Dot (diacritic)

When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' ( ◌̇ ) and 'combining dot below' ( ◌̣ ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.

·
Dot
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
circumflex( ˆ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(   ̑  )
cedilla( ¸ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
palatal hook(   ̡ )
retroflex hook(   ̢ )
hook above, dấu hỏi(  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ )
macron( ˉ )
ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂ )
overring( ˚ )
underring( ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
period( . )
hyphen( ˗ )
prime( )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora(  ҄ )
pokrytie(  ҇ )
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
visarga( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Ȧ ȧ Ǡ ǡ
Ċ ċ
Ç̇ ç̇ Ć̣ ć̣
Č̣ č̣
Ė ė Ė́ ė́
Ė̃ ė̃
Ġ ġ
İ
i̇̀ i̇́ i̇̃ į̇́ į̇̃
j̇̃
Ŀ ŀ
Ȯ ȯ
Ȱ ȱ
Q̣̇ q̣̇ Q̣̈ q̣̈
Ṡ̃ ṡ̃
U̇̄ u̇̄
ṿ
Ż ż

Overdot

Language scripts or transcription schemes that use the dot above a letter as a diacritical mark:

The overdot is also used in the Devanagari script, where it is called anusvara.

In mathematics and physics, when using Newton's notation the dot denotes the time derivative as in . However, today this is more commonly written with a prime or using Leibniz's notation. In addition, the overdot is one way used to indicate an infinitely repeating set of numbers in decimal notation, as in , which is equal to the fraction ⅓, and or , which is equal to .

Underdot

Encoding

In Unicode, the dot is encoded at:

  • U+0307 COMBINING DOT ABOVE (HTML ̇)

and at:

  • U+0323 COMBINING DOT BELOW (HTML ̣)

There is also:

  • U+02D9 DOT ABOVE (HTML ˙)

Pre-composed characters:

  • U+0226 Ȧ   U+0227 ȧ
  • U+1EA0   U+1EA1
  • U+1EB6   U+1EB7
  • U+1E02   U+1E03
  • U+010A Ċ   U+010B ċ
  • U+1E0A   U+1E0B
  • U+0116 Ė   U+0117 ė
  • U+1EC6   U+1EC7
  • U+1E1E   U+1E1F
  • U+0120 Ġ   U+0121 ġ
 
  • U+1E22   U+1E23
  • U+0130 İ  
  • U+1ECA   U+1ECB
  • U+1E38   U+1E39
  • U+1E40   U+1E41
  • U+1E44   U+1E45
  • U+022E Ȯ   U+022F ȯ
  • U+1ECC   U+1ECD
  • U+0230 Ȱ   U+0231 ȱ
  • U+0298 ʘ  
  • U+1E56   U+1E57
 
  • U+1E58   U+1E59
  • U+1E5C   U+1E5D
  • U+1E9B   U+1E60
  • U+1E62   U+1E63
  • U+1E66   U+1E67
  • U+1E6A   U+1E6B
  • U+1EE4   U+1EE5
  • U+1E86   U+1E87
  • U+1E8A   U+1E8B
  • U+1E8E   U+1E8F
 
  • U+017B Ż   U+017C ż
  • U+01E0 Ǡ   U+01E1 ǡ
  • U+1EAC   U+1EAD
  • U+1E04   U+1E05
  • U+A73E   U+A73F
  • U+1E0C   U+1E0D
  • U+1EB8   U+1EB9
  • U+1E24   U+1E25
  • U+1E32   U+1E33
  • U+1E36   U+1E37
 
  • U+013F Ŀ   U+0140 ŀ
  • U+1E42   U+1E43
  • U+1E46   U+1E47
  • U+1ED8   U+1ED9
  • U+1EE2   U+1EE3
  • U+1E5A   U+1E5B
  • U+1E60   U+1E61
  • U+1E64   U+1E65
  • U+1E68   U+1E69
  • U+1E6C   U+1E6D
  • U+1EF0   U+1EF1
  • U+1E7E   U+1E7F ṿ
 
