Double parking

Double parking can refer to parking parallel to a car already parked at the curb, double parking in attended car parks and garages, multi-space parking, or taking two metered spots with one vehicle.

Parking parallel to a car already parked at the curb

Cars double-parked on New York City street in the 1970s
Double parked car with diplomatic tags in San Francisco
The car in the cycling lane is double-parked.

"Double parking" means standing or parking a vehicle on the roadway side of a vehicle already stopped, standing or parked at the curb.[1] This often prevents some of the vehicles in the first row from departing and always obstructs a traffic lane or bike lane (to the extent of often making the street impassable in one-way single-lane situations). In some areas, people double parking their cars leave the hand brake off, allowing the drivers of the cars next to the curb to push the double parked car a little forward or backward, in order to allow departing from the parking spot. Double parking in this fashion, where illegal, is often punished by ticketing or towing the offending vehicle.

In some urban areas where parking is extremely hard to obtain, courier and delivery services will instruct their drivers that if necessary they may double park anyway, and if ticketed to simply turn it in at the end of their shift. The practice is so common that Washington DC permits companies to establish a monthly billing account for all of their vehicles that receive any parking tickets.

Double parking in attended car parks and garages

Attended car parks and garages frequently use double parking to maximize vehicle storage density. A driver who double-parks in an attended car park leaves the vehicle's keys with the attendant. If the driver of the blocked car returns first, then the attendant can move the blocking car so that the blocked car can leave. This practice is especially common for valet car parks, in which attendants have the keys to all vehicles.

Multi-space parking

Parking violation Vaughan Mills
A Ford Mustang occupying two spaces at Vaughan Mills mall, Ontario.

The term "double parking" even though it is not the legal term, is sometimes used to describe parking over the lines separating two designated parking spaces in a parking lot and is derived from situations where cars take more spaces than necessary, this is more accurately known as multi-space parking. Though this practice is most commonly a result of the driver disregarding the separating lines, it may also occur when the driver avoids parking too close to a large vehicle (such as a truck or SUV) in a narrow space, or to a vehicle which is poorly centered in the adjacent space. Sometimes, parking in this fashion, if the vehicle is large, is an attempt by the driver of the vehicle to avoid damage to the vehicle or to nearby vehicles when the doors are opened, or to ensure enough space for loading or unloading various content. The egregiousness of parking in this fashion is usually judged depending on parking space availability. It can provoke anger and even vandalism towards the offending vehicle when parking is scarce.


  1. ^ New York City Violation Codes, Fines, Rules & Regulations Archived October 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine ("double parking" is code 46)
Deadwood Police Department (South Dakota)

The Deadwood Police Department is the police department for the city of Deadwood, South Dakota.

Dice Rules

Dice Rules is a comedy double album by comedian Andrew Dice Clay, which was released in 1991. It was released on record producer Rick Rubin's record label Def American and subsequently re-issued on Warner Bros. Records. There is also a film of the same name which came out in May 1991, which received mostly negative reviews from critics and was nominated for three Razzie Awards including Worst Picture, Worst Actor (Andrew Dice Clay) and Worst Screenplay.

The first side (tracks 1-20) was recorded at Madison Square Garden with the second side (tracks 21-39) being recorded in a smaller, more intimate club setting (Rascals Comedy Club in New Jersey). The closing track, "Brooklyn Bad Boy", is an original song by Clay which was also heard during the end credits of the Dice Rules film.

Diplomatic immunity

Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity that ensures diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host country's laws, but they can still be expelled. Modern diplomatic immunity was codified as international law in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961) which has been ratified by all but a handful of nations. The concept and custom of diplomatic immunity dates back thousands of years. Many principles of diplomatic immunity are now considered to be customary law. Diplomatic immunity was developed to allow for the maintenance of government relations, including during periods of difficulties and armed conflict. When receiving diplomats, who formally represent the sovereign, the receiving head of state grants certain privileges and immunities to ensure they may effectively carry out their duties, on the understanding that these are provided on a reciprocal basis.

Originally, these privileges and immunities were granted on a bilateral, ad hoc basis, which led to misunderstandings and conflict, pressure on weaker states, and an inability for other states to judge which party was at fault. An international agreement known as the Vienna Convention codified the rules and agreements, providing standards and privileges to all states.

It is possible for the official's home country to waive immunity; this tends to happen only when the individual has committed a serious crime, unconnected with their diplomatic role (as opposed to, say, allegations of spying), or has witnessed such a crime. However, many countries refuse to waive immunity as a matter of course; individuals have no authority to waive their own immunity (except perhaps in cases of defection). Alternatively, the home country may prosecute the individual. If immunity is waived by a government so that a diplomat (or their family members) can be prosecuted, it must be because there is a case to answer and it is in the public interest to prosecute them. For instance, in 2002, a Colombian diplomat in London was prosecuted for manslaughter, once diplomatic immunity was waived by the Colombian government.

