Douglas, Chicago

Douglas, on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois, is one of 77 Chicago community areas. The neighborhood is named for Stephen A. Douglas, an Illinois politician, whose estate included a tract of land given to the federal government.[2] This tract later was developed for use as the Civil War Union training and prison camp, Camp Douglas, located in what is now the eastern portion of the Douglas neighborhood. Douglas gave that part of his estate at Cottage Grove and 35th to the Old University of Chicago.[3] The Chicago 2016 Olympic bid planned for the Olympic Village to be constructed on a 37-acre (150,000 m2) truck parking lot south of McCormick Place that is mostly in the Douglas community area and partly in the Near South Side.[4]

The Douglas community area stretches from 26th Street South to Pershing Road along the Lake Shore, including parts of the Green Line along State Street and the Metra Electric and Amtrak passenger railroad tracks, which run parallel to Lake Shore Drive. Burnham Park runs along its shoreline, containing 31st Street Beach. The community area also contains part of the neighborhood of Bronzeville, the historic center of African-American culture in the city since the early 20th century and the Great Migration.

Douglas
Community Area 35 - Douglas
Prairie Shores in Bronzeville
Prairie Shores in Bronzeville
Location within the city of Chicago
Location within the city of Chicago
Coordinates: 41°49.8′N 87°37.2′W / 41.8300°N 87.6200°WCoordinates: 41°49.8′N 87°37.2′W / 41.8300°N 87.6200°W
CountryUnited States
StateIllinois
CountyCook
CityChicago
Neighborhoods
Area
 • Total1.67 sq mi (4.33 km2)
Population
 (2015)
 • Total20,323[1]
Demographics 2015[1]
 • White10.65%
 • Black70.68%
 • Hispanic2.39%
 • Asian14.33%
 • Other1.94%
Time zoneUTC-6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
parts of 60609, 60616 and 60653
Median household income$29,185[1]
Source: U.S. Census, Record Information Services

Neighborhoods

Bronzeville

Bronzeville is a neighborhood in the Douglas and Grand Boulevard communities on the South Side of Chicago around the Illinois Institute of Technology, VanderCook College of Music, and Illinois College of Optometry. It is accessible via the Green and Red lines of the Chicago Transit Authority, as well as the Metra Electric District Main Line. In 2011 a new Metra station, Jones/Bronzeville Station, opened to serve the neighborhood on the Rock Island and planned SouthEast Service.

Victory Monument and Ida B. Wells-Barnett House

Victory Monument Chicago 2
20070601 Wells House (2)

In the early 20th century, Bronzeville was known as the "Black Metropolis", one of the nation's most significant concentrations of African-American businesses. The groundbreaking Pekin Theatre rose near 27th street in the first decade of the 20th century. Between 1910 and 1920, during an early peak of the "Great Migration", the population of the area increased dramatically when thousands of African Americans escaped the oppression of the South and migrated to Chicago in search of industrial jobs. The Wabash YMCA is considered the first African-American Y in the U.S.[5] It remains active today due to ongoing support from nearby black churches.[6] The Wabash YMCA's work to commemorate black culture was the genesis of Black History Month.[7]

In 1922 Louis B. Anderson a Chicago Alderman had the architects Michaelsen & Rognstad, build him a house at 3800 S. Calumet, the surrounding area would take on the name of this house which he had named Bronzeville.[8]

Key figures in the area include: Andrew "Rube" Foster, founder of the Negro National Baseball League; Ida B. Wells, a civil rights activist, journalist and co-organizer of the NAACP; Margaret Taylor-Burroughs, artist, author, and one of the co-founders of the DuSable Museum of African American History; Bessie Coleman, the first African-American woman pilot; Gwendolyn Brooks, 1985 United States Poet Laureate, 1968 Poet Laureate of Illinois, and first African American awarded the Pulitzer Prize; actresses Marla Gibbs and Jennifer Beals; acclaimed R&B singers Minnie Riperton, Sam Cooke and Lou Rawls; and cornet player and jazz bandleader King Oliver. His protégé, jazz musician, trumpeter and bandleader Louis Armstrong from New Orleans and his wife Lil Hardin Armstrong, who was a pianist, composer and bandleader, lived in Bronzeville on E. 44th Street and performed at many of the area's night clubs, including the Sunset Cafe and Dreamland Cafe. The neighborhood includes the Chicago Landmark Black Metropolis-Bronzeville District.[9]

47th Street was and remains the hub of the Bronzeville neighborhood. In the early 21st century, it has started to regain some of its former glory. Gone for good is the Regal Theater (demolished in 1973), where many great performers took the stage. From the 1940s and 1960s, high-rise public housing projects were constructed in the area, which were managed by the Chicago Housing Authority. The largest complex was the Robert Taylor Homes. They developed severe social problems exacerbated by concentrated poverty among the residents and poor design of the buildings. This project was demolished in the late 1990s and early 21st century. The nickname "Bronzeville" was first used for the area in 1930 by James J. Gentry, a local theater editor for the Chicago Bee publication. It refers to the brown skin color of African Americans, who predominated as residents in that area. It has become common usage over decades.[10]

Bronzeville and its black community have a central role in the plot of Sara Paretsky's 2003 detective mystery novel Blacklist, part of the V. I. Warshawski series.

