Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Epirus, Southern Italy, Crete, Rhodes, some islands in the southern Aegean Sea and some cities on the south east coast of Anatolia. Together with Northwest Greek, it forms the "Western group" of classical Greek dialects. By Hellenistic times, under the Achaean League, an Achaean-Doric koiné language appeared, exhibiting many peculiarities common to all Doric dialects, which delayed the spread of the Attic-based Koine Greek to the Peloponnese until the 2nd century BC.
It is widely accepted that Doric originated in the mountains of
Epirus in northwestern Greece, the original seat of the Dorians. It was expanded to all other regions during the Dorian invasion (c. 1150 BC) and the colonisations that followed. The presence of a Doric state ( Doris) in central Greece, north of the Gulf of Corinth, led to the theory that Doric had originated in northwest Greece or maybe beyond in the Balkans. The dialect's distribution towards the north extends to the Megarian colony of Byzantium and the Corinthian colonies of Potidaea, Epidamnos, Apollonia and Ambracia; there, it further added words to what would become the Albanian language,  probably via traders from a now-extinct  Illyrian intermediary. Local epigraphical evidence is restricted to the decrees of the  Epirote League and the Pella curse tablet (both in the early 4th century BC) as well to the Doric eponym Machatas, first attested in Macedonia (early 5th century BC).
 Variants Doric proper
Where the Doric dialect group fits in the overall classification of ancient Greek dialects depends to some extent on the classification. Several views are stated under
Greek dialects. The prevalent theme of most views listed there is that Doric is a subgroup of West Greek. Some use the terms Northern Greek or Northwest Greek instead. The geographic distinction is only verbal and ostensibly is misnamed: all of Doric was spoken south of "Southern Greek" or "Southeastern Greek."
Be that as it may, "Northern Greek" is based on a presumption that Dorians came from the north and on the fact that Doric is closely related to
Northwest Greek. When the distinction began is not known. All the "northerners" might have spoken one dialect at the time of the Dorian invasion; certainly, Doric could only have further differentiated into its classical dialects when the Dorians were in place in the south. Thus West Greek is the most accurate name for the classical dialects.
Tsakonian, a descendant of Laconian Doric (Spartan), is still spoken on the southern Argolid coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefectures of Arcadia and Laconia. Today it is a source of considerable interest to linguists, and an endangered dialect.
The dialects of the Doric Group are as follows:
Laconian Laconian was spoken by the population of Laconia in the southern Peloponnese and also by its colonies, Tarentum and Herakleia in Magna Graecia. Sparta was the seat of ancient Laconia.
Laconian is attested in inscriptions on pottery and stone from the seventh century BC. A dedication to Helen dates from the second quarter of the seventh century. Tarentum was founded in 706 and its founders must already have spoken Laconic.
Many documents from the state of Sparta survive, whose citizens called themselves Lacedaemonians after the name of the valley in which they lived.
Homer calls it "hollow Lacedaemon", though he refers to a pre-Dorian period. The seventh century Spartan poet Alcman used a dialect that some consider to be predominantly Laconian. Philoxenus of Alexandria wrote a treatise On the Laconian dialect.
Argolic Argolic was spoken in the thickly settled northeast Peloponnese at, for example, Argos, Mycenae, Hermione, Troezen, Epidaurus, and as close to Athens as the island of Aegina. As Mycenaean Greek had been spoken in this dialect region in the Bronze Age, it is clear that the Dorians overran it but were unable to take Attica. The Dorians went on from Argos to Crete and Rhodes.
Ample inscriptional material of a legal, political and religious content exists from at least the sixth century BC.
Corinthian Corinthian was spoken first in the isthmus region between the Peloponnesus and mainland Greece; that is, the Isthmus of Corinth. The cities and states of the Corinthian dialect region were Corinth, Sicyon, Archaies Kleones, Phlius, the colonies of Corinth in western Greece: Corcyra, Leucas, Anactorium, Ambracia and others, the colonies in and around Italy: Syracuse, Sicily and Ancona, and the colonies of Corcyra: Dyrrachium, and Apollonia. The earliest inscriptions at Corinth date from the early sixth century BC. They use a Corinthian epichoric alphabet. (See under Attic Greek.)
Corinth contradicts the prejudice that Dorians were rustic militarists, as some consider the speakers of Laconian to be. Positioned on an international trade route, Corinth played a leading part in the re-civilizing of Greece after the centuries of disorder and isolation following the collapse of Mycenaean Greece.
