The doubloon (from Spanish doblón, meaning "double") was a two-escudo or 32-real gold coin;[1] weighing 6.867 grams (0.218 troy ounces) in 1537, and 6.766 grams from 1728, of .92 fine gold (22-carat gold).[2] Doubloons were minted in Spain and the viceroyalties of New Spain, Peru, and Nueva Granada. The term was first used to describe the golden excelente either because of its value of two ducats or because of the double portrait of Ferdinand and Isabella.

In the New World, Spanish gold coins were minted in one, two, four, and eight escudo denominations. The two escudo piece was called a "pistole"; the large eight escudo coin was called a "quadruple pistole" or, at first, a double doubloon. English colonists would come to call it the Spanish doubloon.[2]

After the War of 1812, doubloons were valued in Nova Scotia at the rate of £4 and became the dominant coin there.[3]

Doubloons marked "2 S" are equivalent to four dollars in US gold coins and were traded in that manner. Small 1/2-escudo coins (similar to a US $1 gold piece) have no value marked on them but were worth a Spanish milled dollar in trade.

In Spain, doubloons were current up to the middle of the 19th century. Isabella II of Spain replaced an escudo-based coinage with decimal reales in 1859, and replaced the 6.77-gram doblón with a new heavier doblón worth 100 reales and weighing 8.3771 grams (0.268 troy ounces). The last Spanish doubloons (showing the denomination as 80 reales) were minted in 1849. After their independence, the former Spanish colonies of Mexico, Peru and Nueva Granada continued to mint doubloons.

Doubloons have also been minted in Portuguese colonies, where they went by the name dobrão, with the same meaning. The São Tomé and Príncipe dobra is the only extant currency with a name meaning "doubloon."

In Europe, the doubloon became the model for several other gold coins, including the French Louis d'or, the Italian doppia, the Swiss duplone, the Northern German pistole, and the Prussian Friedrich d'or.

Spanish gold 4-doubloon coin (8 escudos), stamped as minted in Mexico city mint in 1798. Obverse: Carol.IIII.D.G. Ind.R.

See also


  1. ^ "Doubloon".
  2. ^ a b Jordan, Louis. "Spanish Gold", The Coins of Colonial and Early America, Department of Special Collections, Hesburgh Libraries, University of Notre Dame
  3. ^ McCullough, Alan Bruce. Money and Exchange in Canada to 1900, Dundurn, 1984 ISBN 9780919670860
Brasher Doubloon

The Brasher Doubloon is a rare American coin, privately minted in and after 1787.

Conrad Janis

Conrad Janis (born February 11, 1928) is an American jazz trombonist and actor. Janis is best known for playing Mindy McConnell's father Frederick on Mork & Mindy.

John Brahm

John Brahm (August 17, 1893 – October 13, 1982) was a film and television director. His films include The Undying Monster (1942), The Lodger (1944), Hangover Square (1945), The Locket (1946), The Brasher Doubloon (1947), and the 3D horror film, The Mad Magician (1954).

Kennedy Cartoons

Kennedy Cartoons was an animation studio based in Toronto and Manila led by Glen Kennedy, who formerly worked as an animation supervisor for Hanna-Barbera and Filmation during the 1980s. His animation can be seen in A Pup Named Scooby-Doo and Jetsons: The Movie among others. Dan Lee, another Kennedy Cartoons animator, went on to Pixar before his death in 2005. In its Tiny Toons and Darkwing Duck days the studio outsourced some scenes of animation to StarToons, located in Chicago. Prior to opening the Manila division in 1992, Kennedy Cartoons typically had their ink-and-paint/camera work done by Fil-Cartoons, Bon Art and Wang Film Productions. Tiny Toons also gained Kennedy an Emmy Award and a Primetime Emmy nomination. The studio provided animation for the following cartoons:

Tiny Toon Adventures (1990–1991) - 17 half-hour episodes: Hare Today, Gone Tomorrow, Buster and the Wolverine, Gang Busters, Fields of Honey, Best o' Plucky Duck Day, The Acme Bowl, You Asked for It: Part 2, Inside Plucky Duck, Son of Looniversity Daze, Pollution Solution, Who Bopped Bugs Bunny?, The Looney Beginning, High Toon, You Asked for It Again, Son of the Wacko World of Sports, How Sweetie It Is and New Character Day.

Darkwing Duck (1991) - 6 half-hour episodes: Water Way to Go, Whiffle While You Work, Dry Hard, Jurassic Jumble, Up, Up and Awry and Darkwing Doubloon.

