Douglass Crockwell

Douglass Crockwell (April 29, 1904, Columbus, Ohio – November 30, 1968, Glens Falls, New York[1]), born Spencer Douglass Crockwell, was an American commercial artist and experimental filmmaker.[2][3][4] He was most famous for his illustrations and advertisements for the Saturday Evening Post and for murals and posters for the Works Progress Administration.[5]

Douglass Crockwell
Born
Spencer Douglass Crockwell

April 29, 1904
DiedNovember 30, 1968
OccupationCommercial artist and experimental filmmaker
Spouse(s)Margaret Braman (1933–1968) his death; 3 children

Education and career

He received a B.Sc. from the Washington University (1926) in St. Louis and studied at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts (1927) and the St. Louis School of Fine Arts (1927–31).[6]

Crockwell's paintings have been featured in advertisements for Friskies dog food and in a poster for the American Relief for Holland. For the latter, he was awarded a gold medal from the Art Director's Club in 1946.

Posters

Crockwell created recruiting and other posters for various branches of the United States government during World War II, and many illustrations for The Saturday Evening Post.[7]

He also created poster art for the MGM film The Yearling (1946).[8]

Murals

Federally commissioned murals were produced from 1934 to 1944 in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture, later called the Section of Fine Arts, of the Treasury Department.[9] Crockwell painted three. In 1937 he completed an oil on canvas mural, Vermont Industries, for the post office in White River Junction, Vermont. In 1938, he completed Endicott, 1901- Excavating for the Ideal Factory, also an oil on canvas, for the post office in Endicott, New York. Signing of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was painted in 1944 for the post office in Macon, Mississippi.

Filmmaking

In 1934, Crockwell began experimenting with non-representational films while balancing his career as an illustrator. He initially wanted to create flexible, low-cost animation techniques. In 1936–1937, he collaborated with David Smith, a sculptor, to create surrealistic films.[10]

Clients

Filmography

  • Glens Falls Sequence (1937–1946)
  • Fantasmagoria #1 (1938)
  • Fantasmagoria #2 (1939)
  • Simple Destiny Abstractions (1939–1940)
  • Fantasmagoria #3 (1940)
  • The Chase (1942)
  • The Long Bodies (1947)
  • Mutoscope reels: Red (1949), A Long Body (1950), Random Glow (c. 1950s), Stripes (c. 1950s), Ode to David (c. 1950s), Around the Valley (c. 1950s)

Legacy

Examples of his work are in the collections of the Pritzker Military Museum and Library, the Bangor Public Library, the Hennepin County Library, the George C. Marshall Library, among others.

Over the course of his career, Crockwell drew over four hundred full-page images; more than three billion prints of his works have been made.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ WPAMurals entry
  2. ^ Douglass Crockwell, Alphabet of Illustrators, Chris Mullen Collection
  3. ^ Unseen Cinema presentation at University of Texas Ransom Center
  4. ^ FullTable entry
  5. ^ Smithsonian American Art Museum entry
  6. ^ Crockwell entry at AskArt
  7. ^ Grapefruit Moon Gallery entry
  8. ^ Crockwell entry at FullTable
  9. ^ Arnesen, Eric (2007). Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-Class History. 1. New York: Routledge. p. 1540. ISBN 9780415968263.
  10. ^ Posner, Bruce (2001). Unseen Cinema: American Avant-Garde Film 1893–1941. New York, New York: Black Thistle Press. p. 81. ISBN 0962818178.
  11. ^ Grapefruit Moon Gallery entry
  12. ^ Smithsonian American Art Museum entry

Bibliography

  • Crockwell, Spencer Douglass. Douglass Crockwell. 1977. OCLC 79834005
  • Kettlewell, James K. The Art of Douglass Crockwell. Glens Falls, N.Y.: Hyde Collection, 1977. OCLC 13470694
  • New York Times obituary (December 2, 1968)

External links

Brown

Brown is a composite color. In the CMYK color model used in printing or painting, brown is made by combining red, black, and yellow, or red, yellow, and blue. In the RGB color model used to project colors onto television screens and computer monitors, brown is made by combining red and green, in specific proportions. In painting, brown is generally made by adding black to orange. Mixing red-green-blue pigments makes mud color. The brown color is seen widely in nature, in wood, soil, human hair color, eye color and skin pigmentation. Brown is the color of dark wood or rich soil. According to public opinion surveys in Europe and the United States, brown is the least favorite color of the public; the color is most often associated with plainness, the rustic and poverty.

