Double play

In baseball, a double play (denoted as DP in baseball statistics) is the act of making two outs during the same continuous play. The double play is defined in the Official Rules in the Definitions of Terms, and for the official scorer in Rule 9.11.[1] Double plays can occur any time there is at least one baserunner and less than two outs.

During the 2016 Major League Baseball (MLB) regular season, the average for double plays completed by each team during the course of a 162-game season was 145[2] — nearly one per game by each team.

Bret-boone seattle-v-cincinnati 06-19-2002
After stepping on second base, the fielder throws to first to complete a double play.


The simplest scenario for a double play is a runner on first base with less than two outs. In that context, five example double plays are:

  • The batter hits a ground ball
    • to an infielder or the pitcher, who throws the ball to one of the middle infielders, who steps on second base to force out the runner coming from first (first out), and then throws the ball to the first baseman in time to force out the batter (second out). As both outs are made by force plays, this is referred to as a "force double play".[1] This is the most common double play.
      The neighborhood play is a source of controversy, as umpires sometimes call the runner out at second base out despite the infielder not clearly touching that base, but merely being "in the neighborhood".
    • to the first baseman, who steps on first base to force out the batter (first out), and with the baserunner trying to advance from first base to second base, throws the ball to the shortstop who puts out the runner (second out). This is referred to as a "reverse force double play",[1] although executing the first out removes the condition that forced the runner to take second base. The second out is not a force play and must be made with a tag.
  • The batter hits the ball in the air
    • a line drive to the first baseman, who catches it (first out), and then steps on first base before the baserunner can return to first to tag up (second out). This is also an example of an unassisted double play.
    • a deep fly ball to the right fielder, who catches it (first out), meanwhile the baserunner tags up and attempts to advance, and the outfielder throws the ball to the shortstop who tags the runner before he reaches second base (second out).
  • The batter strikes out (first out)
    • Meanwhile, the runner attempts to steal second base, and the catcher throws the ball to a middle infielder, who tags the runner before he reaches the base (second out). This is colloquially known as a "strike 'em out, throw 'em out" double play.

Double plays can occur in many ways in addition to these examples, and can involve many combinations of fielders. A double play can include an out resulting from a rare event, such as interference or an appeal play.


Per standard baseball positions, the examples given above are recorded, respectively, as:

  • 4-6-3 (second baseman to shortstop to first baseman) or 6-4-3 (shortstop to second baseman to first baseman). Other combinations start with 1 (pitcher), 3 (first baseman), or (5 third baseman), followed by 6-3 or 4-3 depending on which middle infielder is covering second base on the play.
  • 3-6 (first baseman to shortstop)
  • 3 (first baseman), unassisted
  • 9-6 (right fielder to shortstop)
  • K (strike out), 2-6 CS (caught stealing, catcher to shortstop) or 2-4 CS (caught stealing, catcher to second baseman)

Double plays that are initiated by a batter hitting a ground ball are recorded in baseball statistics as GIDP (grounded into double play). This statistic has been tracked since 1933 in the National League and since 1939 in the American League.[3] This statistic does not include line-outs into double plays, for which there is no official statistic for a batter.


The double play is a coup for the fielding team and debilitating to the batting team. The fielding team can select pitches to induce a double play — such as a sinker, which is more likely to be hit as a ground ball — and can position fielders to make a ground ball more likely to be turned into a double play. The batting team may take action — such as a hit and run play — to reduce the chance of grounding into a force double play.


In baseball slang, making a double play is referred to as "turning two" or a "twin killing". Double plays are also known as "the pitcher's best friend" because they disrupt offense more than any other play, except for the rare triple play. A force double play made on a ground ball hit to the third baseman, who throws to the second baseman, who then throws to the first baseman, is referred to as an "around the horn" double play. A "strike 'em out, throw 'em out" double play occurs when a base runner is caught stealing immediately after the batter strikes out. The ability to "make the pivot" on a force double play – receiving a throw from the third base side, then quickly turning and throwing to first base – is a key skill for a second baseman.