Goof Troop (1992–1993) - 15 half-hour episodes: Cabana Fever, Counterfeit Goof, Hot Air, Tub Be or Not Tub Be, Max-imum Protection, Lethal Goofin', For Pete's Sake, Hallow-Weenies, Cat's Entertainment, Educating Goofy, Queasy Rider, Puppy Love, Sherlock Goof, Talent to the Max and Clan of the Cave Goof.

Raw Toonage (1992) - 1 short: Goldijitters and the Three Bobcats

Bonkers (1993–1994) - 8 half-hour episodes: Tune Pig, Out of Sight, Out of Toon, Once in a Blue Toon, The Final Review, Fall Apart-Land, A Wooly Bully, Frame That Toon and Miracle at the 34th Precinct.

Aladdin (1994–1995) - 12 half-hour episodes: The Game, Much Abu About Something, Stinker Belle, SandSwitch, As the Netherworld Turns, The Way We War, Smolder and Wiser, Mission: Imp Possible, The Lost City of the Sun, Night of the Living Mud, Poor Iago and Eye of the Beholder.

Fantastic Four (1994) - The season one opening.

What a Cartoon! (1997) - 1 short: Tales of Worm Paranoia with Carbunkle Cartoons.

The Wacky World of Tex Avery (1997) - The opening (as new studio Animasia).

List of Darkwing Duck characters

This article includes a list of characters from the Disney animated series Darkwing Duck.

List of most expensive coins

The following list is a chart of the most expensive coins. Most of these are auction prices. Several private sale prices over $2m are not in this list yet.

Moby Dick Coin

Known in the numismatic world as a "Moby Dick Coin", the Ecuadorian 8 Escudos doubloon, minted in Quito, Ecuador, between 1838 and 1843, is the one ounce of gold "sixteen dollar piece" Captain Ahab nails to the mast of the Pequod, promising it to the first man who "raises" Moby-Dick. The coin is first mentioned in Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick, in Chapter 36 "The Quarter Deck" and later at length in Chapter 99 "The Doubloon". It is often confused as a Spanish doubloon, but this coin was not struck by the Spanish crown or endorsed by the Spanish government. The Moby Dick coin was minted in the Republic of Ecuador, at the Quito mint, many years after its independence from Spain, reason the term "Spanish" must be taken as erroneous when referred to the origin of this rare specimen.

In pop culture, the coin played a central role in Season 1, Episode 4 of Netflix's Carmen Sandiego in 2019.

Nancy Guild

Nancy Joan Guild (October 11, 1925 – August 16, 1999) was an American film actress of the 1940s and 1950s. She appeared in Somewhere in the Night (1946), The Brasher Doubloon (1947), and the comedy Abbott and Costello Meet the Invisible Man (1951). Although appearing in major films, Guild never achieved as much fame at 20th Century Fox, the studio that had signed her to a seven-year contract, as she had hoped for, and eventually gave up acting for marriage.

National Numismatic Collection

The National Numismatic Collection is the national coin cabinet of the United States. The collection is part of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History.

Puzzle Pirates

Puzzle Pirates is a massively multiplayer online game developed by Three Rings Design, a company acquired by Sega Sammy Holdings in 2011. The player takes the role of a pirate, adventuring on the high seas and pillaging money ("pieces of eight") from roaming enemy ships (human or computer-controlled). The mechanics of Puzzle Pirates are driven by puzzles. For example, to effectively sail a ship, players must play puzzle games representing work at the sails for speed, pumping bilge water to remove it from the ship, and carpentry to fix any damage the ship may take.

Puzzle Pirates is open-ended and community-driven. Over time, pirates can join a crew, progress in rank within that crew, buy and run sailing vessels and shoppes, and perhaps even become captain of a crew, royalty within a flag (an alliance of crews), or governor of an island. Islands are governed and shoppes are managed exclusively by players. From time to time, players are also called upon to help expand the game, whether it be new puzzles (developed on Game Gardens), island objects to be used on new oceans (servers), or artwork used for a variety of purposes in-game.

Players are encouraged to use pirate-themed words and phrases such as "Yarr!" and "Ahoy there, matey!" instead of "Hi", etc., and the same is done throughout the game; for instance, the tips which appear in the game's News, which is updated regularly, use terms such as "Jackanapes".

As of December 2008, there were 4 million pirates registered to the game.On August 31, 2011, the game was made free-to-play on Steam. Support for an iPad platform was developed and released in 2013. Three Rings later announced the removal of the iPad application and ceased support of the platform in July, 2014.On April 5, 2016, Three Rings Design announced that support for Puzzle Pirates would shift from them to Grey Havens, a company consisting of former Three Rings employees.

