The Doric or Dorian Hexapolis (Greek: Δωρικὴ Ἑξάπολις or Δωριέων Ἑξάπολις) was a federation of six cities of Dorian foundation in southwest Asia Minor and adjacent islands, largely coextensive with the region known as Doris or Doris in Asia (Δωρίς ἡ ἐν Ἀσίᾳ), and included:
The members of this hexapolis celebrated a festival, with games, on the Triopian promontory near Cnidus, in honour of the Triopian Apollo; the prizes in those games were brazen tripods, which the victors had to dedicate in the temple of Apollo; and Halicarnassus was struck out of the league, because one of her citizens carried the tripod to his own house before dedicating it in the temple of Apollo. The hexapolis thus became the Doric Pentapolis. (Herod. i. 144.)
Pliny (v. 28) says, Caria mediae Doridi circumfunditur ad mare utroque latere ambiens, by which he means that Doris is surrounded by Caria on all sides, except where it is bordered by the sea. He makes Doris begin at Cnidus. In the bay of Doris he places Leucopolis, Hamaxitus, etc. An attempt has been made among scholars to ascertain which of two bays Pliny calls Doridis Sinus, the more probable being the Ceramic Gulf. This Doris of Pliny is the country occupied by the Dorians, which Thucydides (ii. 9) indicates, not by the name of the country, but of the people: Dorians, neighbours of the Carians. Ptolemy (v. 2) makes Doris a division of his Asia, and places in it Halicarnassus, Ceramus, and Cnidus. The term Doris, applied to a part of Asia, does not appear to occur in other writers.
|c. 1100 BC–c. 560 BC|
Greek settlements in western Asia Minor, Doric area in blue
Location of the Doric Hexapolis in Anatolia
|Capital||Halicarnassus (largest city)|
|Historical era||Ancient Greece|
|c. 1100 BC|
|c. 560 BC|
Agasides an athlete from Halicarnassus, alive in ancient times.
Having won a bronze trophy at the Doric hexapolis league games of Tropium, he did refuse to dedicate it to the statue of Apollo as was the custom, these games being held for the honour of Apollo. He chose instead to place the trophy on the walling of his place of abode, an act which caused discontent amongst some in Dorian cities, resulting in the excommunication of Halicarnassus.Bodrum
Bodrum (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈbodɾum]) is a district and a port city in Muğla Province, in the southwestern Aegean Region of Turkey. It is located on the southern coast of Bodrum Peninsula, at a point that checks the entry into the Gulf of Gökova, and is also the center of the eponymous district. The city was called Halicarnassus (ancient Greek: Αλικαρνασσός) of Caria in ancient times and was famous for housing the Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Built by the Knights Hospitaller in the 15th century, Bodrum Castle overlooks the harbour and the marina. The castle includes a museum of underwater archaeology and hosts several cultural festivals throughout the year. The city had a population of 36,317 in 2012. It takes 50 minutes via boat to reach Kos from Bodrum, with services running multiple times a day by at least three operators.Camirus
Camirus or Kamiros (Ancient Greek: Κάμιρος; ) or Cameirus or Kameiros (Κάμειρος) was a city of ancient Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece. Its site is on the northwest coast of the island, 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) west of the modern village of Kalavarda.Caria
Caria (; from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Turkish: Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there. The inhabitants of Caria, known as Carians, had arrived there before the Ionian and Dorian Greeks. They were described by Herodotus as being of Minoan Greek descent, while the Carians themselves maintained that they were Anatolian mainlanders intensely engaged in seafaring and were akin to the Mysians and the Lydians. The Carians did speak an Anatolian language, known as Carian, which does not necessarily reflect their geographic origin, as Anatolian once may have been widespread. Also closely associated with the Carians were the Leleges, which could be an earlier name for Carians or for a people who had preceded them in the region and continued to exist as part of their society in a reputedly second-class status.Cos (city)
Cos or Kos (Ancient Greek: Κῶς) was a city of ancient Greece on the island of the same name. In 366 BCE, the inhabitants of the town of Astypalaea abandoned their town to populate Cos. Cos was a member of the Dorian Pentapolis, whose sanctuary was on the Triopian promontory. Under the Athenian rule it had no walls, and it was first fortified by Alcibiades at the close of the Peloponnesian War. In subsequent times it shared the general fate of the neighbouring coasts and islands. Antoninus Pius rebuilt the city, after it had been destroyed by an earthquake.Its site is located near modern Kos.Decapolis