Tinker to Evers to Chance

Joe Tinker (baseball card - 1912)


John J. Evers, Chicago Cubs, baseball card portrait LOC 3970980335


Frank Chance Baseball Card


The most famous double play trio—although they never set any records—were Joe Tinker, Johnny Evers and Frank Chance, who played shortstop, second baseman and first baseman, respectively, for the Chicago Cubs between 1902 and 1912.[4] Their double play against the New York Giants in a 1910 game inspired Giants fan Franklin Pierce Adams to write the short poem Baseball's Sad Lexicon, otherwise known as Tinker to Evers to Chance, which immortalized the trio.[5] All three players were part of the Cubs team that won the National League pennant in 1906, 1907, 1908, and 1910, and the World Series in 1907 and 1908, turning 491 double plays on the way.[6] They were elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946.[5]

Odd and notable double plays

  • The New York Yankees recorded a rare 4-1-5 double play against the San Francisco Giants on July 24, 2016, in the top of the 8th inning. The Giants had Mac Williamson on first base with one out, when Ramiro Peña hit a ground ball that got by Yankees' first baseman Mark Teixeira but was fielded on the edge of the outfield grass by Starlin Castro. Castro threw to pitcher Chad Green at first base to retire Peña. Meanwhile, Williamson had rounded second on his way to third, and a throw from Green to third baseman Chase Headley resulted in Williamson being tagged out, ending the inning.[7][8]
  • A bizarre 8-6-2 double play occurred in a nationally televised game between the New York Yankees and Chicago White Sox on August 2, 1985, in the bottom of the 7th inning. With Bobby Meacham on second base and Dale Berra on first base, Rickey Henderson hit a single to deep left-center. Berra ran quickly from first to second, while Meachem stopped his run towards third to return to second base to tag up (expecting the ball would be caught). After the ball was not caught, both runners – now within a few yards of each other – ran to third and then tried to score. A throw from Luis Salazar in centerfield to Ozzie Guillén at shortstop was relayed to catcher Carlton Fisk in time for him to tag out both Meacham and Berra at the plate.[9][10]
  • A very similar 9-4-2 double play occurred on October 4, 2006, in Game 1 of the NLDS between the Los Angeles Dodgers and the New York Mets. After Russell Martin hit a single to right field, both Jeff Kent and J.D. Drew were tagged out at the plate by catcher Paul Lo Duca.[11][12]
  • A 9-2-7-2 double play on July 9, 1985, effectively ended the career of Toronto Blue Jays catcher Buck Martinez. With Phil Bradley – a former University of Missouri football player – on second base, Gorman Thomas hit a single to right field. As Bradley rounded third, Blue Jays right fielder Jesse Barfield charged and fielded the ball and threw to Martinez, who had just enough time to catch the ball before absorbing Bradley's full charge. Despite suffering a broken leg and severely dislocated ankle, Martinez maintained control of the ball and registered the out at home plate. As Thomas rounded second, Martinez attempted to throw to third base from a seated position, but the ball missed the third baseman and went into left field. On the error, Thomas rounded third in an attempt to score. Left fielder George Bell fielded the ball near the left-field foul line and quickly returned the ball with a one-hop throw to Martinez, who tagged out Thomas.[13][14][15]
  • On July 30, 2014, a 1-6-1-5 double play occurred without the ball being put into play in top of the 6th inning a game between the Pittsburgh Pirates and San Francisco Giants. Giants reliever Jean Machi, having inherited Gaby Sanchez (as a pinch-runner for Ike Davis) and Travis Snider as base-runners and having allowed a sacrifice to Jordy Mercer, issued a one-out walk to Chris Stewart with first base open. However, since the ball is still live on a walk, Machi, noticing that Snider was well off second base, threw the ball to shortstop Brandon Crawford, who chased down and tagged out Snider for the second out of the inning. Crawford then saw Sanchez having vacated third base and trying to score, and so Crawford threw the ball to Machi (by now in the third base line) to chase Sanchez back to third. Machi then threw the ball to Pablo Sandoval, who chased down and tagged out Sanchez for the third out.[16]
  • Shifts away from normal defensive alignment can create scenarios in which unusual double plays can occur.
  • During the April 12, 2008, game between the New York Yankees and the Boston Red Sox, in the top of the 7th inning the Boston infield was shifted right for New York left-handed power hitter Jason Giambi, with a baserunner on first. Giambi grounded to second baseman Dustin Pedroia, who threw to third baseman Kevin Youkilis, covering second due to the shift. Youkilis tagged second, then threw to first baseman Sean Casey to complete the rare 4-5-3 double play.[17]
  • The Chicago Cubs turned a 7-2-3 double play against the Pittsburgh Pirates on April 2, 2014. Tied 3–3 in the bottom of the 13th inning, the Pirates loaded the bases with no outs. The Cubs then defensively placed left fielder Junior Lake in the infield, near the third base line. Batter Clint Barmes hit a ground ball to Lake, who threw home for one out, and the catcher then threw to first base for the second out.[18][19]

All-time double play leaders by position

Mickey Vernon 1961
Mickey Vernon was part of 2044 double plays in his 20-year career.