Craughwell

Craughwell (historically Creaghmoyle, from Irish: Creachmhaoil) is a village and townland in County Galway, Ireland. The name is also used as a surname, properly Ó Creachmhaoil, though often anglicised as Craughwell and Crockwell. The surname was largely unknown outside of the southeast of County Galway until the end of the 19th century when émigrés established families which still thrive in Newfoundland, Bermuda, Cornwall, Ohio and Berkshire County, Massachusetts, among other places.

The name is composed of two Irish words: 'creach', meaning in this case "plunder", presumably in reference to herds of cattle, which were often targets of thefts and cattle raids amongst the Gaels. The usual Gaelic word for cattle is crodh, often Anglicised in place-names as crow, although the words cro, crocharsach, and crò are all connected with sheep, sheep enclosures or meadows. An alternate etymology of creach is related to craig, and creag, and the English word crag, refers to a rock (with which word it rhymes), or the bare rock crest of a hill (related words are cruach, for a mountain, pinnacle, or a rounded hill that stands apart...or for any type of pile, or heap, and 'cnoc', for a hill or eminence); and 'maol', which is a word for a round-shaped hill or mountain, bare of trees. It is anglicised as mull, and is common in Irish and Scottish place names such as the Mull of Kintyre. Gaelic spelling rules require that maol, following creach, be lenited; that is, an h is inserted after the first letter, providing the first letter is a consonant (and not an l, n, or r). This h makes the preceding consonant silent, or changes its sound (mh, or bh, for instance, are silent or sound like an English v or w). Gaelic spelling rules also require that, with the first letter lenited, the last vowel should be slender (an i, or an e). As both vowels in maol are broad (a, o, u), an i is inserted after. These two changes alter the sound of maol (rhymes with mull) to mhaoil (rhymes with uell, or well). The sound of the two word together, therefore, sounds to an English ear like Crockwell, or Craughwell, and it is Anglicised thus (the Gaelic personal names Seán (John) and Seamus (James) became Iain and Hamish in Scotland by similar means).

The pioneer of Irish placename studies, Patrick W. Joyce, speculated that the name in Irish was Creamhchoill, meaning "garlic wood". He was obviously unaware of the local spelling and pronunciation but confirmed in a later work that the village was called Creachmhaoil in Irish.

The town currently has three pubs, a Garda station, a pharmacy, a furniture store, post office, hairdressers, a service station, a lawnmower shop, an athletics track, and a pizzeria and fish and chip shop. The village of Creachmhaoil celebrates its connection with the Gaelic poet Antoine Ó Raifteiri and Anjelica Huston, and provides the surnames of notables including American painter Douglass Crockwell the Bermudian parliamentarian Shawn Crockwell, JP, MP, the late Bermudian FIFA-certified football referee and Honorary Life Vice-President of the Bermuda Football Association Carlyle McNeil Eugene Crockwell, Bermudian footballer Mikkail Kristopher Crockwell, Bermudian cricketer Fiqre Crockwell, English cricketer Leslie Crockwell, Guinness World Record holding rower Matthew Craughwell, and American author Thomas J. Craughwell.

United States Post Office (Endicott, New York)

US Post Office-Endicott is an historic post office building located at Endicott in Broome County, New York. It was designed and built in 1936 and is one of a number of post offices in New York State designed by a consulting architect for the Office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department, Walter Whitlack. It is a one-story, nine bay steel frame, cream-colored brick clad building on a raised granite-clad foundation executed in the Colonial Revival style. The interior features a 1938 mural titled "Excavating for the Ideal Factory" by Douglass Crockwell.It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988.

