Dorothy Gale

Dorothy Gale is a fictional character created by American author L. Frank Baum as the main protagonist in many of his Oz novels. She first appears in Baum's classic children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) and reappears in most of its sequels. In addition, she is the main character in various adaptations, notably the classic 1939 film adaptation of the novel, The Wizard of Oz.

In later novels, the Land of Oz steadily becomes more familiar to her than her homeland of Kansas.[1] Indeed, Dorothy eventually goes to live in an apartment in the Emerald City's palace but only after her Aunt Em and Uncle Henry have settled in a farmhouse on its outskirts, unable to pay the mortgage on their house in Kansas. Dorothy's best friend Princess Ozma, ruler of Oz, officially makes her a princess of Oz later in the novels.

Dorothy Gale
Oz character
The Wizard of Oz Judy Garland 1939
Judy Garland as Dorothy Gale in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz.
First appearanceThe Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900)
Created byL. Frank Baum
Portrayed by
Voiced by
Royal princess
Government liaison
Farm girl
FamilyAunt Em
Uncle Henry
  • Bill Hugson (distant uncle)
  • Mrs. Hugson (distant aunt)
  • Zeb of Hugson's ranch (distant cousin)
  • unnamed Australians (related through Henry)
  • Susan (indirect descendant)
  • Em (niece of Susan)
  • Dori (niece of Susan)
Ozite (later)


In literature

Dorothy Gale with silver shoes
Dorothy with the silver shoes (illustration by W. W. Denslow)

In the Oz books, Dorothy is raised by her aunt and uncle in the bleak landscape of a Kansan farm. Whether Aunt Em or Uncle Henry is Dorothy's blood relative remains unclear. Uncle Henry makes reference to Dorothy's mother in The Emerald City of Oz, possibly an indication that Henry is Dorothy's blood relative. (It is also possible that "Aunt" and "Uncle" are affectionate terms of a foster family and that Dorothy is not related to either of them, although Zeb in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz claims to be Dorothy's second cousin, related through Aunt Em[2]. Little mention is made of what happened to Dorothy's birth parents, other than a passing reference to her mother being dead.) Along with her small black dog, Toto, Dorothy is swept away by a tornado to the Land of Oz and, much like Alice of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, they enter an alternative world filled with talking creatures. In many of the Oz books, Dorothy is the main heroine of the story. She is often seen with her best friend and the ruler of Oz, Princess Ozma. Her trademark blue and white gingham dress is admired by the Munchkins because blue is their favorite color and white is worn only by good witches and sorceresses, which indicates to them that Dorothy is a good witch.

Dorothy has a forthright and take-charge character, exhibiting no fear when she slaps the Cowardly Lion, and organizing the Winkies' rescue mission of her friends who have been dismembered by the winged monkeys. She is not afraid of angering the Wicked Witch of the West, as shown when the Witch stole one of Dorothy's slippers, and in retaliation, Dorothy hurled a bucket of water over her, not knowing water was fatal to the witch. She brazenly rebuffs Princess Langwidere's threat to take her head for her collection — "Well, I b'lieve you won't." (Following Anna Laughlin's portrayal of the character in the popular 1903 Broadway version of The Wizard of Oz, Baum scripts Dorothy to speak in childlike contractions with Ozma of Oz, which she continues to do throughout the series). This aspect of her character was somewhat lessened by her companionship of Ozma, in whom Baum placed the greater level of wisdom and dignity. Yet even this is complicated by her associations with her cousin, Zeb of Hugson's Ranch, a rugged, manly boy who does not take well to Oz and cannot think of anything much more interesting than defeating the Munchkins' wrestling champion, which he proves unable to do.

Dorothy has several other pets, including her white/pink/purple kitten, Eureka. Popular in crossword puzzles is Dorothy's cow, Imogene, from the 1902 stage version, and is implied, though unnamed, in the 1910 film. Eric Shanower's novel, The Giant Garden of Oz, features a cow named Imogene.

In the sixth Oz book by Baum, The Emerald City of Oz (1910), when Uncle Henry and Aunt Em are unable to pay the mortgage on the new farmhouse built at the end of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Dorothy brings them to live in Oz; the plot features a tour of Oz as a marvelous, Utopian land in which they have escaped the troubles of Kansas. She becomes princess of Oz.