Source: [20]

Single season

1B - Ferris Fain: 194 (Philadelphia Athletics, 1949)
2B - Bill Mazeroski: 161 (Pittsburgh Pirates, 1966)
SS - Rick Burleson: 147 (Boston Red Sox, 1980)
3B - Graig Nettles: 54 (Cleveland Indians 1971)
LF - Bibb Falk: 9 (Chicago White Sox, 1927) & Alfonso Soriano: 9 (Washington Nationals, 2006)
CF - Happy Felsch: 14 (Chicago White Sox, 1919)
RF - Mel Ott: 12 (New York Giants, 1929) & Chief Wilson: 12 (St. Louis Cardinals, 1914)
C - Steve O'Neill: 36 (Cleveland Indians, 1916)


1B - Mickey Vernon: 2044 (20 seasons)
2B - Bill Mazeroski: 1706 (17 seasons)
SS - Omar Vizquel: 1734 (24 seasons)
3B - Brooks Robinson: 618 (23 seasons)
LF - Bobby Veach: 42 (14 seasons)
CF - Tris Speaker: 107 (22 seasons)
RF - Harry Hooper: 65 (17 seasons)
C - Ray Schalk: 222 (18 seasons)

All-time GIDP leaders

Single season

Jim Rice: 36 (Boston Red Sox, 1984)[21]


Albert Pujols: 376 (through April 22, 2019)[22]


The team record for a single game is seven GIDPs. It was set by the San Francisco Giants, who grounded into seven double plays on May 4, 1969, in a 3–1 loss to the Houston Astros. The Pittsburgh Pirates suffered seven double plays (only six GIDPs) on August 17, 2018, in a 1–0 loss to the Chicago Cubs.[23][24] The 1990 Boston Red Sox grounded into 174 double plays to set the single season team record.[25]

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Official Rules". Major League Baseball. Retrieved 13 Aug 2018.
  2. ^ "2016 Major League Baseball Team Statistics and Standings". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 22 Oct 2016.
  3. ^ "Yearly League Leaders & Records for Double Plays Grounded Into". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 22 Oct 2016.
  4. ^ Singer, Tom. "Power of poem immortalizes Cubs trio". Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  5. ^ a b Hageman, William (July 5, 2010). "Remembering 'Tinker to Evers to Chance'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  6. ^ Schell, Michael J (2013). Baseball's All-Time Best Hitters: How Statistics Can Level the Playing Field. Princeton University Press. p. 181. ISBN 1400850630. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  7. ^ Hoch, Bryan (24 Jul 2016). "Yankees stun Giants with rare DP combo". Retrieved 20 Oct 2016.
  8. ^ "San Francisco Giants at New York Yankees Play by Play and Boxscore". Baseball Reference. 24 Jul 2016. Retrieved 20 Oct 2016.
  9. ^ "Fisk gets two outs at home plate". YouTube. 17 Feb 2015. Retrieved 20 Oct 2016.
  10. ^ "Chicago White Sox at New York Yankees Play by Play and Boxscore". Baseball Reference. 2 Aug 1985. Retrieved 20 Oct 2016.
  11. ^ "2006 NLDS Gm1: Lo Duca tags out two at the plate". YouTube. 8 Nov 2014. Retrieved 20 Oct 2016.
  12. ^ "Los Angeles Dodges at New York Mets Play by Play and Boxscore". Baseball Reference. 4 Oct 2006. Retrieved 20 Oct 2016.
  13. ^ "Buck Martinez". YouTube. 10 May 2010.
  14. ^ Hughson, Callum (12 May 2010). "Epic Games in Blue Jays History: Buck Martinez Completes a Double Play on a Broken Leg". Mop-Up Duty.
  15. ^ Schoenfield, David (5 Sep 2012). "The greatest play ever made". ESPN.
  16. ^ Machir, Troy (2014-07-31). "Pirates' baserunning error leads to double play on walk". Sporting News. Retrieved 2018-08-18.
  17. ^ "New York Yankees at Boston Red Sox Play by Play and Boxscore". Baseball Reference. 12 Apr 2008. Retrieved 20 Oct 2016.
  18. ^ "Chicago Cubs at Pittsburgh Pirates Play by Play and Boxscore". Baseball Reference. 2 Apr 2014. Retrieved 20 Oct 2016.
  19. ^ "CHC@PIT: Lake turns the 7-2-3 double play". YouTube. 4 Apr 2014. Retrieved 20 Oct 2016.
  20. ^ "Overall Baseball Leaders & Baseball Records". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 22 Oct 2016.
  21. ^ "Single-Season Leaders & Records for Double Plays Grounded Into". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 22 Oct 2016.
  22. ^ "Career Leaders & Records for Double Plays Grounded Into". Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  23. ^ "Team Batting Game Finder: From 1908 to 2018, (requiring GIDP>=6), sorted by greatest GIDP". Baseball Reference. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
  24. ^ Mark Gonzales (August 17, 2018). "Kyle Schwarber homers, Cubs turn 7 double plays in 1-0 win over Pirates". Chicago Tribune.
  25. ^ "Team Batting Season Finder: For Single Seasons, from 1871 to 2018, Double Plays Grounded Into (s. 1939)>=165, Standard statistics, Sorted by greatest Year". Baseball Reference. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
Alan Trammell