Historical images of Bronzeville are in Explore Chicago Collections, a digital repository made available by Chicago Collections archives, libraries and other cultural institutions in the city.[11]

Prairie Shores

Originally a five-building, 1677-unit public housing project erected in 1962 by Michael Reese Hospital, Prairie Shores has been adapted as a market rate, middle-class community. Along with the adjacent Lake Meadows development, this was part of the city's largest urban renewal project at the time of its inception in 1946. The total project included construction of the Illinois Institute of Technology and Mercy Hospital. The development was funded under the Title I of the Housing Act of 1949, using US$6.2 million ($51.4 million today) of subsidies.[12]

Groveland Park

Of all the sections of Douglas originally developed by Stephen A. Douglas, only Groveland Park survives. Its homes are built around an oval-shaped park. Groveland Park is located between Cottage Grove Avenue, 33rd Street, 35th Street and the Metra Electric railroad tracks.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
193050,285
194053,1245.6%
195078,74548.2%
196052,325−33.6%
197043,731−16.4%
198035,700−18.4%
199030,652−14.1%
200026,470−13.6%
201018,238−31.1%
Est. 201520,32311.4%
[1][13]

Education

IIT Machinery Hall
Several buildings on the Illinois Institute of Technology main campus, such as Machinery Hall pictured here, have been designated as Chicago Landmarks and placed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The following Chicago Public Schools campuses serve Bronzeville: Beethoven School, Phillips Academy High School, Dunbar Vocational High School, Bronzeville Scholastic Institute, Chicago Military Academy, Walter H. Dyett High School, and De La Salle High School are within this community.

Young Women's Leadership Charter School, a charter school, is in the community area.[14]

Bronzeville is also home to the renowned Illinois Institute of Technology, which is famous for its engineering and architecture programs. It is home to the VanderCook College of Music and the Illinois College of Optometry. In 2006 the liberal arts school Shimer College, based on the Great Books, moved into the neighborhood.

The Bronzeville / Black Chicagoan Historical Society is a not-for-profit educational and African-American heritage organization formed to celebrate, provide information, and encourage preservation of black life and culture of Chicago. The organization was founded in 1999 by Sherry Wiliams and other members from the community. Additionally, the organization is committed to community programs, projects and events.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Community Data Snapshot - Douglas". cmap.illinois.gov. MetroPulse. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
  2. ^ Callary, Edward (29 September 2008). Place Names of Illinois. University of Illinois Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-252-09070-7.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Hinz, Greg (2006-09-23). "Plan for 2016 Olympics disclosed". Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
  5. ^ "Wilton YMCA", Official Website
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ University of Chicago collections
  8. ^ "Landmark Designation Report - Giles-Calumet District" (PDF). chicago.gov. City of Chicago. 10 July 2008. p. 2. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  9. ^ "Black Metropolis-Bronzeville District". City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Landmarks Division. 2003. Archived from the original on 2007-05-02. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
  10. ^ "Bronzeville Stories". Archived from the original on 2005-03-13.
  11. ^ Long, Elizabeth. "A Single Portal to Chicago's History". The University of Chicago News. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  12. ^ Garvin, Alexander (2002). The American Dity: What Works, What Doesn't. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 167. ISBN 0-07-137367-5. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
  13. ^ Paral, Rob. "Chicago Community Areas Historical Data". Chicago Community Areas Historical Data. Archived from the original on 2013-03-18.
  14. ^ "Contact YWLCS." Young Women's Leadership Charter School. Retrieved on December 22, 2016. "YWLCS, 2641 S. Calumet Ave., Chicago, IL 60616."
  15. ^ [3]

External links

126th New York Volunteer Infantry

The 126th New York Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

15th Independent Battery Indiana Light Artillery

15th Indiana Battery Light Artillery was an artillery battery that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

55th Illinois Infantry Regiment

The 55th Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The regiment is sometimes referred to as the Canton Rifles or the Douglas Brigade 2nd Regiment.

