Dorylaeum

Dorylaeum or Dorylaion (Greek: Δορύλαιον), called Şarhöyük in Turkish language, was an ancient city in Anatolia. It is now an archaeological site located near the city of Eskişehir, Turkey.[1]

Its original location was about 10 km southwest of Eskişehir, at a place now known as Karaca Hisar; about the end of the fourth century B.C. it was moved to a location north of modern Eskişehir.[2]

Stele Zeus Chryseos Louvre Ma4289
Stele dedicated to Zeus Chryseos, 3rd century AD, Dorylaeum

History

The city existed under the Phrygians but may have been much older.

It was a Roman trading post. It also was probably a key city of the route the Apostle Paul took on his Second Missionary Voyage in 50 AD. It became a bishopric when part of the Late Roman province of Phrygia Salutaris.

In the third century AD, it was threatened by Gothic raids. The Roman army that was based in Asia minor was spread thin, and the navy had moved west from the Northern city of Sinope, therefore the provincials were left exposed. These Goths came from the trans-danubian region on the black sea. When the city was under threat, the people used dedicatory statues to build their wall quicker, indicating their rush to protect themselves against the invaders. (see Mitchell - crisis and continuity (1993) page 236)

After the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 it was taken by the Seljuk Turks.

Dorylaeum was the site of two battles during the crusades. In 1097, during the First Crusade, the crusaders defeated the Seljuks there, in their first major victory.[3] During the Second Crusade it was the site of a major defeat, which effectively ended the German contribution to the crusade.

Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus fortified Dorylaeum in 1175, but according to some authorities the Turks recaptured it in 1176 after the Battle of Myriokephalon.[3] However, the contemporary Byzantine historian Niketas Choniates relates that Manuel did not destroy the fortifications of Dorylaeum, as he had agreed to do as part of the treaty he negotiated with the Seljuk Turkish sultan Kilij Arslan II immediately after Myriokephalon. The sultan's response to this development was not a direct attack on Dorylaeum but the dispatch of a large army to ravage the rich Meander valley to the south.[4]

Dorylaeum was described by the Muslim author al-Harawi (died 1215) as a place of medicinal hot springs on the frontier at the end of Christian territory.[5]

Ecclesiastical history

Dorylaeum became a bishopric under the Byzantine Empire and was a suffragan the Metropolitan of Synnada in Phrygia.

Seven bishops are known from the fourth to the ninth century, the most famous being Eusebius. The see is mentioned as late as the twelfth century among the suffragans of Synnada, but must have been suppressed soon after.

Titular see

Dorylaeum is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[6] The diocese was nominally restored as a Latin Catholic titular bishopric in 1715 as Dorylæum (Dorylaeum), which is spelled Dorylaëum since 1925.

It is vacant since decades, having had had the following incumbents, all of the lowest (episcopal) rank :

  • Johann Hugo von Gärtz (1715.02.07 – 1716.12.25)
  • Louis-Philippe-François Mariauchau d’Esglis (1772.01.22 – 1784.12.02)
  • Johann Nepomuk von Wolf (1788.12.15 – 1818.04.06)
  • Mykhaylo Bradach (1808.09.30 – 1815.12.20)
  • Stephanus d’Elia (1818.05.25 – ?)
  • Johann Friedrich Oesterreicher (1823.11.17 – 1825.06.26)
  • Matthias Terrazas (1827.05.21 – ?)
  • John Baptist Salpointe (1868.09.25 – 1884.04.22), as Apostolic Vicar of Arizona (USA) (1868.09.25 – 1884.04.22); later Titular Archbishop of Anazarbus (1884.04.22 – 1885.08.18) & Coadjutor Archbishop of Santa Fe (USA) (1884.04.22 – 1885.08.18), succeeding as Metropolitan Archbishop of Santa Fe (1885.08.18 – 1894.01.07), emeritus as Titular Archbishop of Constantia antea Tomi (1894.01.21 – 1898.07.15)
  • Antoine-Marie-Hippolyte Carrie, Holy Ghost Fathers (C.S.Sp.) (1886.06.08 – 1904.10.13)
  • Antanas Karosas (Antoni Karaś) (1906.11.08 – 1910.04.07)
  • Fulgentius Torres, Subiaco Cassinese Benedictine Congregation (O.S.B. Subl.) (1910.05.10 – 1914.10.05)
  • Juan Bautista Luis y Pérez (1915.02.22 – 1921.11.30)
  • Michele de Jorio (1921.12.01 – 1922.04.04)
  • Benvenuto Diego Alonso y Nistal, Capuchin Franciscans (O.F.M. Cap.) (1923.11.27 – 1938.05.23)
  • Gherardo Sante Menegazzi, O.F.M. Cap. (1938.07.01 – 1938.10.20), as emeritus Bishop of Comacchio (Italy) (1920.12.16 – 1938.07.01), later Titular Archbishop of Pompeiopolis in Paphlagonia (1938.10.20 – death 1945.01.21)
  • Lorenz Zeller, Benedictine Order (O.S.B.) (1939.01.07 – 1945.09.01)
  • Joseph Wilhelmus Maria Baeten (1945.11.30 – 1951.02.18) as Coadjutor Bishop of Breda (Netherlands) (1945.11.30 – 1951.02.18), succeeded as Bishop of Breda (1951.02.18 – 1961.09.08), emeritus as Titular Archbishop of Stauropolis (1961.09.08 – 1964.08.26)
  • Henri-Charles Dupont (1951.07.24 – 1972.12.06)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Eskişehir Kültür Envanteri". Retrieved 2018-05-04.
  2. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia
  3. ^ a b "Dorylaeum". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-02-17.
  4. ^ Treadgold, p. 649.
  5. ^ Lindner, p. 62
  6. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 883