Alan Stuart Trammell (born February 21, 1958) is an American former professional baseball shortstop, manager and coach. His entire 20-year playing career in Major League Baseball was with the Detroit Tigers. He currently serves as a special assistant to the General Manager of the Detroit Tigers.

Trammell won a World Series championship in 1984 over his hometown San Diego Padres and an American League East division championship in 1987. Although his arm was not overpowering, he had a quick release and made accurate throws, ultimately winning four Gold Glove awards. Trammell's defense perfectly complemented his double-play partner, Lou Whitaker. The two formed the longest continuous double-play combination in major league history, playing 19 seasons together. At the plate, Trammell was one of the best-hitting shortstops of his era and won three Silver Slugger awards.

Trammell later served as Detroit's manager from 2003 through 2005. He also served as the interim manager for the Arizona Diamondbacks during the final three games of the 2014 season. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2018.

Baseball's Sad Lexicon

"Baseball's Sad Lexicon," also known as "Tinker to Evers to Chance" after its refrain, is a 1910 baseball poem by Franklin Pierce Adams. The eight-line poem is presented as a single, rueful stanza from the point of view of a New York Giants fan watching the Chicago Cubs infield of shortstop Joe Tinker, second baseman Johnny Evers, and first baseman Frank Chance complete a double play. These three players helped the Cubs win four National League championships and two World Series from 1906 to 1910.

"Baseball's Sad Lexicon" became popular across the United States among sportswriters, who wrote their own verses along the same vein. The poem only enhanced the reputations of Tinker, Evers, and Chance over the succeeding decades as the phrase became a synonymous with a feat of smooth and ruthless efficiency. It has been credited with their elections to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946.

Baseball positions

Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. Within the game there are positions in which each player can play in.

There are nine fielding positions in baseball. Each position conventionally has an associated number, which is used to score putouts:

1 (pitcher), 2 (catcher), 3 (first baseman), 4 (second baseman), 5 (third baseman), 6 (shortstop), 7 (left fielder), 8 (center fielder), and 9 (right fielder).For example:

If the third baseman fields a ball and throws it to first, it is recorded as a 5-3 out.

A double play where the second baseman fields, throws to the shortstop covering second base, who throws to the first baseman, is recorded as a 4-6-3 double play. This is not the only way to make a double play.

Baseball statistics

Baseball statistics play an important role in evaluating the progress of a player or team.

Since the flow of a baseball game has natural breaks to it, and normally players act individually rather than performing in clusters, the sport lends itself to easy record-keeping and statistics. Statistics have been kept for professional baseball since the creation of the National League and American League, now part of Major League Baseball.