Dorothy is a standard character, having at least a cameo role in thirteen of the fourteen Oz books written by L. Frank Baum (while she did not appear at all in The Marvelous Land of Oz, she is mentioned several times in that story, as it was her actions in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz that led to the events in the former) and is at least a frequent figure in the nineteen that followed by author Ruth Plumly Thompson, getting at least a cameo in all her books except Captain Salt in Oz (in which neither Oz nor any of its inhabitants appear, though they are mentioned). Major subsequent appearances by Dorothy in the "Famous Forty" are in The Lost Princess of Oz, Glinda of Oz, The Royal Book of Oz, Grampa in Oz, The Lost King of Oz, The Wishing Horse of Oz, Ozoplaning with the Wizard of Oz, and The Magical Mimics in Oz. Most of the other books focus on different child protagonists, some Ozite, some from other Nonestican realms, and some from the United States, and as such, her appearances in the main series become more and more limited. In Jack Snow's The Magical Mimics in Oz (1946), Ozma places Dorothy on the throne of Oz while she is away visiting Queen Lurline's fairy band.

The magic of Oz keeps Dorothy young. In The Lost King of Oz (1925), a Wish Way carries Dorothy to a film set in Hollywood, California. She begins to age very rapidly to her late 20s, making up for at least some of the years that have already passed. The Wish Way carries her back to Oz and restores her to her younger self, but she learns then that it would be unwise for her ever to return to the outside world. Baum never states Dorothy's age, but he does state in The Lost Princess of Oz that she is a year younger than Betsy Bobbin and a year older than Trot, whose age was specified as 10 in Ruth Plumly Thompson's The Giant Horse of Oz.

Thompson's Oz books show a certain intolerance in Dorothy. In The Cowardly Lion of Oz, circus clown Notta Bit More arrives in the Emerald City "disguised" as a traditional witch, and Dorothy immediately starts dumping buckets water on him without provocation (although she reacted this way on the assumption that the "witch" Notta was an evil witch like her old enemy, the Wicked Witch of the West). In The Wishing Horse of Oz, she makes unsavory comments about the dark coloration Gloma and her subjects take on as a disguise, making them somewhat resemble black people. This behavior is not characteristic of Dorothy in Baum's Oz books. In The Patchwork Girl of Oz, she pushes and slaps through crowds of black Tottenhots to rescue the Scarecrow, whom they are tossing around, but this is more an example of her gumption than any sort of prejudice, as she is otherwise kind and polite to the Tottenhots, and accepts that their ways are different from those who dwell in the Emerald City.

The authorized sequels of Sherwood Smith, The Emerald Wand of Oz and Trouble Under Oz, center on the child characters Dori and Em, who live with their Aunt Susan. All three are indirect descendants of Dorothy, though their specific relationship to her is unclear.

Philip José Farmer's 1982 science-fiction novel A Barnstormer in Oz tells the story of aviator Henry "Hank" Stover — who is not surprised one beautiful spring day in 1923 when he flies his Curtiss Jenny biplane through a strange green cloud and finds himself in Oz. Hank knows that he is in Oz because his mother, Dorothy Gale-Stover, had been there back in 1890 and later told him of her experiences. Farmer's premise is that Dorothy only visited Oz once and told her story to a journalist called Frank Baum. This journalist would later create a series of books from Dorothy's only adventure in Oz. Farmer's Oz is on the brink of both a civil war and an invasion by the United States Army.

Dorothy's last name is never mentioned in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz or The Marvelous Land of Oz, the first two Oz books. It is disclosed in the third book Ozma of Oz (1907). The last name of Gale was originally mentioned in Baum's script for the 1902 Broadway stage version of The Wizard of Oz, in which it was originally a setup for a punning joke. (DOROTHY: "I am Dorothy, and I am one of the Kansas Gales." SCARECROW: "That accounts for your breezy manner.")


An influence on the creation of Dorothy appears to be the Alice books of Lewis Carroll. Although Baum reportedly found these plots incoherent, he identified their source of popularity as Alice herself, a character with whom child readers could identify; this influenced his choice of a protagonist for his own books.[3]

Dorothy's character was probably named after Baum's own niece, Dorothy Louise Gage, who died in infancy. Baum's wife was very attached to her and was deeply grieved by her death, so there is speculation that Baum inserted her name into his stories as a memorial. Elements of Dorothy Gale's character are possibly derived from Matilda Joslyn Gage, Dorothy Gage's grandmother. Dorothy Gage is buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Bloomington, Illinois.[4]

Lee Sandlin writes that L. Frank Baum read a disaster report of a tornado in Irving, Kansas, in May 1879 which included the name of a victim, Dorothy Gale, who was "found buried face down in a mud puddle."[5]

In film

The Wizard of Oz 1902 musical extravaganza Anna Laughlin as Dorothy
Anna Laughlin as Dorothy in the 1902 musical