Ó Creachmhaoil

Ó Creachmhaoil is an Irish surname, often anglicised as Craughwell, Croughwell, Crockwell, and Crowell. It was largely unknown outside of the south-east of County Galway, where the village of Creachmhaoil is also found, until the latter end of the 19th century when emigres established branches of the family which still thrive in Newfoundland, Bermuda, Cornwall, Ohio and Berkshire County, Massachusetts, among other places. The surname was found in Barbados in the 19th Century, having evidently arrived in the 17th Century (probably as part of the involuntary Irish immigration to Barbados that followed the Cromwellian invasion of Ireland), but is now extinct there, possibly as a result of re-emigration (the Crockwells of Bermuda descend from a single white Barbadian who settled there in the 19th Century). Documentation on the origin of the surname is not recorded, but it is doubtless connected to the village.

Ó, in Irish surnames, indicates a grandson or descendant of the person whose given name it precedes (as in Ó Briain: grandson of Brian). Creachmhaoil is not used as a given name in Ireland, and is actually a toponym, composed of two Gaelic words.

Creach, which is related to craig, and creag, and the English word crag, refers to a rock (with which word it rhymes), or the bare rock crest of a hill (related words are cruach, for a mountain, pinnacle, or a rounded hill that stands apart...or for any type of pile, or heap, and 'cnoc', for a hill or eminence). An alternate etymology of creach is plunder, presumably in reference to herds of cattle, which were often targets of thefts and cattle raids amongst the Gaels. The usual Gaelic word for cattle is crodh, often Anglicised in place-names as crow, although the words cro, crocharsach, and crò are all connected with sheep, sheep enclosures or meadows.

A maol is a round-shaped hill or mountain, bare of trees. It is anglicised as mull, and is common in Irish and Scottish place names such as the Mull of Kintyre. Gaelic spelling rules require that maol, following creach, be lenited; that is, an h is inserted after the first letter, providing the first letter is a consonant (and not an l, n, or r). This h makes the preceding consonant silent, or changes its sound (mh, or bh, for instance, are silent or sound like an English v or w). Gaelic spelling rules also require that, with the first letter lenited, the last vowel should be slender (an i, or an e). As both vowels in maol are broad (a, o, u), an i is inserted after. These two changes alter the sound of maol (rhymes with mull) to mhaoil (rhymes with uell, or well). The sound of the two word together, therefore, sounds to an English ear like Crockwell, or Craughwell, and it is Anglicised thus (the Gaelic personal names Seán (John) and Seamus (James) became Iain and Hamish in Scotland by similar means).

The complete toponym is used, today, to connote the village in Galway, but presumably was adopted from a nearby hill. The village is too small to have been known far afield, and the surname is largely restricted in Ireland to County Galway. Ó Creachmhaoil, therefore, is presumably a Toponymic surname adopted by villagers from Creachmhaoil upon their moving to other parts of Galway.

Notable bearers of the name include American painter Douglass Crockwell, Irish Senator Gerard Craughwell of the Seanad Éireann, Bermudian parliamentarian Shawn Crockwell, JP, MP, FIFA-certified Bermudian football referee, Carlyle McNeil Eugene Crockwell, Bermudian footballers Denzel Crockwell (of Ireland Rangers FC), and Mikkail Crockwell, Bermudian cricketer Fiqre Crockwell, English cricketer Leslie Crockwell, Guinness World Record holding rower Matthew Craughwell, Newfoundland photographer Chris Crockwell, Newfoundland-born author Marion Anderson (born Marion Crockwell), American author Thomas J. Craughwell, film director and actor Charles Croughwell, sword-maker Michael "Irish Mike" Craughwell (star of the Discovery Channel television series Big Giant Swords), and educator and Los Angeles Times film critic Kathleen Craughwell, .

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