migrating birds gather at Frampton Marsh. Species which can be observed here include pied avocet, common redshank and curlew. The reserve has recorded many nationally rare bird species, such as oriental pratincole, collared pratincole, lesser yellowlegs, baird's sandpiper, broad-billed sandpiper, white-rumped sandpiper, pectoral sandpiper, long-billed dowitcher and stilt sandpiper.

Short-billed dowitcher

The short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus), like its congener the long-billed dowitcher, is a medium-sized, stocky, long-billed shorebird in the family Scolopacidae. The genus name Limnodromus is Ancient Greek from limne, "marsh" and dromos, "racer". The specific griseus is Medieval Latin for "grey". The English name is from Iroquois and was first recorded in 1841.It is an inhabitant of North America, Central America, and northern South America. It is strongly migratory; it completely vacates in breeding areas during the snow-bound months. This species favors a variety of habitats including tundra in the north to ponds and mudflats in the south. It feeds on invertebrates often by rapidly probing its bill into mud in a sewing machine fashion. It and the very similar long-billed dowitcher were considered one species until 1950. Field identification of the two American Limnodromus remains difficult today. Distinguishing wintering or juvenile short-billed dowitchers from the long-billed species is very difficult and, even given examination their subtlety different body shapes, cannot always be isolated to a particular species. They differ most substantially in vocalizations. The names of American dowitchers are misleading, as there is much overlap in their bill lengths. Only a small percentage can be identified by this character alone.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 7

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge

Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge of the United States in Nevada. It is located in the Lahontan Valley, near the community of Fallon, sixty miles east of Reno. It was established in 1949 and encompasses 79,570 acres (322.0 km2).The Stillwater wetlands are well known to birders, as this area has been designated a site of international importance by the Western Hemispheric Shorebird Reserve Network because of the hundreds of thousands of shorebirds, such as long-billed dowitcher, black-necked stilt, and American avocet passing through during migration.

Also listed as a 'Globally Important Bird Area' by the American Bird Conservancy, more than 280 species have been sighted in the area. These tremendously rich and diverse wetlands attract more than a quarter million waterfowl, as well as over 20,000 other water birds, including American white pelicans, double-crested cormorants, white-faced ibis, and several species of egrets, herons, gulls, and terns.


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