In Baum's 1902 stage musical adaptation, Dorothy was played by Anna Laughlin. In 1908 L. Frank Baum adapted his early Oz novels as The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays, with Romola Remus as Dorothy. This was followed by The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, a motion picture short that Otis Turner, one of the directors of Fairylogue, made without Baum as part of a contract fulfillment. In this 1910 film, Dorothy was played by Bebe Daniels. It was followed by two sequels (the same year), Dorothy and the Scarecrow in Oz and The Land of Oz, both of which included Dorothy, but whether Daniels participated is unknown. Baum subsequently loosely adapted The Wonderful Wizard of Oz into a 1914 motion picture directed by J. Farrell MacDonald titled His Majesty, the Scarecrow of Oz with Violet MacMillan as Dorothy.

Dorothy does not appear in The Patchwork Girl of Oz (1914), although some film books claim that Mildred Harris, who had yet to sign her contract with The Oz Film Manufacturing Company, played the role. The character, is, in fact, eliminated from the film version, although she has a fairly large role in the novel.

Dorothy Dwan portrayed Dorothy in the 1925 film Wizard of Oz. In this film, Aunt Em (Mary Carr) informs her on her eighteenth birthday that she was left on their doorstep and is really a princess of Oz destined to marry Prince Kynd (Bryant Washburn), who has currently lost the throne to Prime Minister Kruel (Josef Swickard), in a storyline similar to that of His Majesty the Scarecrow of Oz, only with Dorothy as the love interest. In the end, the story proves to be the dream of a little girl who has fallen asleep listening to the story of Kynd and Kruel, said to be the story of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. The film also introduced the idea of the farmhands also being the Scarecrow, Tin Woodsman and Cowardly Lion, albeit as costumes they don in order to conceal themselves in Oz.

In the 1939 movie The Wizard of Oz, Dorothy was played by Judy Garland, who received an Academy Juvenile Award for her performance. Since she was sixteen years old at the time of filming, Garland's maturing figure was bound into a figure-hiding corset. Since fantasy films generally were unsuccessful at that time, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer portrayed Oz as a head-trauma-induced delirium, instead of a real place. It is implied that Oz is merely Dorothy's dream since she awakens in bed at the end, though Dorothy is convinced that her journey was all in fact real.

A window knocked out Dorothy when the tornado was approaching the farm. After that storm lifted the farmhouse, she and Toto saw a chicken coop, an old lady knitting calmly in a rocking chair with a cat on her lap, a cow, and two men rowing a boat who doff their hats to her as well as miscellaneous debris flying by them. Finally, Dorothy saw Miss Almira Gulch, who was going to abduct Toto to the sheriff, fly on her bicycle outside the window, becoming a witch on a broom. As one of the first movies to be filmed in Technicolor, the director had the color of the famous magic slippers changed from silver to red because the Ruby slippers were more visually appealing on film.

She is reunited with Aunt Em, Uncle Henry, their three farm workers (Scarecrow, Tin Man, and Cowardly Lion's alter egos), and Professor Marvel (The Wizard's alter ego) when she awakens from being unconscious at the end of this film, back at home and safe.

Dorothy's characterization in the 1939 film is more of a damsel in distress, somewhat unlike the adventurous, forthright and bold Dorothy of the books.

In the video for Blues Traveler's 1994 hit song "Run-Around", Dorothy tries to get into a club where the band is performing. She is portrayed by actress Diana Marquis.[6]

In Disney's 2013 film Oz the Great and Powerful, Dorothy's maternal origins are hinted at when Annie (Michelle Williams) informs her friend Oscar Diggs that her fiancé's surname is Gale.[7]

Dorothy appears in the animated film Legends of Oz: Dorothy's Return (which is based on Dorothy of Oz), voiced by Lea Michele.

Dorothy made a cameo appearance in The Lego Movie 2: The Second Part, voiced by Maya Rudolph. She, Toto, Scarecrow, Tin Man, and Cowardly Lion find themselves having been transported from the Land of Oz to Harmony Town in the Systar System.

In television

The 2007 Sci-Fi Channel miniseries Tin Man reworked her into DG, a descendant of Dorothy's, and is played by Zooey Deschanel. In this iteration, the trademark dress is actually a diner waitress uniform; the rest of the time she wears a leather jacket and jeans and rides a motorcycle. When she is taken into Oz, she learns that she is actually the princess of the kingdom of Oz, sent to another world and raised by androids to protect her after her sister was possessed by the spirit of an ancient witch that she unleashed by accident.