The Decapolis (Greek: Δεκάπολις Dekápolis, Ten Cities) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in the southeastern Levant in the first centuries BC and AD. The cities formed a group because of their language, culture, location, and political status, with each functioning as an autonomous city-state dependent on Rome. Though sometimes described as a league of cities, it is now believed that they were never formally organized as a political unit. The Decapolis was a center of Greek and Roman culture in a region which was otherwise populated by Semitic-speaking people (Nabataeans, Arameans, and Judeans). In the time of the Emperor Trajan, the cities were placed into the provinces of Syria and Arabia Petraea; after a later reorganization several cities were placed in Syria Palaestina and later Palaestina Secunda. Most of the Decapolis region is located in modern-day Jordan, but Damascus is in Syria and Hippos and Scythopolis are in Israel.Doris (Greece)
Doris (Greek: ἡ Δωρίς: Eth. Δωριεύς, pl. Δωριῆς, Δωριεῖς; Latin: Dores, Dorienses) is a small mountainous district in ancient Greece, bounded by Aetolia, southern Thessaly, the Ozolian Locrians, and Phocis; the original homeland of the Dorian Greeks. It lies between Mounts Oeta and Parnassus, and consists of the valley of the river Pindus (Πίνδος), a tributary of the Cephissus, into which it flows not far from the sources of the latter. The Pindus is now called the Apostoliá. This valley is open towards Phocis; but it lies higher than the valley of the Cephissus, rising above the towns of Drymaea, Tithronium, and Amphicaea, which are the last towns in Phocis.Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus (; Ancient Greek: Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός Halikarnāssós or Ἀλικαρνασσός Alikarnāssós; Turkish: Halikarnas; Carian: 𐊠𐊣𐊫𐊰 𐊴𐊠𐊥𐊵𐊫𐊰 alos k̂arnos) was an ancient Greek city at what is now Bodrum in Turkey. It was located in southwest Caria on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf. The city was famous for the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, also known simply as the Tomb of Mausolus, whose name provided the origin of the word "mausoleum". The mausoleum, built from 353 to 350 BC, ranked as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
Halicarnassus' history was special on two interlinked issues. Halicarnassus retained a monarchical system of government at a time when most other Greek city states have long since gotten rid of their kings. And secondly, while their Ionian neighbours rebelled against Persian rule, Halicarnasassus remained loyal to the Persians and formed part of the Persian Empire until Alexander the Great captured it at the siege of Halicarnassus in 334 BC.
Halicarnassus originally occupied only a small island near to the shore called Zephyria, which was the original name of the settlement and the present site of the great Castle of St. Peter built by the Knights of Rhodes in 1404. However, in the course of time, the island united with the mainland, and the city was extended to incorporate Salmacis, an older town of the Leleges and Carians and site of the later citadel.Hexapolis
Hexapolis (Greek: Ἑξάπολις), meaning "six cities", may refer to:
Doric Hexapolis, a federation of Greek city-states in southwestern Asia Minor founded by Doric colonists
Armenian Hexapolis, a group of six cities in Armenia MinorIalysus
Ialysus or Ialysos (Greek: Ἰάλυσος), also Ialyssus or Ialyssos (Ἰάλυσσος), or Ielyssus or Ielyssos (Ἰήλυσσος), was a city of ancient Rhodes. It was one of the three ancient Doric cities in the island, and one of the six towns constituting the Doric hexapolis. It was situated only six stadia to the south-west of the city of Rhodes, and it would seem that the rise of the latter city was the cause of the decay of Ialysus; for in the time of Strabo it existed only as a village. Pliny the Elder did not consider it as an independent place at all, but imagined that Ialysus was the ancient name of Rhodes. Orychoma, the citadel, was situated above Ialysus, and still existed in the time of Strabo. It is supposed by some that Orychoma was the same as the fort Achaea or Achaia, which is said to have been the first settlement of the Heliadae in the island; at any rate, Achaia was situated in the territory of Ialysus, which bore the name Ialysia. The city is mentioned by numerous ancient authors, including Pindar, Herodotus,Thucydides, Ptolemy, Stephanus of Byzantium, Ovid, and Pomponius Mela, Dionysius Periegetes, and appears in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax.Its site is located near modern Ialysos.Knidos