Coordinates: 39°47′N 30°31′E / 39.783°N 30.517°E

References

  • Lindner, R.P., (2007) Explorations in Ottoman Prehistory, Published by University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-09507-2
  • Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.

Sources and external links

23rd Armoured Brigade (Greece)

The 23rd Armoured Brigade "3rd Cavalry Regiment Dorylaeum" 23η Τεθωρακισμένη Ταξιαρχία "3ο Σύνταγμα Ιππικού Δορυλαίον" is a tank brigade of the Hellenic Army.

Acmonia

Acmonia or Akmonia (Ancient Greek: Ἀκμονία) is an ancient city and a titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, in Asia Minor, now known as Ahat Köyü. It is mentioned by Cicero (Pro Flacco, 15) and was a point on the road between Dorylaeum and Philadelphia. Under the Romans, it was within the conventus iuridicus of Apamea.

Adhemar of Le Puy

Adhemar (also known as Adémar, Aimar, or Aelarz) de Monteil (died 1 August 1098) was one of the principal figures of the First Crusade and was bishop of Puy-en-Velay from before 1087. He was the chosen representative of Pope Urban II for the expedition to the Holy Land. Remembered for his martial prowess, he led knights and men into battle and fought beside them, particularly at Dorylaeum and Antioch. Adhemar is said to have carried the Holy Lance in the Crusaders’ desperate breakout at Antioch on 28 June 1098, in which superior Islamic forces under the atabeg Kerbogha were routed, securing the city for the Crusaders. He later died in 1098, due to illness.

Battle of Dorylaeum

Battle of Dorylaeum can refer to:

Battle of Dorylaeum (1097), a battle between crusaders and the Seljuk Turks during the First Crusade

Battle of Dorylaeum (1147), a battle between German crusaders and the Seljuk Turks during the Second Crusade

Battle of Dorylaeum (1097)

The Battle of Dorylaeum took place during the First Crusade on July 1, 1097, between the crusaders and the Seljuk Turks, near the city of Dorylaeum in Anatolia. It was won by the crusaders.

Battle of Dorylaeum (1147)

The second Battle of Dorylaeum took place near Dorylaeum in October 1147, during the Second Crusade. It was not a single clash but consisted of a series of encounters over a number of days. The German crusader forces of Conrad III were defeated by the Seljuk Turks led by Sultan Mesud I.

Docimium

Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.

Eskişehir

Eskişehir (pronounced [esˈciʃehiɾ]) (Turkish: eski "old", şehir "city"), is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. In the Byzantine era its name was Dorylaeum. The urban population of the city is 717,135 with a metropolitan population of 826,135. The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby hills one can find hot springs. The city is 233 km (145 mi) to the west of Ankara, 330 km (205 mi) to the southeast of Istanbul and 78 km (48 mi) to the northeast of Kütahya. Known as a university town, both Eskişehir Osmangazi University and Anadolu University (which has one of the largest student enrollments in the world) are based in Eskişehir. The province covers an area of 2,678 km2 (1,034 sq mi).