In the 2012 TV miniseries Dorothy and the Witches of Oz, Dorothy (played by Paulie Rojas) is shown as an adult writer and starts regaining suppressed memories of her actual adventures in the Land of Oz when the Wicked Witch of the West plans to conquer the Land of Oz and all of Earth.

Dorothy appears in the ninth season of Supernatural, portrayed by Tiio Horn. This version is Dorothy Baum. Dorothy is a hunter whose father was L. Frank Baum, a member of the Men of Letters. Desperate when it appeared that The Wicked Witch could not be killed, Dorothy used a spell to bind herself and the Wicked Witch, keeping them both trapped in stasis at the Men of Letters bunker for decades. They were finally freed by Sam and Dean Winchester. After Charlie Bradbury killed the Wicked Witch, she and Dorothy went to Oz in order to continue fighting against the Witch's forces. After the War For the Emerald City, Dorothy became the new leader of Oz with The Wizard of Oz, unaware that he was evil and using her to gain power. After his death at the hands of Charlie, Dorothy presumably became the sole leader of Oz.

In Emerald City, Dorothy is an adult when she is taken to Oz, working as a nurse. She is still living with Em and Henry, but here they are identified as her adopted parents, her biological mother having left her with them as a baby and only recently getting back in touch with Dorothy. Months after receiving the letter, Dorothy makes her first official visit to her biological mother when the tornado occurs that takes her to Oz. Faced with an Oz that is increasingly opposed to magic on the Wizard's orders and accused of the death of the Witch of the East- which was initially an accident and later self-defence when the Witch survived her injuries- Dorothy learns more about her true ties to this world as she searches for answers, accompanied by a police German Shepherd she names 'Toto' and the amnesic Lucas. The TV series concludes with her returning to Earth after the wizard's forces are decimated by the Beast Forever, but she is subsequently contacted by Lucas and Toto- both of whom she left behind in Oz- appearing to her in Kansas to ask for help.

Dorothy appears in the third and fifth seasons of the TV series Once Upon a Time. In this show, Dorothy is from a fictional version Kansas and not from Earth (dubbed the Land Without Magic in the show). She is portrayed as an adult by Teri Reeves and as a child by Matreya Scarrwener. Dorothy, caught in her Kansas farmhouse during a raging cyclone, is swept away to Oz. Taken in by the protectors of Oz, the sisterhood of witches, she comes to view them as family. One night, she is confronted by Zelena the Witch of the West (Rebecca Mader), while getting water from a well. Zelena intends to get rid of Dorothy as she believes the girl is destined to usurp her seat in the sisterhood. In defense, Dorothy throws a bucket of water at Zelena; causing the witch to melt. Glinda the Witch of the South (Sunny Mabrey), then appears to offer her to take Zelena's place as the Witch of the West, but Dorothy declines; wishing only to return home. With Glinda's help, she is taken to see the Wizard and given a pair of silver slippers to travel to any world. Dorothy thanks the Wizard of Oz (Christopher Gorham) and proceeds to click the slippers' heels three times to send herself home. Only after the girl's departure, Glinda discovers too late that Zelena masqueraded as the Wizard in order to usher Dorothy out of Oz.

Upon returning to Kansas, Dorothy tells her family about her experiences in Oz. However, her family doesn't believe her, and attempts to get her admitted into an asylum. Her aunt, Emily Brown (Gina Stockdale) is the only person who believes her, and refuses to let her be admitted. However, Aunt Em dies, gifting Dorothy a puppy named Toto before she does. Years pass, and Dorothy returns to Oz. Learning from the munchkins that Zelena is still alive and no longer fearing the witch, Dorothy storms the palace in time to stop Zelena from stealing the Scarecrow's (Paul Scheer) brain for a time spell. Dorothy taunts Zelena about having one thing she'll never obtain, the love of the people, as Zelena prepares a fireball to destroy her. Toto, hopping out of the bag, trots up to the palace curtains, while Dorothy ducks to avoid Zelena's fireball, which hits an approaching guard. Toto then tugs a string, causing the curtains to fall on Zelena, who fumbles to get free. While she is occupied, Dorothy escapes the palace with the Scarecrow and her dog. Later, she and her companions hide out in a cottage, but Zelena eventually finds them, after putting a tracking spell on Dorothy's old bicycle. Dorothy does her best to protect the Scarecrow, but Zelena ends up ripping out his brain. Fearlessly standing up to the witch, Dorothy dares Zelena to do her worst, while boasting that she'll never be afraid of her again. Zelena expresses brief interest in her brave attitude, wondering what made her change. In the end, Zelena leaves Dorothy unharmed to let the people of Oz see that, for once, their great hero has failed them.