60th Ohio Infantry

The 60th Ohio Volunteer Infantry (or 60th OVI) was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

64th Virginia Mounted Infantry

The 64th Virginia Mounted Infantry Regiment was formed from troops raised in Lee, Scott, Wise and Buchanan counties in Virginia for service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. It served as an infantry regiment, a cavalry regiment, and a mounted infantry (dragoon) unit, and had a mixed reputation.

Its troops originally were recruited in 1861 as the 21st Virginia Infantry Battalion, or the "Pound Gap Battalion", with assurances that they would be fighting mostly near home in western Virginia, and eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. Many failed to re-enlist after their year of service ended in 1862. Morale was a problem, in part because of the poor clothing and provisions they were issued, as well as their initial duties of arresting and guarding Unionists in the tri-state region. Also, the 64th Virginia gained a reputation for lack of discipline.

The 64th Regiment Virginia Mounted Infantry was organized in December 1862 in Abingdon, by consolidating the 21st and 29th Virginia Infantry Battalions. The 21st had been raised by Confederate Brigadier General Felix K. Zollicoffer (former Tennessee congressman) and Major John B. Thompson after the 1861 harvest, with soldiers volunteering for a year's service. It was supposed to defend Southwest Virginia from Pike County, Kentucky and the watershed of the Tug River to the Saltville, Virginia saltworks, including the Cumberland Gap. Its commander, Brigadier General Humphrey Marshall (a former Kentucky congressman) wanted these troops sent to Nashville, Tennessee, but the 5th Kentucky was sent instead, and the 21st Virginia did not have much recruiting success in Harlan County, Kentucky in 1862. Also, opposing forces led by Union Colonel (later General and President) James A. Garfield tried to win the hearts and minds of Kentuckians and southwest Virginians (which had no voters for Republican candidate Lincoln in the 1860 Presidential election, residents voting mostly for Breckinridge of Kentucky, whom Gen. Marshall had also supported, but a great percentage of whom enlisted once secession was declared and the harvest gathered).They were consolidated with the newly recruited 29th Virginia Infantry as 1861 ended. However, General Zollifoffer died in the Battle of Mill Springs in Kentucky on January 18, 1862 and so had limited association with the unit, and General Marshall would also resign in the late spring (he later withdraw his resignation but be assigned elsewhere).

On September 9, 1862, Confederate brevet General John W. Frazer (the nomination was withdrawn after this debacle) surrendered most of this (dismounted) unit at the Cumberland Gap to Union General Ambrose Burnside. Col. Campbell Slemp of the 64th Virginia and Major Byron G. McDowell of the 62nd North Carolina however, slipped out into the mountains with about 600 men rather than surrender, and re-formed their unit at Zollicoffer, Tennessee (now Bluff City, Tennessee). Captain William R. Boles of the 64th Virginia jumped on Col. Frazer and tried to beat him up when he heard the order, but was pulled off by Union officers. Many of the 1,026 Confederate prisoners (425 of them members of this unit, plus troops from Georgia, North Carolina, Kentucky, and Tennessee) were sent to Louisville, Kentucky then to Camp Douglas (Chicago). There, about 150 died in the unsanitary conditions and 43 men enlisted in the Union Army or Navy to escape the horrible prison camp. Col. Frazer wrote his official account of the Battle of the Cumberland Gap while a Union prisoner at another camp.The surrender necessitated a late 1862 reorganization; the unit was sometimes known as the 64th Virginia Mounted Infantry or the 64th Virginia Infantry. After September 1, 1863, it was also called the 64th Virginia Cavalry because another reorganization in October 1863 briefly placed the 64th Virginia in Brig. John Stuart Williams' Cavalry Brigade. However, that brigade drew ill will in the Lee County area by its methods of confiscating provisions, especially horses to replace mounts. Moreover, on October 20, 1863, a federal raiding party sent by Union General Wilcox surprised Slemp's encamped 64th Infantry near Jonesville and managed to destroy much of their equipment and supplies. On November 5, 1863, Williams' brigade managed to intercept the federal raiders, but the 64th Virginia basically tagged along. In January 1864, Col. Slemp was court-martialed by Brig. Gen. "Grumble" Jones for dereliction of duty based on events of November 7, 1863, when Slemp ordered 10 or 15 wagons captured from the enemy moved, endangering the column if attacked while on the road from Rogersville to Blountville. Although many Virginians (including legislators) tried to get the charges dropped (and his Lt. Col. Auburn L. Pridemore tried to press charges against Gen. Jones for leapfrogging past Col. Giltner's 4th Kentucky Cavalry and crossing the Holston River behind enemy forces on that specified date), Capt. H. Brown of the 8th Virginia Cavalry and Major Rhea of Tennessee (neither units in Williams' command) continued to press the dereliction and ill-discipline charges. Col. Slemp hurt his cause by slipping house arrest in Abingdon prior to trial and instead returning home to Lee County; he was convicted, relieved of command and dismissed from the Confederate army.Later the 64th Virginia continued to confront the Federals in various conflicts in East Tennessee, Western Virginia, and North Carolina until the war's end. However, its equipment and manpower problems continued. During April 1864, it totaled 268 effectives, but in April 1865, fewer than 50 disbanded.