Northwest Greek group is closely related to Doric proper, while sometimes there is no distinction between Doric and the Northwest Greek. Whether it is to be considered a part of the Doric Group or the latter a part of it or the two subgroups of West Greek: the dialects and their grouping remain the same. West Thessalian and Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence. The Northwest Greek dialects differ from the Doric Group dialects in the below features:
 Dative plural of the
third declension in -οις ( -ois) (instead of -σι ( -si)): Ἀκαρνάνοις ἱππέοις Akarnanois hippeois for Ἀκαρνᾶσιν ἱππεῦσιν Akarnasin hippeusin (to the Acarnanian knights).
ἐν ( en) + accusative (instead of εἰς ( eis)): en Naupakton (into Naupactus).
-στ ( -st) for -σθ ( -sth): γενέσται genestai for genesthai (to become), μίστωμα mistôma for misthôma (payment for hiring). ar for er:
amara /Dor. amera/Att. hêmera (day), Elean wargon for Doric wergon and Attic ergon (work) Dative singular in
-oi instead of -ôi: τοῖ Ἀσκλαπιοῖ, Doric τῷ Ἀσκλαπιῷ, Attic Ἀσκληπιῷ (to Asclepius) Middle participle in -eimenos instead of -oumenos
The dialects are as follows:
This dialect was spoken in
Phocis and in its main settlement, Delphi. Because of that it is also cited as Delphian.
Plutarch says that Delphians pronounce b in the place of p ( βικρὸν for πικρὸν)
The dialect of
Elis is considered, after Aeolic Greek, one of the most difficult for the modern reader of epigraphic texts (earliest c. 600 BC) 
 Northwest Greek Koiné hybrid dialect of Attic and certain Northwest Greek and Doric features
chiefly associated with the Aetolian Confederacy and dates to the second and third centuries BC. Calydon sanctuary (earliest c. 600-575 BC) - Aetolian League 300-262 BC 
A school of thought maintains that the
Ancient Macedonian language may have been a Greek dialect, possibly of the Northwestern group in particular,      although other scholars would classify Macedonian as a separate marginal or "deviant" item on its own. 
 Phonology Vowels Long a Proto-Greek long ā → Doric ā ~ Attic long open ē ( eta) in at least some positions.
Doric g ~ Attic ā m ātēr g "earth mother" ē m ētēr Compensatory lengthening of e and o
In certain Doric dialects (Severe Doric),
e and o lengthen by compensatory lengthening or contraction to eta or omega ~ Attic ei and ou ( spurious diphthongs).
-ō ~ Attic -ou (second-declension genitive singular)
-ōs ~ -ous (second-declension accusative plural) -ēn ~ -ein (present, second aorist infinitive active) Contraction of a and e
ae → Doric ē ( eta) ~ Attic ā.
eo, ea → some Doric dialects' io, ia.
a → Doric short a ~ Attic e in certain words.
Doric hi, aros Art ~ Attic amis hi "holy", eros Art emis Consonants Proto-Greek -ti
-ti is retained (assibilated to -si in Attic).
phā ~ Attic ti phē "he says" (3rd sing. pres. of athematic verb) si
legon ~ ti legou "they say" (3rd pl. pres. of thematic verb) si
wīka ~ ti eiko "twenty" si triāka ~ tioi triāko "three hundred" sioi Proto-Greek ss
-ss- between vowels is retained (shortened to -s- in Attic).
Doric me ~ Attic ssos me "middle" sos Digamma
w ( ϝ) is preserved in earlier Doric (lost in Attic).
Doric ~ Attic woikos oikos "house" (compare Latin "village") vīcus
Literary texts in Doric and inscriptions from the Hellenistic age have no digamma.
For information on the peculiarities of Doric accentuation, see
Ancient Greek accent#Dialect variation
te ~ Attic tores te, Ionic ttares te "four".
pr ~ Attic–Ionic ātos pr "first".
"this" ~ Attic–Ionic tēnos (e)
keinos t for h (from Proto-Indo-European s) in article and demonstrative pronoun.
, toi ; tai , toutoi tautai ~ Attic-Ionic , hoi ; hai , houtoi . hautai
Third person plural, athematic or
root aorist -n ~ Attic -san.
Doric ed ~ Attic–Ionic on edo san
First person plural active
-mes ~ Attic–Ionic -men.
-se-ō ~ Attic -s-ō.
prāx ( ētai prāk-se-etai) ~ Attic–Ionic prāx etai
ka ~ Attic–Ionic an.
Doric ai ka, ai de ka, ai tis ka ~ ean, ean de, ean tis
Temporal adverbs in
-ka ~ Attic–Ionic -te.
Locative adverbs in
-ei ~ Attic/Koine -ou.
The aorist and future of verbs in
-izō, -azō has x (versus Attic/Koine s).