When Zelena gets banished to Oz once again in a later episode, she steals Dorothy's dog Toto. When Dorothy tries to rescue Toto, Zelena puts her under a sleeping curse and she can only be awoken by true love's kiss. At the end of the episode Ruby/Red Ridding Hood wakes Dorothy up by giving Dorothy true loves kiss, making them the show's first LGBT couple.

In video games


Dorothy Gale appears as an NPC in the 2008 MMORPG Wizard101. Unlike other adaptations of the character, Dorothy travelled from her family farm in Kansas to Wizard City to become a Balance wizard at Ravenwood School of Magical Arts. In the sidequests "Yellow Brick Road" and "Not in Kansas Anymore", players meet Dorothy in her home, who tells them to go and check on her friends that she was having over for dinner, Mr. Toto and the Tin Man. Mr. Toto tells the player that they are running late due to Tin Man not being able to find his oil can, and asks the player to tell Dorothy that they are just running late as usual.

LEGO Dimensions

Dorothy Gale is one of the non-playable characters that appears in the 2015 toys-to-life video game LEGO Dimensions.[8] While on her way to the Emerald City with Toto and her three companions, they encounter Batman who thinks that the Scarecrow is the same one from his world. The interrogation is short lived, as Dorothy and her gang are sucked into a vortex where they are captured by the game's central antagonist, Lord Vortech. Lord Vortech imprisons Dorothy and uses the Ruby Slippers as one of the foundation elements needed to create his "perfect world". Whatever becomes of Dorothy after Vortech's demise is up for questioning.


See also


  1. ^ Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p 159 ISBN 0-415-92151-1
  2. ^ As specified in "Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz" (1908), Zeb says: "Uncle Bill Hugson married your Uncle Henry's wife's sister; so we must be second cousins,". "second cousins" is actually incorrect in this scenario. A second cousin is the child of a cousin of your parents. Zeb is Dorothy's mother's brother's wife's sister's husband's brother's son and no blood related relative at all.
  3. ^ Baum, L. Frank; Hearn, Michael Patrick. The Annotated Wizard of Oz. p. 38. ISBN 0-517-50086-8. Archived from the original on 2006-05-24. The secret of Alice's success lay in the fact that she was a real child, and any normal child could sympathize with her throughout her adventures. The story may often bewilder -- having neither plot nor motive in its narrative --but Alice is engaged in strange and marvelous activity at every moment, so the child reader follows her with rapturous delight.
  4. ^ Internet Movie Database, "The Wizard of Oz" (1939): Trivia.
  5. ^ Pollak, Michael (27 May 2013). "Where Twisters Dug In, So Did They". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2013. Two decades later, he writes, a struggling entrepreneur named Lyman Baum, who was working on a children's book, came upon a grim detail in a newspaper account of the Irving disaster: "The name of one of the victims, who had been found buried face down in a mud puddle, was Dorothy Gale" — a name the author, writing as L. Frank Baum, would soon immortalize in "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz."
  6. ^ Reifer, Jodi Lee (2010-11-30). "Staten Island indie filmmaker's 'Dream' project gets screened a decade later". Staten Island: Advance Digital Media. Retrieved 2014-08-13.
  7. ^ Covert, Colin (10 March 2013). "'Oz the Great and Powerful' is big and beautiful". Salisbury Post. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2013. He makes a young, svelte, rather hot conjurer who has broken many a heart, including that of Dorothy Gale’s mom-to-be (liquid-eyed Michelle Williams, resplendent in a blond wig).
  8. ^ "'Lego Dimensions' Starter Pack Story Spans 14 Franchises". Forbes. Retrieved July 4, 2017.

External links

Adria Arjona

Adria Arjona Torres (born April 25, 1992) is a Puerto Rican, Guatemalan actress and model. She is best known for her roles as Emily in season two of the HBO anthology television series True Detective (2015) and as Dani Silva in two episodes of the CBS television series Person of Interest (in 2014 and 2015), and for voicing "Ramirez" in the popular game Fortnite. She starred in the NBC television series Emerald City as Dorothy Gale.