Eucarpia

Eucarpia or Eukarpia (Ancient Greek: Εὐκαρπία) was a city in Phrygia and a bishopric in the late Roman province of Phrygia Salutaris, in Asia Minor.

Eusebius (disambiguation)

Eusebius (AD 263 – 339; also called Eusebius of Caesarea and Eusebius Pamphili) was a Roman historian, exegete and Christian polemicist.

Eusebius (; Greek Εὐσέβιος "pious" from eu (εὖ) "well" and sebein (σέβειν) "to respect") may also refer to:

Eusebius of Esztergom, Hungarian priest, hermit, founder of the Order of Saint Paul the First Hermit

Eusebius (praepositus sacri cubiculi), under Constantius II

Eusebius (consul 347) (died c. 350), Roman consul in 347

Eusebius (consul 359), Roman consul in 359

Eusebius of Alexandria (6th century), Christian author

Eusebius of Angers (died 1081), bishop of Angers

Saint Eusebius of Cremona (died c. 423)

Eusebius of Dorylaeum (5th century), bishop of Dorylaeum, opponent of Nestorianism and Monophysitism

Eusebius of Emesa (300–360), bishop of Emesa

Eusebius of Laodicea (died 268), bishop of Laodicea

Eusebius of Myndus (4th century), Neoplatonist philosopher

Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341), bishop of Berytus, Nicomedia and Constantinople, leader of Arianism

Saint Eusebius of Rome (died 357), priest and martyr

Saint Eusebius of Samosata (died 4th-century), bishop of Samosata

Saint Eusebius of Vercelli (283–371), bishop of Vercelli, opponent of Arianism

Saint Eusebius (bishop of Milan) (died 462), archbishop of Milan

Saint Eusebius the Hermit (4th century), solitary monk of Syria

Pope Eusebius (died 310), Pope in 309 or 310

Eusebius, bishop of Paris until his death in 555

Eusebius of Thessalonika (6th or 7th century), bishop of Thessalonika during the time of Pope Gregory the Great

Hwaetberht (died c. 740s), Abbot of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Priory, who wrote under the pen-name of Eusebius

Eusebius, one of the personae of Robert SchumannEusebius is also the name of:

Jerome (347–420), Christian scholar and church father, whose full name was Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus

Karl Eusebius of Liechtenstein (1611–1684), the second prince of Liechtenstein

Eusebius of Dorylaeum

Eusebius of Dorylaeum was a 5th-century bishop who spoke out against heretical teachings, especially those of Nestorius and Eutyches, during the period of Christological controversy. He was bishop of Dorylaeum (or Dorylaion) which is located in Phrygia (now Turkey). The name Eusebius may also be found as Eusebios which means “pious” in Greek. The surname “of Dorylaeum” is a result of his appointment to bishop in Dorylaeum.

Eustace III, Count of Boulogne

Eustace III (died c. 1125) was the count of Boulogne from 1087, succeeding his father Count Eustace II. His mother was Ida of Lorraine.

In 1088, Eustace supported the rebellion against William II of England in favour of Robert Curthose.Eustace participated in the First Crusade of 1096 along with his brothers Godfrey of Bouillon (duke of Lower Lotharingia) and Baldwin of Boulogne. It is unclear whether he travelled eastward with his brother Godfrey's or Robert Curthose's army. His contingent included Hugh II of Saint-Pol and his son Engelrand, Eustace I Granarius, lord of Sidon and Caesarea, Fulk of Guînes, and Hugh of Robecq (Rebecques), lord of Hebron. Throughout the crusade Eustace assisted Godfrey. Eustace was present at the Siege of Nicaea (May–June 1097), helped rescue Bohemund of Taranto's beleaguered troops at the Battle of Dorylaeum (July 1, 1097), defeated an enemy ambush during the Siege of Antioch and was one of the commanders during the capture of Antioch on June 3, 1098.Eustace was a member of the council held at Ruj on January 4, 1099, mediating in the conflict over the control of Antioch between Bohemund of Taranto and Raymond IV of Toulouse. Early December 1098 Eustace joined Raymond's attack on Maarrat al-Nu'man and an attack on Nablus in July 1099. He gained notoriety for his actions during the Siege of Jerusalem fighting relentlessly from a siege tower along with his brother Godfrey and the warriors they commanded. They were among the first to breach Jerusalem's city walls and participated in the ensuing massacre. Finally Eustace commanded a division of the crusader army during the Battle of Ascalon.While his brothers stayed in the Holy Land, Eustace returned to administer his domains. To commemorate Eustace's crusading adventures the mint at Boulogne struck silver coins with a lion above the walls of Jerusalem stamped on the obverse.Eustace married Mary, daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland. Eustace and Mary had one daughter:

Matilda of Boulogne.When his youngest brother king Baldwin I of Jerusalem died in 1118, the elderly Eustace was offered the throne. Eustace was at first uninterested, but was convinced to accept it; he travelled all the way to Apulia before learning that a distant relative, Baldwin of Bourcq, had been crowned in the meantime. Eustace returned to Boulogne and died about 1125.

On his death the county of Boulogne was inherited by his daughter, Matilda, and her husband Stephen de Blois, count of Mortain, afterwards king of England.

Eustace founded the Cluniac house of Rumilly and was patron of the Knights Templar.

Germa (Galatia)

Germa (Greek Γέρμα) or Germokoloneia (Γερμοκολώνεια, from Latin Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Germenorum) was an ancient and Byzantine city in the Roman province of Galatia Secunda. The few archaeological remains lie close to present-day Babadat in Eskişehir Province, Turkey.When between 25 and 20 BC Augustus made Galatia a Roman province, he founded Germa as a Roman colony. The city was situated at the point where the road from Ancyra forked, one branch going to Dorylaeum, the other to Pessinus. From the time of Domitian it had a mint. Its Christian bishopric was a residential see until the 12th century and is now, as "Germa in Galatia", a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Gouffier of Lastours

Gouffier of Lastours (also Goufier, Golfier, Gulpher) was a knight from Lastours in the Limousin in France, who participated in the First Crusade. He was lord of the Château de Lastours, near Nexon, Haute-Vienne.

Kilij Arslan I

Kilij Arslan (Old Anatolian Turkish: قِلِج اَرسلان; Persian: قلج ارسلان‎ Qilij Arslān; Modern Turkish: Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") (‎1079–1107) was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm from 1092 until his death in 1107. He ruled the Sultanate during the time of the First Crusade and thus faced the attack. He also re-established the Sultanate of Rum after the death of Malik Shah I of Great Seljuq and defeated the Crusaders in three battles during the Crusade of 1101.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Mykhaylo Bradach

Mykhaylo Bradach (Ukrainian: Михайло Брадач; 2 April 1748 – 20 December 1815) was a Ruthenian Greek Catholic hierarch. He was titular bishop of Dorylaeum, auxiliary bishop (from 1808) and Apostolic Administrator of the Ruthenian Catholic Eparchy of Mukacheve from 1812 to 1815.

Siege of Nicaea

The Siege of Nicaea took place from May 14 to June 19, 1097, during the First Crusade. The city belonged to the Seljuk Turks who surrendered to the crusaders. After the siege followed the Battle of Dorylaeum, and the siege of Antioch all in modern Turkey.

Uc de Pena

Uc, Uco, or Ugo de Pena or Penna was a troubadour of the late 12th and early 13th centuries. He left behind three cansos and no music.

His origins are found in Penne-d'Agenais, in the Rouergue. According to his vida his birthplace was a castle called "Messat" or "Monmessat". He was the son of a merchant, who first became a jongleur and then grew renowned for his singing and for his expansive repertoire (of the works of others). He was also reputed for his knowledge of the "great men of those regions", but he was known for his roguish style of living—gambling and frequenting taverns—for which reason, says his biographer, "he was always poor and without equipment." Eventually he travelled east to "Isla é(n) Venaissi" (probably Isle-sur-Sorgue in Provence), where he married.In one song, Uc refers to the Occitan knight Gouffier de Lastours, who carried a message from Bohemond of Taranto to Godfrey of Bouillon at the critical Battle of Dorylaeum on the First Crusade. This event had probably become an important piece of Occitan crusading lore and is recorded also in the Canso d'Antioca and the Gran Conquista de Ultramar.Among his other works is Quora que'm desplagués Amors.

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