Many statistics are also available from outside Major League Baseball, from leagues such as the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players and the Negro Leagues, although the consistency of whether these records were kept, of the standards with respect to which they were calculated, and of their accuracy has varied.

Double Play (film)

Double Play is a 2017 drama film directed by Ernest Dickerson. It is based on Curaçaoan author Frank Martinus Arion's internationally acclaimed Dutch-language novel Dubbelspel. The title Double Play refers to a move in dominoes where a player can play a final domino on either end of the snake, earning that team double points.

First baseman

First base, or 1B, is the first of four stations on a baseball diamond which must be touched in succession by a baserunner to score a run for that player's team. A first baseman is the player on the team playing defense who fields the area nearest first base, and is responsible for the majority of plays made at that base. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the first baseman is assigned the number 3.

Also called first sacker or cornerman, the first baseman is ideally a tall player who throws left-handed and possesses good flexibility and quick reflexes. Flexibility is needed because the first baseman receives throws from the other infielders, the catcher and the pitcher after they have fielded ground balls. In order for the runner to be called out, the first baseman must be able to stretch towards the throw and catch it before the runner reaches first base. First base is often referred to as "the other hot corner"—the "hot corner" being third base—and therefore, like the third baseman, he must have quick reflexes to field the hardest hit balls down the foul line, mainly by left-handed pull hitters and right-handed hitters hitting to the opposite field. They often are power hitters who have a substantial number of home runs and extra base hits while maintaining a .270 plus batting average.


Inwi (Arabic: إنوي‎) (formerly known as Wana) is a telecommunication company in Morocco. It is a subsidiary of the group SNI and the Kuwaiti group Zain.

With more than 50 000 branches, Inwi is the third telecommunication company in Morocco, after Maroc Telecom and Meditelecom. Inwi's network covers more than 92% of the country’s territory.

List of Twin Peaks episodes

Twin Peaks, an American serial drama television series created by David Lynch and Mark Frost, premiered on April 8, 1990, on the ABC Network in the United States and ended on June 10, 1991. The show spans 30 episodes over two seasons. The original pilot and season 2 premiere are 90 minutes long, while all the other episodes are approximately 45 minutes long. ABC canceled the series due to declining ratings in the second season.Both seasons of Twin Peaks were released on DVD in the U.S. in 2001 for the first season by Republic Pictures Entertainment/Artisan Home Entertainment and 2007 for the second and final season by Paramount Pictures Home Entertainment/CBS DVD, respectively. A complete series DVD box set, titled "The Definitive Gold Box Edition", with additional features was released on October 30, 2007. The complete series (including the film) was released on Blu-ray with even further material on July 29, 2014.Twin Peaks follows FBI Special Agent Dale Cooper, who is sent to the fictional town of Twin Peaks, Washington to investigate the murder of popular and respected high school student Laura Palmer. A feature-length prequel film, titled Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me, was released on August 28, 1992, which depicts the events leading up to Laura's death.The regular cast includes Kyle MacLachlan as FBI Special Agent Dale Cooper, Michael Ontkean as Sheriff Harry S. Truman, Mädchen Amick as Shelly Johnson, Dana Ashbrook as Bobby Briggs, Richard Beymer as Benjamin Horne, Lara Flynn Boyle as Donna Hayward, Sherilyn Fenn as Audrey Horne, Warren Frost as Dr. Will Hayward, Peggy Lipton as Norma Jennings, James Marshall as James Hurley, Everett McGill as Big Ed Hurley, Jack Nance as Pete Martell, Kimmy Robertson as Lucy Moran, Ray Wise as Leland Palmer, Joan Chen as Josie Packard, and Piper Laurie as Catherine Martell.

On October 6, 2014, it was announced that the series would return for a third season to air on Showtime. It premiered on May 21, 2017, and consists of 18 episodes.

Live at Wrigley Field

Live at Wrigley Field is a live album by Dave Matthews Band recorded on September 18, 2010 at Wrigley Field in Chicago. The album was recorded on the second night of a two night stint at the venue. Most notably, this performance was the last on the band's 2010 Summer tour, and 2011 touring hiatus. It is also their final official live album to date. The album reached number 49 in the Billboard 200 chart.Discs 1-4 were released as a part of the Live at Wrigley Field Double Play box set on May 31, 2011.