Aunt Em

Aunt Em is a fictional character from the Oz books. She is the aunt of Dorothy Gale and wife of Uncle Henry, and lives together with them on a farm in Kansas. In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, she is described as having been a "young, pretty wife" when she arrived at Uncle Henry's farm, but having been "grayed" by her life there, implying that she appears older than her years. Baum tells us that when Dorothy first came to live with her, Em would "scream and press her hand upon her heart" when startled by Dorothy's laughter, and she appears emotionally distant to her at the beginning of the story. However, after Dorothy is restored to her at the end of the book, we see her true nature: she cries out, "My darling child!" and covers her with kisses.

There is no question about Dorothy's love for her aunt: indeed, her request to the magic Silver Shoes is "Take me home to Aunt Em!".

Dorothy of Oz (book)

Dorothy of Oz is a children's novel written by L. Frank Baum's great-grandson Roger S. Baum. The book details Dorothy Gale returning to the Land of Oz when a Jester has been using the wand of the Wicked Witch of the West (which also contained the ghost of the Wicked Witch of the West) to take over the Land of Oz. The book was adapted into a film called Legends of Oz: Dorothy's Return in 2014 by Clarius Entertainment.

Fairuza Balk

Fairuza Balk (born May 21, 1974) is an American film actress and musician. She made her theatrical film debut as Dorothy Gale in Disney's 1985 film Return to Oz. Balk also appeared in Valmont, The Craft, The Island of Dr. Moreau, American History X, The Waterboy, Almost Famous, and Personal Velocity: Three Portraits.

Judy Garland as gay icon

Actress Judy Garland (1922–1969) is widely considered a gay icon. The Advocate has called Garland "The Elvis of homosexuals". The reasons frequently given for her standing as an icon among gay men are admiration of her ability as a performer, the way her personal struggles seemed to mirror those of gay men in America during the height of her fame, and her value as a camp figure. Garland's role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz is particularly noted for contributing to this status.

Lost Girls

Lost Girls is a graphic novel written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Melinda Gebbie, depicting the sexually explicit adventures of three female fictional characters of the late 19th and early 20th century: Alice from Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, Dorothy Gale from L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, and Wendy Darling from J. M. Barrie's Peter and Wendy. They meet as adults in 1913 and describe and share some of their erotic adventures with each other.

Munchkin Country

Munchkin Country or Munchkinland, as it is referred to in the famous MGM musical film version, is the fictional Eastern region of the Land of Oz in L. Frank Baum's Oz books, first described in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900). Munchkin Country is in the East, noted by later being ruled by the Wicked Witch of the East.

In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, it was originally called "the land of Munchkins", but is referred to as "Munchkin Country" in all subsequent Oz books. Munchkin Country is linked to Oz's imperial capital the Emerald City by means of the yellow brick road. The native inhabitants of this quadrant are called Munchkins. In the story, the novel's protagonist Dorothy Gale, attends a celebration upon her arrival to Oz at the mansion of Boq, who is the friendliest and wealthiest Munchkin man. "Munchkin" does not necessarily mean someone of short stature. Many Munchkins portrayed in the books are of normal height, most notably Nick Chopper (also known as the Tin Woodman).

Relative Dementias

Relative Dementias is a BBC Books original novel written by Mark Michalowski and based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It features the Seventh Doctor and Ace.

Return to Oz

Return to Oz is a 1985 fantasy film directed and written by Walter Murch, co-written by Gill Dennis and produced by Paul Maslansky. It stars Nicol Williamson, Jean Marsh, Piper Laurie, and Fairuza Balk as Dorothy Gale in her first screen role. The film is an unofficial sequel to the 1939 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) film The Wizard of Oz, and is based on L. Frank Baum's Oz novels, mainly The Marvelous Land of Oz (1904) and Ozma of Oz (1907). In the plot, Dorothy returns to the Land of Oz to find it has been overthrown by the villainous Nome King, and must restore it with her new friends Tik-Tok, Jack Pumpkinhead, and Princess Ozma.

In 1954, Walt Disney Productions bought the film rights to Baum's remaining Oz books to use in the television series Disneyland; this led to the live-action film Rainbow Road to Oz, which was never completed. Murch suggested making another Oz film in 1980. Disney approved the project as they were due to lose the film rights to the series. Though M.G.M. was not involved in the production, Disney had to pay a large fee to use the ruby slippers created for the M.G.M. Wizard of Oz. Return to Oz fell behind schedule during production, and following a change of Disney management Murch was briefly fired from the project.

Return to Oz performed poorly at the box office, grossing 11.1 million dollars in the United States on a $28,000,000 budget, and received mixed reviews. However, it performed well outside the U.S and has since acquired a cult following. It received an Academy Award nomination for Best Visual Effects.

