When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' ( ◌̇ ) and 'combining dot below' ( ◌̣ ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
Language scripts or transcription schemes that use the dot above a letter as a diacritical mark:
In mathematics and physics, when using Newton's notation the dot denotes the time derivative as in . However, today this is more commonly written with a prime or using Leibniz's notation. In addition, the overdot is one way used to indicate an infinitely repeating set of numbers in decimal notation, as in , which is equal to the fraction ⅓, and or , which is equal to ⅐.
In Unicode, the dot is encoded at:
There is also:
Canadian Aboriginal syllabic writing, or simply syllabics, is a family of abugidas (writing systems based on consonant-vowel pairs) used to write a number of indigenous Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and (formerly) Athabaskan language families. They are valued for their distinctiveness from the Latin script of the dominant languages and for the ease with which literacy can be achieved; indeed, by the late 19th century the Cree had achieved what may have been one of the highest rates of literacy in the world.Canadian syllabics are currently used to write all of the Cree languages from Naskapi (spoken in Quebec) to the Rocky Mountains, including Eastern Cree, Woods Cree, Swampy Cree and Plains Cree. They are also used to write Inuktitut in the eastern Canadian Arctic; there they are co-official with the Latin script in the territory of Nunavut. They are used regionally for the other large Canadian Algonquian language, Ojibwe, as well as for Blackfoot, where they are obsolete. Among the Athabaskan languages further to the west, syllabics have been used at one point or another to write Dakelh (Carrier), Chipewyan, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ (Dogrib) and Dane-zaa (Beaver). Syllabics have occasionally been used in the United States by communities that straddle the border, but are principally a Canadian phenomenon.Diaeresis (diacritic)
The diaeresis ( dy-ERR-i-sis; plural: diaereses; also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma or trema) and the umlaut are two homoglyphic diacritical marks that consist of two dots ( ¨ ) placed over a letter, usually a vowel. When that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle: ï.The diaeresis and the umlaut are diacritics marking two distinct phonological phenomena. The diaeresis represents the phenomenon also known as diaeresis or hiatus in which a vowel letter is pronounced separately from an adjacent vowel and not as part of a digraph or diphthong. The umlaut (), in contrast, indicates a sound shift.
These two diacritics originated separately; the diaeresis is considerably older.
Nevertheless, in modern computer systems using Unicode, the umlaut and diaeresis diacritics are identically encoded, e.g. U+00E4 ä LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS (HTML ä · ä) represents both a-umlaut and a-diaeresis (much like the hyphen-minus code point represents both a hyphen and often a minus sign).
The same symbol is also used as a diacritic in other cases, distinct from both diaeresis and umlaut. For example, in Albanian and Tagalog ë represents a schwa.Duplicate characters in Unicode
Unicode has a certain amount of duplication of characters. These are pairs of single Unicode code points that are canonically equivalent. The reason for this are compatibility issues with legacy systems.
Unless two characters are canonically equivalent, they are not "duplicate" in the narrow sense. There is, however, room for disagreement on whether two Unicode characters really encode the same grapheme in cases such as the "micro sign" µ vs. the Greek μ.
This should be clearly distinguished from Unicode characters that are rendered as identical glyphs or near-identical glyphs (homoglyphs), either because they are historically cognate (such as Greek Η vs. Latin H) or because of coincidental similarity (such as Greek Ρ vs. Latin P, or Greek Η vs. Cyrillic Н, or the following homoglyphs quadruplet: astronomical symbol for "Sun" ☉, "circled dot operator" ⊙, the Gothic letter 𐍈, the IPA symbol for a bilabial click ʘ).List of Latin-script alphabets
The tables below summarize and compare the letter inventory of some of the Latin-script alphabets. In this article, the scope of the word "alphabet" is broadened to include letters with tone marks, and other diacritics used to represent a wide range of orthographic traditions, without regard to whether or how they are sequenced in their alphabet or the table.Outline of German expressions in English
The following outline is presented as an overview of and topical guide to German expressions in English:
A German expression in English is a German loanword, term, phrase, or quotation incorporated into the English language. A loanword is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation. It is distinguished from a calque, or loan translation, where a meaning or idiom from another language is translated into existing words or roots of the host language. Some of the expressions are relatively common (e.g. hamburger), but most are comparatively rare. In many cases the loanword has assumed a meaning substantially different from its German forebear.
English and German both are West Germanic languages, though their relationship has been obscured by the lexical influence of Old Norse and Norman French (as a consequence of the Norman conquest of England in 1066) on English as well as the High German consonant shift. In recent years, however, many English words have been borrowed directly from German. Typically, English spellings of German loanwords suppress any umlauts (the superscript, double-dot diacritic in Ä, Ö, Ü, ä, ö and ü) of the original word or replace the umlaut letters with Ae, Oe, Ue, ae, oe, ue, respectively (as is done commonly in German speaking countries when the umlaut is not available; the origin of the umlaut was a superscript E).
German words have been incorporated into English usage for many reasons:
German cultural artifacts, especially foods, have spread to English-speaking nations and often are identified either by their original German names or by German-sounding English names
Developments and discoveries in German-speaking nations in science, scholarship, and classical music have led to German words for new concepts, which have been adopted into English: for example the words doppelgänger and angst in psychology.
Discussion of German history and culture requires some German words.