  • U+1E88   U+1E89
  • U+1EF4   U+1EF5
  • U+1E92   U+1E93
  • U+1F100 🄀  
  • U+2488  
  • U+2489  
  • U+248A  
  • U+248B  
  • U+248C  
  • U+248D  
  • U+248E  
  • U+248F  
  • U+2490  
  • U+1457   U+1458
  • U+143A   U+143B
  • U+148E  
  • U+14AB  
  • U+15EC  
  • U+237F  
  • U+2299  
  • U+22A1  

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (2007). "Technical reference manual for the standardization of geographical names" (PDF). New York: United Nations. p. 169. ISBN 978-92-1-161500-5.

External links

Adlam script

The Adlam script is a recently invented script used to write Fulani. The name adlam is an acronym derived from the first four letters of the alphabet (A, D, L, M), standing for Alkule Dandayɗe Leñol Mulugol "the alphabet that protects the peoples from vanishing".

During the late 1980s, this alphabetic script was devised by the teenaged brothers Ibrahima and Abdoulaye Barry to transcribe the Fulani language. After several years of development it started to be widely adopted among Fulani communities, and is currently taught in Guinea, Nigeria, Liberia and other nearby countries.

ADLaM is supported is supported in Google's Android and Chrome operating systems. There are also Android apps to send SMS in adlam and to learn the alphabet. On computers running Microsoft Windows, the adlam script is natively supported as part of the upcoming feature update of Windows 10 version 1903 (codenamed 19H1) build 18252.

Canadian Aboriginal syllabics

Canadian syllabic writing, or simply syllabics, is a family of abugidas (writing systems based on consonant-vowel pairs) created by James Evans to write a number of indigenous Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and (formerly) Athabaskan language families, of which had no formal writing system previously. They are valued for their distinctiveness from the Latin script of the dominant languages and for the ease with which literacy can be achieved; indeed, by the late 19th century the Cree had achieved what may have been one of the highest rates of literacy in the world.Canadian syllabics are currently used to write all of the Cree languages from Naskapi (spoken in Quebec) to the Rocky Mountains, including Eastern Cree, Woods Cree, Swampy Cree and Plains Cree. They are also used to write Inuktitut in the eastern Canadian Arctic; there they are co-official with the Latin script in the territory of Nunavut. They are used regionally for the other large Canadian Algonquian language, Ojibwe, as well as for Blackfoot, where they are obsolete. Among the Athabaskan languages further to the west, syllabics have been used at one point or another to write Dakelh (Carrier), Chipewyan, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ (Dogrib) and Dane-zaa (Beaver). Syllabics have occasionally been used in the United States by communities that straddle the border, but are principally a Canadian phenomenon.

Diaeresis (diacritic)

The diaeresis ( dy-ERR-i-sis; plural: diaereses; also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma or trema) and the umlaut are two homoglyphic diacritical marks that consist of two dots ( ¨ ) placed over a letter, usually a vowel. When that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle: ï.The diaeresis and the umlaut are diacritics marking two distinct phonological phenomena. The diaeresis represents the phenomenon also known as diaeresis or hiatus in which a vowel letter is pronounced separately from an adjacent vowel and not as part of a digraph or diphthong. The umlaut (), in contrast, indicates a sound shift.

These two diacritics originated separately; the diaeresis is considerably older.

Nevertheless, in modern computer systems using Unicode, the umlaut and diaeresis diacritics are identically encoded, e.g. U+00E4 ä LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS (HTML ä · ä) represents both a-umlaut and a-diaeresis (much like the hyphen-minus code point represents both a hyphen and often a minus sign).

The same symbol is also used as a diacritic in other cases, distinct from both diaeresis and umlaut. For example, in Albanian and Tagalog ë represents a schwa.

Duplicate characters in Unicode

Unicode has a certain amount of duplication of characters. These are pairs of single Unicode code points that are canonically equivalent. The reason for this are compatibility issues with legacy systems.