Rare Coin Wholesalers

Rare Coin Wholesalers is a rare-coin company that specializes in United States rare coins. Located in Irvine, California, Rare Coin Wholesalers buys, sells, appraises and trades rare coins and precious metals. Originally established as a S.L. Contursi company in 1990, the owners have bought and sold over two billion dollars' worth of rare coins.Rare Coin Wholesalers sustains a rotating inventory of tens of millions of dollars' worth of rare numismatic coins. RCW has either owned or participate in the purchase and sale of a majority of the “100 Greatest U.S. Coins” published by Whitman Publishing. The Neil/Carter/Contursi 1794 Flowing Hair Silver Dollar, the King of Siam Proof Set and the Unique 1787 Brasher Doubloon are just a few of the rarities that RCW has had in its inventory.

Roy Roberts

Roy Roberts (born Roy Barnes Jones, March 19, 1906 – May 28, 1975) was an American character actor. Over his more than 40-year career, he appeared in more than nine hundred productions on stage and screen.

Silver standard

The silver standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of silver. The silver specie standard was widespread from the fall of the Byzantine Empire until the 19th century. Following the discovery in the 16th century of large deposits of silver at the Cerro Rico in Potosí, Bolivia, an international silver standard came into existence in conjunction with the Spanish pieces of eight. These silver dollar coins played the role of an international trading currency for nearly four hundred years.

In 1704, following Queen Anne's proclamation, the British West Indies became one of the first regions to adopt a gold standard in conjunction with the Spanish gold doubloon coin. In 1717, the master of the Royal Mint, Sir Isaac Newton, introduced a new mint ratio as between silver and gold, and this had the effect of putting Britain onto a de facto gold standard. Following the Napoleonic Wars, the United Kingdom introduced the gold sovereign coin and formally adopted a gold standard in 1821. At the same time, revolutions in Latin America interrupted the supply of silver dollars (pieces of eight) that were being produced at the mints in Potosi, Mexico, and Lima, Peru. The British gold standard initially extended to some of the British colonies, including the Australasian and Southern African colonies, but not to its North American colonies, British India, or to Southeast Asia. The Province of Canada adopted a gold standard in 1853, as did Newfoundland in 1865. In 1873, Imperial Germany changed over to the gold standard in conjunction with the new gold mark coin. The United States changed over to gold de facto in the same year, and over the next 35 years, all other nations changed to gold, leaving only China and the British colonies of Hong Kong and Weihaiwei on the silver standard. The silver standard finally came to an end when it was abandoned by China and Hong Kong in 1935.

Spanish escudo

The escudo was the name of two distinct Spanish currency denominations.

Steven Contursi

Steven L. Contursi (born May 21, 1952) is an American businessman and numismatist. He is the founder and president of Rare Coin Wholesalers. In the past 38 years, Steve Contursi has bought and sold over $1 billion worth of rare United States coins.

São Tomé and Príncipe dobra

The dobra is the currency of São Tomé and Príncipe. It is abbreviated Db and is divided into 100 cêntimos. The first dobra (STD) was introduced in 1977, replacing the escudo at par. Due to inflation, in 2018 the dobra was redenominated at a rate of 1000 to 1, and given the new ISO 4217 currency code STN.

São Tomé and Príncipe signed a deal with Portugal in 2009, linking the dobra with the euro. The exchange rate was fixed at 1 EUR = 24,500 STD on 1 January 2010, which means that the new dobra is pegged to the euro at €1 = 24.5 STN / nDb.

The name derives from Portuguese dóbra, meaning "doubloon."

The Brasher Doubloon

The Brasher Doubloon (known in the UK as The High Window) is a 1947 crime film noir directed by John Brahm and based on the novel The High Window by Raymond Chandler. The film features George Montgomery, Nancy Guild and Conrad Janis.Fred MacMurray, Victor Mature, and Dana Andrews were all mentioned at different times as having been cast as Philip Marlowe in the film before the studio settled on George Montgomery appearing in the final film of his 20th Century Fox contract.

The plot revolves around a man being pushed out of a high window by a woman while the incident was caught on film. The movie is technically a remake of Time to Kill, a 1942 film that adapted The High Window as a Michael Shayne adventure starring Lloyd Nolan.

The High Window

The High Window is a 1942 novel written by Raymond Chandler. It is his third novel featuring the Los Angeles private detective Philip Marlowe.

Time to Kill (1942 film)

Time to Kill is an American mystery film directed by Herbert I. Leeds. It is

the first screen adaptation of Raymond Chandler's novel The High Window, which was remade five years later as The Brasher Doubloon. The detective was changed from Philip Marlowe to Michael Shayne for this version, with Lloyd Nolan playing the part and Heather Angel in a rare turn as leading lady.

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