Ruby slippers

The ruby slippers are the magic pair of shoes worn by Dorothy Gale as played by Judy Garland in the 1939 MGM musical movie The Wizard of Oz. Because of their iconic stature, the ruby slippers are among the most valuable items of film memorabilia. A number of pairs were made for the film, though the exact number is unknown. Five pairs are known to have survived; one pair was stolen from a museum in 2005 and recovered in 2018.In L. Frank Baum's original novel, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900), on which the film is based, Dorothy wears Silver Shoes. However, the color of the shoes was changed to red to take advantage of the new Technicolor film process used in big-budget Hollywood films of the era. Film screenwriter Noel Langley is credited with the idea.

The Baum Bugle

The Baum Bugle: A Journal of Oz is the official journal of The International Wizard of Oz Club. The journal was founded in 1957, with its first issue released in June of that year (to a subscribers' list of sixteen). It publishes three times per year, with issues dated Spring, Autumn, and Winter; Issue No. 1 of Volume 50 appeared in the Spring of 2006. The journal publishes both scholarly and popular articles on L. Frank Baum, the Oz books written by Baum and other writers, and related subjects, plus reviews of Oz-related films and theater productions, rare photographs and illustrations, and similar materials.

Among the range of articles and fiction published in The Baum Bugle:

Baum's "A Kidnapped Santa Claus", Winter 1968

"The Tiger's Eye: A Jungle Fairy Tale", a rare Baum short story, Spring 1979

"Dorothy Gage and Dorothy Gale", by Sally Roesch Wagner, discussing the familial connection between the Baums and the name Dorothy, Autumn 1984

"Bibliographia Baumiana: The Sea Fairies", by Patrick M. Maund, Spring 1997

"Bibliographia Baumiana: The Enchanted Island of Yew", by Patrick M. Maund and Peter E. Hanff, Spring 1998

"Triumph and Tragedy on the Yellow Brick Road: Censorship of The Wizard of Oz in America", by Hana S. Field, Spring 2000.

"Adventures in Oz" Vacationing in the Land of Oz Over the Rainbow to Beech Mountain, North Carolina by Gregory Hugh Leng, Spring 2011.

The Emerald City of Oz

The Emerald City of Oz is the sixth of L. Frank Baum's fourteen Land of Oz books. It was also adapted into a Canadian animated film in 1987. Originally published on July 20, 1910, it is the story of Dorothy Gale and her Uncle Henry and Aunt Em coming to live in Oz permanently. While they are toured through the Quadling Country, the Nome King is assembling allies for an invasion of Oz. This is the first time in the Oz series that Baum made use of double plots for one of the books.Baum had intended to cease writing Oz stories with this book, but financial pressures prompted him to write and publish The Patchwork Girl of Oz, with seven other Oz books to follow.The book was dedicated to "Her Royal Highness Cynthia II of Syracuse" — actually the daughter (born in the previous year, 1909) of the author's younger brother, Henry Clay "Harry" Baum.

The Emerald Wand of Oz

The Emerald Wand of Oz is a 2005 book by Sherwood Smith and is a continuation of the Oz series that was started by L. Frank Baum in 1900 and continued by his many successors. The book is illustrated by William Stout and published by Harper Collins.

The novel concerns two relatives of Dorothy Gale, Em and Dory, who find themselves in Oz just as Bastinda, a new Wicked Witch of the West, threatens the citizens of Oz.

The Emerald Wand of Oz is the 46th book in the series and the first of four Oz novels that have been commissioned by the Baum Family Trust. It is followed by Trouble Under Oz and Sky Pyrates Over Oz, all by Sherwood Smith.

The Road to Oz

The Road to Oz: In Which Is Related How Dorothy Gale of Kansas, The Shaggy Man, Button Bright, and Polychrome the Rainbow's Daughter Met on an Enchanted Road and Followed it All the Way to the Marvelous Land of Oz. is the fifth of L. Frank Baum's Land of Oz books. It was originally published on July 10, 1909 and documents the adventures of Dorothy Gale's fourth visit to the Land of Oz.

The book was dedicated to Joslyn Stanton Baum, the author's first grandson, the child of Baum's eldest son Frank Joslyn Baum.

The Wicked Will Rise

The Wicked Will Rise is a young adult novel by Danielle Paige, and the sequel to the 2014 book Dorothy Must Die. It was published by HarperCollins on March 30, 2015. It continues the story of high school girl Amy Gumm in her mission to assassinate Dorothy Gale, who has become twisted and evil.

The Wizard of A.I.D.S.