Unless two characters are canonically equivalent, they are not "duplicate" in the narrow sense. There is, however, room for disagreement on whether two Unicode characters really encode the same grapheme in cases such as the "micro sign" µ vs. the Greek μ.

This should be clearly distinguished from Unicode characters that are rendered as identical glyphs or near-identical glyphs (homoglyphs), either because they are historically cognate (such as Greek Η vs. Latin H) or because of coincidental similarity (such as Greek Ρ vs. Latin P, or Greek Η vs. Cyrillic Н, or the following homoglyphs quadruplet: astronomical symbol for "Sun" ☉, "circled dot operator" ⊙, the Gothic letter 𐍈, the IPA symbol for a bilabial click ʘ).

Irish language

Irish (Gaeilge) is a Goidelic language of the Celtic and Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry, Cork and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford, Mayo and Meath, and a few other locations, and as a second language by a larger group of non-habitual speakers across the country.Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people for most of their recorded history, and they brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic and Manx respectively. It has the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe.

Irish has constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland and is an officially recognised minority language in Northern Ireland. It is also among the official languages of the European Union. The public body Foras na Gaeilge is responsible for the promotion of the language throughout the island of Ireland.

List of German expressions in English

A German expression in English is a German loanword, term, phrase, or quotation incorporated into the English language. A loanword is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation. It is distinguished from a calque, or loan translation, where a meaning or idiom from another language is translated into existing words or roots of the host language. Some of the expressions are relatively common (e.g. hamburger), but most are comparatively rare. In many cases the loanword has assumed a meaning substantially different from its German forebear.

English and German both are West Germanic languages, though their relationship has been obscured by the lexical influence of Old Norse and Norman French (as a consequence of the Norman conquest of England in 1066) on English as well as the High German consonant shift. In recent years, however, many English words have been borrowed directly from German. Typically, English spellings of German loanwords suppress any umlauts (the superscript, double-dot diacritic in Ä, Ö, Ü, ä, ö and ü) of the original word or replace the umlaut letters with Ae, Oe, Ue, ae, oe, ue, respectively (as is done commonly in German speaking countries when the umlaut is not available; the origin of the umlaut was a superscript E).

German words have been incorporated into English usage for many reasons:

German cultural artifacts, especially foods, have spread to English-speaking nations and often are identified either by their original German names or by German-sounding English names

Developments and discoveries in German-speaking nations in science, scholarship, and classical music have led to German words for new concepts, which have been adopted into English: for example the words doppelgänger and angst in psychology.

Discussion of German history and culture requires some German words.

Some German words are used in English narrative to identify that the subject expressed is in German, e.g. Frau, Reich.As languages, English and German descend from the common ancestor language West Germanic and further back to Proto-Germanic; because of this, some English words are essentially identical to their German lexical counterparts, either in spelling (Hand, Sand, Finger) or pronunciation ("fish" = Fisch, "mouse" = Maus), or both (Arm, Ring); these are excluded from this list.

German common nouns fully adopted into English are in general not initially capitalised, and the German letter "ß" is generally changed to "ss".

List of Latin-script alphabets

The tables below summarize and compare the letter inventory of some of the Latin-script alphabets. In this article, the scope of the word "alphabet" is broadened to include letters with tone marks, and other diacritics used to represent a wide range of orthographic traditions, without regard to whether or how they are sequenced in their alphabet or the table.

Pahawh Hmong

Pahawh Hmong (RPA: Phajhauj Hmoob [pʰâ hâu m̥ɔ́ŋ], Pahawh: 𖬖𖬰𖬝𖬵 𖬄𖬶𖬟 𖬌𖬣𖬵 [pʰâ hâu m̥ɔ́ŋ]), known also as Ntawv Pahawh, Ntawv Keeb, Ntawv Caub Fab, Ntawv Soob Lwj) is an indigenous semi-syllabic script, invented in 1959 by Shong Lue Yang, to write two Hmong languages, Hmong Daw (Hmoob Dawb White Miao) and Hmong Njua AKA Hmong Leng (Moob Leeg Green Miao).