F. Marion Redd

Francis Marion Redd was Mayor of Charlotte, North Carolina, from 1927–1929. Redd was born on August 8, 1871 in Onslow County, North Carolina. He graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1905 and married Bessie Lee Flowe in 1919.In 1927 Redd was elected as the mayor of Charlotte, serving one term. He worked to improve the cities roads as driving become more popular. He began the policy of licensing drivers as a way to ensure people were fit to drive, ended all double parking downtown and passed laws limiting how long people could park uptown. Redd also fought to collect back taxes owed the city as a way to increase the city budget. He also successfully lobbied for Charlotte to be the meeting place of the 39th United Confederate Veterans Reunion. Redd also laid the groundwork in the city budget for the Charlotte Douglas Airport to eventually be constructed. Redd was very concerned with public welfare and morality during his term. He supported arresting loafers downtown if they would not leave the streets. and also declared that sexually graphic films were not to be shown in public movie theaters after 9pm. Redd is also remembered for the special census he implemented in 1928 to study the growth of the city and the ensure an accurate population count. The census was successful in that it showed 22,000 more people than what had been reported on the 1927 census. After the census Charlotte became the largest city in the state, surpassing Winston Salem.In July 1935 Redd was appointed judge of the Domestic Relations and Juvenile Courts of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County. He served on the court until his retirement in June 1949.Redd died on November 14, 1956 in Charlotte.

M23 (New York City bus)

The 23rd Street Crosstown is a surface transit line on 23rd Street in Manhattan, New York City, United States. It currently hosts the M23 SBS bus route of MTA's Regional Bus Operations. The M23 runs between Chelsea Piers, along the West Side Highway near 22nd Street, via 23rd Street, to Avenue C and 20th Street in Stuyvesant Town–Peter Cooper Village.

It replaces a street railway called the Twenty-third Street Railway. On November 6, 2016, it became a Select Bus Service (SBS) route.

Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Spanish: Ciudad de México, American Spanish: [sjuˈða(ð) ðe ˈmexiko] (listen); abbreviated as CDMX, Nahuatl languages: Āltepētl Mēxihco), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. It is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

The 2009 population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers (573 sq mi). According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration (2017), and the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world.Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world. The city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, and the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP. If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru.Mexico's capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador. The city was originally built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, which was almost completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, and as of 1585, it was officially known as Ciudad de México (Mexico City). Mexico City was the political, administrative, and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824.

After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were finally given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on demand, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, and same-sex marriage.

On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District (Spanish: Distrito Federal or D.F.) and is now officially known as Ciudad de México (or CDMX), with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, however, prevents it from becoming a state within the Mexican federation, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere.

Mumbai Traffic Police

Mumbai traffic police is the organisation entrusted with the task of managing vehicular traffic in Mumbai, India. As per new traffic rules, making out in cars at night is permitted.

New York City

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. As of 2019, the New York metropolitan area is estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of US$1.9 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world.New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U.S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U.S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, and environmental sustainability, and as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. In 2019, New York was voted the greatest city in the world per a survey of over 30,000 people from 48 cities worldwide, citing the city's cultural diversity.Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The names of many of the city's landmarks, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.

Overspill parking

Overspill parking is the parking of vehicles beyond a defined area specifically designed for this purpose. It can occur because provided parking spaces are insufficient for demand or considered unsatisfactory, and may have unintended consequences on its surroundings. Additional official parking may be provided for an event, or at some distance from the intended destination.

Overspill car parking may simply be parking further away from a place than desirable. In some circumstances it may involve parking violations or other unauthorised or anti-social parking such as double parking, parking on verges or on sidewalks and can on occasions create difficulties for others.

Available parking may be insufficient, unsuitable, expensive or otherwise undesirable. Parking may be limited because the urban form historically made little provision for the parking of private vehicles, or because the transport authority zoning policies consciously limit the provision of parking spaces to discourage car use. Overspill parking is commonplace near shops, schools, hospitals, sports grounds and train/metro stations and at other locations that attract people and vehicles. Commuters prevented from parking for the day close to train stations may resort to parking elsewhere, for example on side streets, verges or other locations.

Overspill parking may conflict with other road users including other motorists, emergency vehicles, cyclists, pedestrians and members of various vulnerable groups including the blind, wheel-chair users and people with small children. Vehicles parked on grass, authorised or not, can turn the area to mud in wet weather and parking on sidewalks can cause damage and additional maintenance/repair costs. Such cases may prompt preventative action.