Knidos or Cnidus (; Greek: Κνίδος, Greek pronunciation: [knídos]) was a Greek city of ancient Caria and part of the Dorian Hexapolis, in south-western Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey. It was situated on the Datça peninsula, which forms the southern side of the Sinus Ceramicus, now known as Gulf of Gökova. By the 4th century BC, Knidos was located at the site of modern Tekir, opposite Triopion Island. But earlier, it was probably at the site of modern Datça (at the half-way point of the peninsula).It was built partly on the mainland and partly on the Island of Triopion or Cape Krio. The debate about it being an island or cape is caused by the fact that in ancient times it was connected to the mainland by a causeway and bridge. Today the connection is formed by a narrow sandy isthmus. By means of the causeway the channel between island and mainland was formed into two harbours, of which the larger, or southern, was further enclosed by two strongly built moles that are still in good part entire.The extreme length of the city was little less than a mile, and the whole intramural area is still thickly strewn with architectural remains. The walls, both of the island and on the mainland, can be traced throughout their whole circuit; and in many places, especially round the acropolis, at the northeast corner of the city, they are remarkably perfect.Lindus
Lindus or Lindos (Greek: Λίνδος) was one of the most important towns in ancient Rhodes. It was situated on the eastern coast, a little to the north of a promontory bearing the same name. The district was in ancient times very productive in wine and figs, though otherwise it was very barren. In the Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad of Homer, Lindus, together with the two other Rhodian cities, Ialysus and Camirus, are said to have taken part in the war against Troy. Their inhabitants were Dorians, and formed the three Dorian tribes of the island, Lindus itself being of one the Doric Hexapolis in the south-west of Asia Minor. Previous to the year 408 BCE, when the city of Rhodes was built, Lindus, like the other cities, formed a little state by itself, but when Rhodes was founded, a great part of the population and the common government was transferred to the new city. Lindus, however, though it lost its political importance, still retained religious importance, for it contained two ancient and much revered sanctuaries – one of Athena, hence called the Lindian, and the other of Heracles. The former was believed to have been built by Danaus, or, according to others by his daughters on their flight from Egypt. The temple of Heracles was remarkable, according to Lactantius (1.31), on account of the vituperative and injurious language with which the worship was conducted. This temple contained a painting of Heracles by Parrhasius; and Lindus appears to have possessed several other paintings by the same artist. Lindus also was the native place of Cleobulus, one of the Seven Sages of Greece; and Athenaeus has preserved a pretty poem ascribed to Cleobulus, and which the Lindian boys used to sing as they went round collecting money for the return of the swallows in spring.The site of Lindus, as described by Strabo, "on the side of a hill, looking towards the south and Alexandria," cannot be mistaken; and the modern town of Lindos is exactly the spot occupied by the ancient Dorian city.List of ancient Greek tribes
The ancient Greek tribes (Ancient Greek: Ἑλλήνων ἔθνη) were groups of Greek-speaking populations living in Greece, Cyprus, and the various Greek colonies. They were primarily divided by geographic, dialectal, political, and cultural criteria, as well as distinct traditions in mythology and religion. Some groups were of mixed origin, forming a syncretic culture through absorption and assimilation of previous and neighboring populations into the Greek language and customs. Greek word for tribe was Phylē (sing.) and Phylai (pl.), the tribe was further subdivided in Demes (sing. Demos, pl. Demoi) roughly matching to a clan.
With the dominion of land passing on from one tribe to the other, cultural exchange through art and trade, and frequent alliances toward common goals, the ethnic character of the different tribes had become primarily political by the dawn of the Hellenistic period. The Roman conquest of Greece, the subsequent division of the Roman Empire into Greek East and Latin West, as well as the advent of Christianity, molded the common ethnic and political Greek identity once and for all to the subjects of the Greek world by the 3rd century AD.Pentapolis
A pentapolis (from Greek πεντα- penta-, "five" and πόλις polis, "city") is a geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities. Cities in the ancient world probably formed such groups for political, commercial and military reasons, as happened later with the Cinque Ports in England.
Historical regions of Anatolia