Lyn Lary

Lynford Horbart Lary (January 28, 1906 – January 9, 1973), nicknamed "Broadway", was an American professional baseball shortstop. He played twelve seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the New York Yankees, Boston Red Sox, Washington Senators, St. Louis Browns, Cleveland Indians, Brooklyn Dodgers, and St. Louis Cardinals.In a 12-season career, Lary posted a .269 batting average with 38 home runs and 526 RBIs in 1,302 games played.

A well-traveled shortstop, Lary played for six different teams in a span of twelve years, including two stints with the St. Louis Browns and playing for three teams in 1939. A good defensive player, he had good hands with a strong arm and was competent on the double play. Primarily a singles hitter, his hustle on the bases was shown by taking an extra base or for breaking up a double play. He ended his career with a 1.50 walk-to-strikeout ratio (705-to-470).

Lary debuted with the New York Yankees in 1929, finishing with a .309 average. The next season, he hit .289, and .280 in 1931. That season, he collected 107 RBIs, the most ever by a Yankees shortstop, and was one of six Yankees to have at least 100 runs scored. Lou Gehrig, Babe Ruth, Ben Chapman, Earle Combs and Joe Sewell were the others. Lary also had career-numbers in home runs (10) and triples (nine).

From 1934 through 1936, Lary divided his playing time between the Yankees, Boston Red Sox, St, Louis Browns and Washington Senators. Before the 1935 season, he was traded by the Red Sox to the Washington Senators in exchange for future Hall of Famer Joe Cronin. Playing for the 1936 Browns, he hit .289 with 112 runs and led the American League with 37 stolen bases and 155 games played. In 1937 with the Cleveland Indians, he batted .290 with 110 runs and posted career-highs in hits (187) and doubles (46).

In 1939, Lary started with Cleveland, was traded to the Brooklyn Dodgers in the midseason, then returned to St. Louis for the rest of the year. He retired in 1940, after a part-time season for the Browns.

Lary died in Downey, California, at age 66.

Nickelodeon Games and Sports for Kids

Nickelodeon Games and Sports for Kids (stylized as Nick GaS and commonly known as Nick Gas) is a defunct American cable television network that was part of MTV Networks's suite of digital cable channels. The channel was available to all digital cable providers and satellite provider Dish Network. With its focus on classic Nickelodeon game shows (all of which had been removed from the parent network in 2000), Nick GAS was essentially a children's version of (and Viacom's answer to) Game Show Network, which launched on December 1, 1994.

The VP/General Manager of the network was Nickelodeon executive Mark Offitzer, producer of numerous Nick specials including the Kids Choice Awards. Summer Sanders was named on-air Commissioner of the network; Dave Aizer (1999–2003) and Vivianne Collins (1999–2003) were the network's original on-air hosts, with Mati Moralejo (2001–05) joining soon after and later on Nadine (2004) and George (2004) separately during commercials.

Ohio Lottery

The Ohio Lottery is run by the Ohio Lottery Commission. Its games consist of scratch tickets; Pick 3, Pick 4, Pick 5 ("numbers games"); Keno, Lucky for Life, Mega Millions, Classic Lotto, and Powerball. The Lottery's slogan is "Take a chance on education. Odds are, you'll have fun!"

The Lottery's director is Dennis Berg; previous directors include Mike Dolan and Tom Hayes.

As with most U.S. lotteries, Ohio Lottery players must be 18 or older.

On Telecoms

On Telecoms was a Greek telecommunications company offering triple play, double play and fixed telephony services in Athens and Thessaloniki through Local Loop Unbundling.

The company was founded on March 2006 and started its commercial operations on January 2007. On November 2009 the company expanded in Thessaloniki. On October 2009 it acquired Vivodi Telecom and achieved the operational integration of the two companies within a few months.

On Telecoms offers a range of telephony, internet and digital TV (IPTV) services for residential customers, small businesses and enterprises.

On June 30, 2015 On Telecoms ceased all services offered, and its IP addresses returned in the RIPE NCC's free pool.

Run batted in

A run batted in (RBI), plural runs batted in (RBI or RBIs), is a statistic in baseball and softball that credits a batter for making a play that allows a run to be scored (except in certain situations such as when an error is made on the play). For example, if the batter bats a base hit, then another player on a higher base can head home to score a run, and the batter gets credited with batting in that run.