The Wizard of A.I.D.S.: Aware Individuals Deserving Survival is a short musical play created by the AIDS Educational Theatre (now HealthWorks Theatre) in Chicago in 1987. The play, which parodies the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz, is an AIDS education piece that follows Dorothy Gale and her friends from the "Land of AIDS" as they battle the "Wicked Witch of Unsafe Sex" and learn how to prevent the spread of HIV. Along the way, the Scarecrow learns to use his brain to make good choices to avoid infection, the Tin Man finds it in his heart to feel compassion for people with the disease and the Cowardly Lion realizes the courage to face his fears about becoming ill. During and after the play, cast members distribute HIV-prevention literature and condoms to the audience.Aiming for an audience of teenagers and young adults, HealthWorks tours the piece to high schools and college campuses across the country, occasionally sparking controversy. Although Dorothy chooses abstinence as her prevention strategy, the play frankly discusses condom usage and the Wicked Witch is killed by being suffocated with a giant condom.

The Wizard of Oz (2011 musical)

The Wizard of Oz is a musical based on the 1939 film of the same name, with a book adapted by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Jeremy Sams. The musical uses the Harold Arlen and E. Y. Harburg songs from the film and includes some new songs and additional music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and additional lyrics by Tim Rice.

After previews in the West End from 7 February, the musical opened on 1 March 2011, directed by Jeremy Sams, and closed on 2 September 2012. The original cast included Danielle Hope as Dorothy Gale, Michael Crawford as the Wizard and Hannah Waddingham as the Wicked Witch of the West. Sophie Evans played Dorothy on Tuesday evenings and took over the role full-time in February 2012. The role of Dorothy was cast through the 2010 reality television show Over the Rainbow, in which Hope won and Evans was the runner-up. After a similar Canadian reality TV search show, a Toronto production began in December 2012 and closed in August 2013, and was followed by a North American tour. In April 2017 an Australian tour was announced including season at the Lyric Theatre, Queensland Performing Arts Centre,the Capitol Theatre in Sydney, and at the Adelaide Festival Theatre. The cast includes Anthony Warlow as the Wizard with Lucy Durack as Glinda the Good Witch and Jemma Rix as Wicked Witch of the West.

Trot (Oz)

Trot is a fictional character in L. Frank Baum's Land of Oz.Trot is introduced in the novel, The Sea Fairies (1911) and first appears in an Oz book in The Scarecrow of Oz (1915). Trot is a little girl with big solemn eyes and an earnest, simple manner. Her real name is Mayre Griffiths. It was said that she had been marked on the forehead at birth by fairies with their invisible mystic signs. Her father, Captain Charlie Griffiths, is almost always out to sea. She and Cap'n Bill, for whom Charlie was once first mate, are the closest of friends, and they live at her mother's boarding house on the California coast. They get trapped by way of a whirlpool that deposits them in a cavern deep under the sea, and meet a strange flying creature called the Ork, which carries them to Jinxland, a country on the other side of the Deadly Desert. Trot and Cap'n Bill have many wonderful adventures in the Land of Oz including getting their feet "rooted" while searching for a gift for Princess Ozma's birthday. Trot is one of Dorothy Gale and Princess Ozma's best friends.

She is also the main child protagonist of Ruth Plumly Thompson's Kabumpo in Oz and The Giant Horse of Oz.

In Kabumpo in Oz, her doll, Peg Amy, turns out to be the enchanted form of the Princess of Sun-Top Mountain. Peg Amy marries Prince Pompadore of Pumperdink, and in The Purple Prince of Oz, they are shown with a daughter, Princess Pajonia of Pumperdink.

In The Giant Horse of Oz, she is made a princess of the Ozure Isles as thanks for her help in restoring the Munchkin queen Orin to her royal husband and son. In this book, it is stated that Trot arrived in Oz and stopped aging at ten, the same age as Prince Philador of the Ozure Isles. Based on L. Frank Baum's statement that Trot is one year younger than Dorothy Gale and that Dorothy is one year younger than Betsy Bobbin, we get the other characters' ages through backward reasoning, but since this information is derived from two different authors, it is canon, but not necessarily true to Baum's intentions.

Eric Shanower and Glenn Ingersoll wrote a novella titled Trot of Oz, published in Oz-story Magazine in 2000. Trot also has a key role in Rachel Cosgrove Payes's The Wicked Witch of Oz.

Uncle Henry (Oz)

Uncle Henry is a fictional character from The Oz Books by L. Frank Baum. He is the uncle of Dorothy Gale and husband of Aunt Em, and lived with them on a farm in Kansas.

Canonical books
and elements
Other writers
Stage adaptation

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