The major field officers (all future U.S. congressmen) were Colonels Campbell Slemp of Company A, Auburn L. Pridemore of Company C, and Lieutenant Colonel James B. Richmond (after January 1863); as well as Major Harvey Gray (of Company E and F, especially after February 1864).

American Civil War prison camps

American Civil War Prison Camps were operated by both the Union and the Confederacy to handle the 409,000 soldiers captured during the war from 1861 to 1865. The Record and Pension Office in 1901 counted 211,000 Northerners who were captured. In 1861-63 most were immediately paroled; after the parole exchange system broke down in 1863, about 195,000 went to prison camps. Some tried to escape but few succeeded. By contrast 464,000 Confederates were captured (many in the final days) and 215,000 imprisoned. Over 30,000 Union and nearly 26,000 Confederate prisoners died in captivity. Just over 12% of the captives in Northern prisons died, compared to 15.5% for Southern prisons.

Black Metropolis–Bronzeville District

Black Metropolis–Bronzeville District is a historic district in the Bronzeville neighborhood of South Side, Chicago, Illinois.

The neighborhood encompasses the land between the Dan Ryan Expressway to the west, Martin Luther King Jr. Drive to the east, 31st Street to the north, and Pershing Road (39th street) to the south.

Camp Douglas

Camp Douglas can refer to a location in the United States:

Camp Douglas, Wisconsin, a village

Camp Douglas (Chicago), a Union POW camp during the American Civil War

Camp Douglas (Wyoming), a US POW camp during World War II

Camp Douglas (Fort Douglas, Utah), a U.S. Army post along the Oregon Trail in UtahCamp Douglas can refer to a farmstead in Spitsbergen:

Camp Douglas, Spitsbergen, a former mining encampmentCampdouglas can refer to a location in Balmaghie, Scotland

Camp Douglas (Chicago)

Camp Douglas, in Chicago, Illinois, sometimes described as "The North's Andersonville," was one of the largest Union Army prisoner-of-war camps for Confederate soldiers taken prisoner during the American Civil War. Based south of the city on the prairie, it was also used as a training and detention camp for Union soldiers. The Union Army first used the camp in 1861 as an organizational and training camp for volunteer regiments. It became a prisoner-of-war camp in early 1862. Later in 1862 the Union Army again used Camp Douglas as a training camp. In the fall of 1862, the Union Army used the facility as a detention camp for paroled Confederate prisoners (these were Union soldiers who had been captured by the Confederacy and sent North under an agreement that they would be held temporarily while formal prisoner exchanges were worked out).

Camp Douglas became a permanent prisoner-of-war camp from January 1863 to the end of the war in May 1865. In the summer and fall of 1865, the camp served as a mustering out point for Union Army volunteer regiments. The camp was dismantled and the movable property was sold off late in the year. The land was eventually sold-off and developed.

In the aftermath of the war, Camp Douglas eventually came to be noted for its poor conditions and death rate of about seventeen percent, although it is possible a higher rate occurred. Some 4,275 Confederate prisoners were known to be re-interred from the camp cemetery to a mass grave at Oak Woods Cemetery after the war.

Confederate Rest

Confederate Rest, in Forest Hill Cemetery, Madison, Wisconsin, is the northernmost Confederate graveyard in the nation. In it lie 140 Confederate prisoners of war who died under Union captivity.

Confederate States Army

The Confederate States Army was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, and colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War. He had also been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U.S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U.S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.

An accurate count of the total number of individuals who served in the Confederate Army is not possible due to incomplete and destroyed Confederate records; estimates of the number of individual Confederate soldiers are between 750,000 and 1,000,000 men. This does not include an unknown number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications and defenses or driving wagons. Since these figures include estimates of the total number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war, they do not represent the size of the army at any given date. These numbers do not include men who served in Confederate States Navy.