Some German words are used in English narrative to identify that the subject expressed is in German, e.g. Frau, Reich.As languages, English and German descend from the common ancestor language West Germanic and further back to Proto-Germanic; because of this, some English words are essentially identical to their German lexical counterparts, either in spelling (Hand, Sand, Finger) or pronunciation ("fish" = Fisch, "mouse" = Maus), or both (Arm, Ring); these are excluded from this list.
German common nouns fully adopted into English are in general not initially capitalised, and the German letter "ß" is generally changed to "ss".Pahawh Hmong
Pahawh Hmong (RPA: Phajhauj Hmoob [pʰâ hâu m̥ɔ́ŋ], known also as Ntawv Pahawh, Ntawv Keeb, Ntawv Caub Fab, Ntawv Soob Lwj) is an indigenous semi-syllabic script, invented in 1959 by Shong Lue Yang, to write two Hmong languages, Hmong Daw (Hmoob Dawb White Miao) and Hmong Njua AKA Hmong Leng (Moob Leeg Green Miao).Ponç
Ponç or Ponc may refer to:
Ponç de la Guàrdia (1154–1188), Catalan knight of the family of Saguàrdia, lords of the castle of Ripoll
Ponç d'Ortafà (c. 1170–1246), Catalan nobleman and troubadour
Ponç Guerau (floruit 1105–1162), Catalan nobleman
Ponç Hug IV, Count of Empúries (1264–1313), the Count of Empúries (Ampurias) from 1277 until his death and viscount of Bas from 1285 to 1291
PONC, a strand on Cúla 4 targeting 12- to 18-year-olds
ponc séimhithe, the Dot (diacritic) in Irish typographyRetroflex lateral flap
The retroflex lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It has no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet, but may be represented as ⟨ɭ̆⟩ or with a dot diacritic as ⟨ɺ̣⟩.Vietnamese alphabet
The Vietnamese alphabet (Vietnamese: chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language. It uses the Latin script, based on its employment in the alphabets of Romance languages, in particular the Portuguese alphabet, with some digraphs and the addition of nine accent marks or diacritics – four of them to create additional sounds, and the other five to indicate the tone of each word. The many diacritics, often two on the same vowel, make written Vietnamese easily recognizable.Vietnamese language
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. It is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As a result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia and Western Europe. Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic.
Vietnamese is the Austroasiatic language with by far the most speakers, several times as many as the rest of the family combined. Its vocabulary has borrowings from Chinese, and it formerly used a modified set of Chinese characters called Chữ Nôm given vernacular pronunciation. The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ quốc ngữ) in use today is a Latin alphabet with additional diacritics for tones and certain letters.Waw (letter)
Waw/Vav (wāw "hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including
Phoenician wāw ,
Aramaic waw ,
Hebrew vav ו,
Syriac waw ܘ
and Arabic wāw و (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).
It represents the consonant [w] (in original Hebrew ), (and [v] in modern Hebrew). A dot embedded left of or topping the vav indicates voweling [u] or [o] respectively.
It is the origin of Greek Ϝ (digamma) and Υ (upsilon), Latin F and V, and the derived "Latin"- or "Roman"- alphabet letters U, W, and Y.Ė
Ė ė is the 9th letter in the Lithuanian alphabet, and is also used in the Colognian language of Cologne, Germany, Potawatomi language and Cheyenne language.
It was coined by Daniel Klein, the author of the first grammar of the Lithuanian language.This character is also used in strict Library of Congress transliteration when transliterating the Cyrillic letter Э э into the Latin alphabet.
This character is also used in Croatian to denote the old yat alongside the more usual ě.
Its pronunciation in Lithuanian is [eː], contrasting with ę, which is pronounced a lower [ɛː] (formerly nasalized [ɛ̃ː]) and e, pronounced [ɛ, ɛː].Ż
Ż, ż (Z with overdot) is a letter, consisting of the letter Z of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and an overdot.Ḍ
Ḍ (minuscule: ḍ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from D with the addition of a dot diacritic.
In the transcription of Afro-Asiatic languages such as Arabic, ḍ represents an "emphatic" consonant [dˤ], and is used for that purpose in the Berber Latin alphabet.
In the transcription of Indic and East Iranian languages, and in the orthography of the O'odham language, ḍ represents a retroflex [ɖ]. This was used in a former transcription of Javanese, but has been replaced by "dh."Ḥ
Ḥ (minuscule: ḥ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from H with the addition of a dot diacritic. The letter has significance in various writing systems.
Visarga, the phone [h] in Sanskrit phonology in the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration. Other transliteration systems use different symbols.
The voiceless pharyngeal fricative (/ħ/) in Arabic, some Syriac languages (such as Turoyo and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic), and oriental Hebrew (whereas Ashkenazi Israelis usually pronounce the letter Ḥet as a voiceless uvular fricative (/χ/)).The phone [h] (voiceless glottal fricative) or [x] (voiceless velar fricative) in the Asturian language.Ṣ
Ṣ (minuscule: ṣ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from an S with the addition of a dot below the letter. Its uses include:
the transliteration of Indic languages to represent retroflex [ʂ]
the transcription of Afro-Asiatic languages (mostly Semitic languages) to represent an "emphatic s" [sˀ] as in Arabic ص (Ṣād) and as in the Hebrew צ (Tzadi/Ṣādī) spoken by the Jews of Yemen and North Africa
the orthography of Yoruba in Nigeria to represent the voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant (the English "sh" sound)