Before the 1920 Major League Baseball season, runs batted in were not an official baseball statistic. Nevertheless, the RBI statistic was tabulated—unofficially—from 1907 through 1919 by baseball writer Ernie Lanigan, according to the Society for American Baseball Research.Common nicknames for an RBI include "ribby" (or "ribbie"), "rib", and "ribeye". The plural of RBI is generally "RBIs", although some commentators use "RBI" as both singular and plural, as it can also stand for "runs batted in".

Second baseman

In baseball and softball, second baseman is a fielding position in the infield, between second and first base. The second baseman often possesses quick hands and feet, needs the ability to get rid of the ball quickly, and must be able to make the pivot on a double play. In addition, second basemen are usually right-handed; only four left-handed throwing players have ever played second base in Major League Baseball since 1950. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the second baseman is assigned the number 4.

Good second basemen need to have very good range, since they have to field balls closer to the first baseman who is often holding runners on, or moving towards the base to cover. On a batted ball to right field, the second baseman goes out towards the ball for the relay. Due to these requirements, second base is sometimes a primarily defensive position in the modern game, but there are hitting stars as well.


Shortstop, abbreviated SS, is the baseball or softball fielding position between second and third base, which is considered to be among the most demanding defensive positions. Historically the position was assigned to defensive specialists who were typically poor at batting and were often placed at the bottom of the batting order. Today shortstops are often able to hit well and many are placed at the top of the lineup. In the numbering system used by scorers to record defensive plays, the shortstop is assigned the number 6.

More hit balls go to the shortstop than to any other position, as there are more right-handed hitters in baseball than left-handed hitters, and most hitters have a tendency to pull the ball slightly. Like a second baseman, a shortstop must be agile, for example when performing a 4-6-3 double play. Also, like a third baseman, the shortstop fields balls hit to the left side of the infield, where a strong arm is needed to throw out a batter-runner before they reach the safety of first base.

Third baseman

A third baseman, abbreviated 3B, is the player in baseball whose responsibility is to defend the area nearest to third base — the third of four bases a baserunner must touch in succession to score a run. In the scoring system used to record defensive plays, the third baseman is assigned the number '5'.

The third baseman requires good reflexes in reacting to batted balls, as he is often the closest infielder (roughly 90–120 feet) to the batter. The third base position requires a strong and accurate arm, as the third baseman often makes long throws to first base. The third baseman sometimes must throw quickly to second base in time to start a double play. The third baseman must also field fly balls in fair and foul territory.

Third base is known as the "hot corner", because the third baseman is relatively close to the batter and most right-handed hitters tend to hit the ball hard in this direction. A third baseman must possess good hand-eye coordination and quick reactions in order to catch hard line drives sometimes in excess of 125 miles per hour (201 km/h). Third basemen often must begin in a position even closer to the batter if a bunt is expected, creating a hazard if the ball is instead hit sharply. As with middle infielders, right-handed throwing players are standard at the position because they do not need to turn their body before throwing across the infield to first base. Mike Squires, who played fourteen games at third base in 1982 and 1983, is a very rare example of a third baseman who threw lefty. Some third basemen have been converted from middle infielders or outfielders because the position does not require them to run as fast.

Expectations of how well a third baseman should be able to hit have varied a great deal over time; in the early years of the sport, these expectations were similar to those for shortstops, the third baseman being merely the less skilled defensive player. Players who could hit with more ability often were not suited for third base, either because they were left-handed or because they were not mobile enough for the position. However, the beginning of the live-ball era in the 1920s created a greater demand for more offense, and third basemen have since been expected to hit either for a high average (.290 or better) or with moderate to substantial power. Since the 1950s the position has become more of a power position with sluggers such as Eddie Mathews, Mike Schmidt and Ron Santo becoming stars.

There are fewer third basemen in the Baseball Hall of Fame than there are Hall of Famers of any other position. Furthermore, with the notable exception of John McGraw and Bobby Cox, few third basemen have gone on to have successful managing careers, with Jimmy Dykes and Negro Leaguer Dave Malarcher being perhaps the next most prominent managers who began their careers at third base.

Baseball concepts
Game process
Base running

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.