Although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription, primarily as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of exact records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of United States soldiers who were conscripts.Confederate casualty figures also are incomplete and unreliable. The best estimates of the number of deaths of Confederate soldiers are about 94,000 killed or mortally wounded in battle, 164,000 deaths from disease and between 26,000 and 31,000 deaths in United States prison camps. One estimate of Confederate wounded, which is considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from other causes such as accidents, which would add several thousand to the death toll.The main Confederate armies, the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee and the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and various other units under General Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered to the U.S. on April 9, 1865 (officially April 12), and April 18, 1865 (officially April 26). Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16, 1865 and June 28, 1865. By the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted, and some estimates put the number as high as one third of Confederate soldiers. The Confederacy's government effectively dissolved when it fled Richmond in April and exerted no control over the remaining armies.

Douglas

Douglas may refer to:

Douglas (given name)

Douglas (surname)

Douglas, Illinois

Douglas, Illinois may refer to:

Douglas, Knox County, Illinois, an unincorporated community in Knox County

Douglas, St. Clair County, Illinois, an unincorporated community in St. Clair County

Douglas, Chicago, a neighborhood of Chicago

List of Utah Utes in the NFL Draft

This is a list of Utah Utes football players in the NFL Draft.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1955 until his assassination in 1968. Born in Atlanta, King is best known for advancing civil rights through nonviolence and civil disobedience, tactics his Christian beliefs and the nonviolent activism of Mahatma Gandhi helped inspire.

King led the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and in 1957 became the first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). With the SCLC, he led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany, Georgia, and helped organize the nonviolent 1963 protests in Birmingham, Alabama. He also helped organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.

On October 14, 1964, King won the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance. In 1965, he helped organize the Selma to Montgomery marches. The following year, he and the SCLC took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing. In his final years, he expanded his focus to include opposition towards poverty and the Vietnam War. He alienated many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled "Beyond Vietnam". J. Edgar Hoover considered him a radical and made him an object of the FBI's COINTELPRO from 1963 on. FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, and on one occasion mailed King a threatening anonymous letter, which he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide.

In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., to be called the Poor People's Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee. His death was followed by riots in many U.S. cities. Allegations that James Earl Ray, the man convicted of killing King, had been framed or acted in concert with government agents persisted for decades after the shooting. Sentenced to 99 years in prison for King's murder, effectively a life sentence as Ray was 41 at the time of conviction, Ray served 29 years of his sentence and died from hepatitis in 1998 while in prison.

King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971; the holiday was enacted at the federal level by legislation signed by President Ronald Reagan in 1986. Hundreds of streets in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor, and a county in Washington State was also rededicated for him. The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., was dedicated in 2011.

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad

The Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad (known as the Met or Polly "L") was the third elevated rapid transit line to be built in Chicago, Illinois and was the first of Chicago’s elevated lines to be electrically powered. The line ran from downtown Chicago to Marshfield Avenue with branches to Logan Square, Humboldt Park, Garfield Park, and Douglas Park (eventually extended to the suburb of Berwyn, Illinois). Portions of the system are still operated as sections of the Blue Line and the Pink Line.

Ross Youngs

Ross Middlebrook "Pep" Youngs (April 10, 1897 – October 22, 1927) was an American professional baseball player. Nicknamed "Pep", he played ten seasons in Major League Baseball for the New York Giants from 1917 through 1926, playing right field almost exclusively. Youngs was a part of the Giants teams that won four consecutive National League pennants and the 1921 and 1922 World Series.

From Shiner, Texas, Youngs excelled at baseball and American football at the West Texas Military Institute. After beginning his professional career in minor league baseball, the Giants signed him in 1916. Youngs had a lifetime .322 batting average with the Giants and batted over .300 nine times in his career, including eight consecutive seasons. His career was cut short by illness, however, as he died at the age of 30 of Bright's disease.

Youngs was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1972 by the Veterans Committee. His election was not without controversy, however, as the Veterans Committee consisted of his former teammates, and charges of cronyism were leveled against the committee.

Theodore Runyon

Theodore Runyon (October 29, 1822 – January 27, 1896) was a United States politician, diplomat, and American Civil War brigadier general in the New Jersey Militia, serving with the Union Army at the Battle of First Bull Run. Runyon was a lawyer before the Civil War and mayor of Newark, New Jersey, a major general in command of the New Jersey National Guard until 1873, first president of the Manufacturers' National Bank of Newark, chancellor of New Jersey for 14 years and, between 1893 and 1896, envoy and later ambassador to Germany

Young Women's Leadership Charter School of Chicago

Young Women's Leadership Charter School (YWLCS) is a grade 9-12 charter high school for girls in Douglas, Chicago, Illinois.The school was established in 1999. As of 2016 it had almost 350 students; it is Chicago's only public school only for girls.The school uses a lottery to determine admission. The school is diverse, drawing from many neighborhoods.

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