Ponç

Ponç or Ponc may refer to:

Ponç de la Guàrdia (1154–1188), Catalan knight of the family of Saguàrdia, lords of the castle of Ripoll

Ponç d'Ortafà (c. 1170–1246), Catalan nobleman and troubadour

Ponç Guerau (floruit 1105–1162), Catalan nobleman

Ponç Hug IV, Count of Empúries (1264–1313), the Count of Empúries (Ampurias) from 1277 until his death and viscount of Bas from 1285 to 1291

PONC, a strand on Cúla 4 targeting 12- to 18-year-olds

ponc séimhithe, the Dot (diacritic) in Irish typography

Retroflex lateral flap

The retroflex lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It has no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet, but may be represented as ⟨ɭ̆⟩ or with a dot diacritic as ⟨ɺ̣⟩.

Vietnamese alphabet

The Vietnamese alphabet (Vietnamese: chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language. It uses the Latin script, based on its employment in the alphabets of Romance languages, in particular the Portuguese alphabet, with some digraphs and the addition of nine accent marks or diacritics – four of them to create additional sounds, and the other five to indicate the tone of each word. The many diacritics, often two on the same vowel, make written Vietnamese easily recognizable.

Vietnamese language

Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. It is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As a result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia and Western Europe. Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic.

Vietnamese is the Austroasiatic language with by far the most speakers, several times as many as the rest of the family combined. Its vocabulary has borrowings from Chinese, and it formerly used a modified set of Chinese characters called Chữ Nôm given vernacular pronunciation. The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ quốc ngữ) in use today is a Latin alphabet with additional diacritics for tones and certain letters.

Waw (letter)

Waw/Vav (wāw "hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including

Phoenician wāw ,

Aramaic waw ,

Hebrew vav ו,

Syriac waw ܘ

and Arabic wāw و (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).

It represents the consonant [w] in original Hebrew, and [v] in modern Hebrew, as well as the vowels [u] and [o]. In text with niqqud, a dot is added to the left or on top of the letter to indicate, respectively, the two vowel pronunciations.

It is the origin of Greek Ϝ (digamma) and Υ (upsilon), Latin F and V, and the derived "Latin"- or "Roman"- alphabet letters U, W, and Y.

Ė

Ė ė is a letter of the Latin script.

Ż

Ż, ż (Z with overdot) is a letter, consisting of the letter Z of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and an overdot.

Ḍ (minuscule: ḍ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from D with the addition of a dot diacritic.

In the transcription of Afro-Asiatic languages such as Arabic, ḍ represents an "emphatic" consonant [dˤ], and is used for that purpose in the Berber Latin alphabet.

In the transcription of Indic and East Iranian languages, and in the orthography of the O'odham language, ḍ represents a retroflex [ɖ]. This was used in a former transcription of Javanese, but has been replaced by "dh."

Ḥ (minuscule: ḥ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from H with the addition of a dot diacritic. The letter has significance in various writing systems.

These include:

Visarga, the phone [h] in Sanskrit phonology in the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration. Other transliteration systems use different symbols.

The voiceless pharyngeal fricative (/ħ/) in Arabic, some Syriac languages (such as Turoyo and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic), and oriental Hebrew (whereas Ashkenazi Israelis usually pronounce the letter Ḥet as a voiceless uvular fricative (/χ/)).The phone [h] (voiceless glottal fricative) or [x] (voiceless velar fricative) in the Asturian language.

Ṣ (minuscule: ṣ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from an S with the addition of a dot below the letter. Its uses include:

the transliteration of Indic languages to represent retroflex [ʂ]

the transcription of Afro-Asiatic languages (mostly Semitic languages) to represent an "emphatic s" [sˀ] as in Arabic ص (Ṣād) and as in the Hebrew צ (Tzadi/Ṣādī) spoken by the Jews of Yemen and North Africa

the orthography of Yoruba in Nigeria to represent the voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant (the English "sh" sound)

Alphabets (list)
Letters (list)
Multigraphs
Keyboard layouts (list)
Standards
Lists

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