Parking is the act of stopping and disengaging a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied. Parking on one or both sides of a road is often permitted, though sometimes with restrictions. Some buildings have parking facilities for use of the buildings' users. Countries and local governments have rules for design and use of parking spaces.

Parking violation

A parking violation is the act of parking a motor vehicle in a restricted place or for parking in an unauthorized manner. It is against the law virtually everywhere to park a vehicle in the middle of a highway or road; parking on one or both sides of a road, however, is commonly permitted. However, restrictions apply to such parking, and may result in an offense being committed. Such offenses are usually cited by a police officer or other government official in the form of a traffic ticket.

Ronkonkoma Branch

The Ronkonkoma Branch is a rail service operated by the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) in the U.S. state of New York. On LIRR maps and printed schedules, the "Ronkonkoma Branch" includes trains running along the railroad's Main Line from Hicksville (where the Port Jefferson Branch leaves the Main Line) to Ronkonkoma, and between Ronkonkoma and the Main Line's eastern's terminus at Greenport. The section of the Main Line east of Ronkonkoma is not electrified and is referred to as the Greenport Branch.

The western segment between Hicksville and Ronkonkoma sees 24-hour service to Penn Station in New York City. The eastern segment between Ronkonkoma and Greenport is served by diesel-electric trains, and only sees a handful of trips each day. The eastern segment is also one of the few dark territory areas of the Long Island Rail Road that does not have signals.

Rothwell, West Yorkshire

Rothwell is a market town in the south-east of the City of Leeds metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. It is situated between Leeds and Wakefield.

It sits in the Rothwell ward of Leeds City Council and Elmet and Rothwell parliamentary constituency. Rothwell is also part of the West Yorkshire Urban Area.

Rothwell has a population of 21,010, and the Rothwell ward has an estimated population of 32,365. At the 2011 Census only the Leeds Metropolitan Ward remained. This had a population of 20,354. The town has benefited from recent improvements in the transport infrastructure, most notably the nearby A1/M1 link road. The nearest railway station is Woodlesford.

School zone

A school zone refers to an area on a street near a school or near a crosswalk leading to a school that has a likely presence of younger pedestrians. School zones generally have a reduced speed limit during certain hours.

Tomas Morato Avenue

Tomas Morato Avenue is a street located in Quezon City within the Diliman and New Manila areas of northeastern Metro Manila, Philippines. The street links Eulogio Rodriguez Sr. Avenue in the village of Mariana in the south with Eugenio Lopez Drive (or also known as Scout Albano Street) in South Triangle in the north, and passes through Sacred Heart, Laging Handa, Kamuning, Obrero and Kristong Hari villages. It was named after the first mayor of Quezon City.

The street is known as a restaurant row located in Quezon City's entertainment area along with Timog Avenue and West Avenue. It is also known for its bars, discos, karaoke and comedy clubs, and as a popular hangout for local actors who work in the nearby studios such as the ABS-CBN Broadcasting Center on Mother Ignacia Avenue and GMA Network Center on Timog Avenue.

Traffic congestion

Traffic congestion is a condition on transport that as use increases, and is characterised by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, this results in some congestion. While congestion is a possibility for any mode of transportation, this article will focus on automobile congestion on public roads.

As demand approaches the capacity of a road (or of the intersections along the road), extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially known as a traffic jam or traffic snarl-up. Traffic congestion can lead to drivers becoming frustrated and engaging in road rage.

Mathematically, congestion is usually looked at as the number of vehicles that pass through a point in a window of time, or a flow. Congestion flow lends itself to principles of fluid dynamics.

Traffic stop

A traffic stop, commonly called being pulled over, is a temporary detention of a driver of a vehicle by police to investigate a possible crime or minor violation of law.

Traffic violations reciprocity

Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."

Urban freight distribution

Urban freight distribution is the system and process by which goods are collected, transported, and distributed within urban environments. The urban freight system can include seaports, airports, manufacturing facilities, and warehouse/distribution centers that are connected by a network of railroads, rail yards, pipelines, highways, and roadways that enable goods to get to their destinations.

Urban freight distribution is essential to supporting international and domestic trade as well as the daily needs of local businesses and consumers. In addition, it provides thousands of jobs and other economic benefits. However, a number of challenges are associated with urban freight, such as road congestion, environmental impacts, and land use conflicts due to the proximity of freight facilities and vehicles to residential and sensitive land uses. As urban freight continues to grow, the community and environmental impacts associated with these challenges will need to be addressed and mitigated.

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