Doric agōni ~ Attic xato agōni "he contended" sato
k before suffixes beginning with t.
αἰγάδες aigades (Attic αἶγες aiges) "goats"
αἶγες aiges (Attic κύματα kymata) "waves"
ἁλία (Attic halia ἐκκλησία ) "assembly" (Cf. ekklēsia Heliaia)
βρύκαιναι (Attic brykainai ἱέρειαι hiereiai) "priestesses"
βρυκετός (Attic bryketos βρυγμός brygmos, βρυκηθμός brykēthmos) "chewing, grinding, gnashing with the teeth"
δαμιοργοί (Attic damiorgoi ἄρχοντες ) "high officials". Cf. Attic archontes δημιουργός "public worker for the people (dēmos), craftsman, creator"; dēmiourgos Hesychius δαμιουργοί· αἱ πόρναι "prostitutes". Zamiourgoi Elean.
Ἐλωός Elôos Hephaestus Ἥφαιστος παρὰ Δωριεῦσιν
κάρρων (Attic karrōn κρείττων kreittōn) "stronger" (Ionic kreissōn, Cretan kartōn )
κορύγης (Attic korygēs κῆρυξ kēryx) "herald, messenger" (Aeolic karoux)
λαιός ( laios Homeric, Attic and Modern Greek ἀριστερός aristeros) "left". Cretan: λαία laia, Attic aspis shield, Hesych. λαῖφα laipha λαίβα laiba, because the shield was held with the left hand. Cf.Latin: laevus
λαία laia (Attic, Modern Greek λεία leia) "prey"
λέω (λείω) le(i)ō (Attic ἐθέλω ethelō) "will"
οἴνωτρος oinōtros "vine pole" (: Greek οἶνος oinos "wine"). Cf. Oenotrus
μογίοντι mogionti (Ionic πυρέσσουσι pyressousi) "they are on fire, have fever" (= Attic μογοῦσι mogousi "they suffer, take pains to")
μυρμηδόνες (Attic myrmēdônes μύρμηκες myrmēkes) "ants". Cf. Myrmidons
ὄπτιλλος optillos or optilos 'eye' (Attic ophthalmos) ( Latin oculus) (Attic optikos of sight, Optics)
πάομαι (Attic paomai κτάομαι ktaomai) "acquire"
ῥαπιδοποιός poet, broiderer, pattern-weaver, boot-maker ( rhapidopoios rhapis needle for Attic ) rhaphis
σκανά skana (Attic skênê) tent, stage, scene) (Homeric klisiê) (Doric skanama encampment)
τανθαλύζειν tanthalyzein (Attic τρέμειν tremein) "to tremble"
τύνη tunē or tounē 'you nominative' (Attic συ) dative τέειν teein (Attic σοί soi) χανάκτιον chanaktion (Attic μωρόν mōron)( chan goose) Doric proper
Βαλλακράδες Ballacrades title of Argive athletes on a feast-day (Cf.achras wild pear-tree) 
Δαυλὶς mimic festival at Argos (acc. Pausanias 10.4.9 daulis means Daulis thicket) (Hes.  daulon fire log)
δροόν strong (Attic ischyron, dynaton) droon
κέστερ youngman (Attic neanias) kester
κυλλάραβις kyllarabis discus and gymnasium at Argos
σεμαλία ragged, tattered garments Attic rhakē, cf. himatia clothes) semalia ὤβεα ôbea eggs (Attic ὠά ôa )
ἀγέλα agela "group of boys in the Cretan ". Cf. agōgē Homeric Greek ἀγέλη "herd" (Cretan agelē apagelos not yet received in agelê, boy under 17)
ἀδνός adnos holy, pure (Attic ἁγνός hagnos) ( Ariadne)
ἀϝτὸς (Attic autos) Hsch. aWtos aus αὐς - αὐτός. Κρῆτες καὶ Λάκωνες
ἄκαρα legs (Attic akara skelê)
ἁμάκις once (Attic hapax) hamakis
ἄργετος argetos juniper, cedar (Attic arkeuthos)
αὐκά power (Attic alkê) auka
ἀφραττίας aphrattias strong
βαλικιώται Koine synepheboi (Attic hêlikiotai 'age-peers' of the same age balikiôtai hêlikia)
βριτύ sweet (Attic glyku) britu
δαμιόω , Cretan and damioô Boeotian. for Attic zêmioô to damage, punish, harm
δαμπόν dampon first milk curdled by heating over embers (Attic puriephthon, puriatê)
δῶλα dôla ears (Attic ôta) (Tarentine ata)
Ϝέλχανος for Welchanos Cretan Zeus and Welchanios, Belchanios, Gelchanos (Elchanios Cnossian month)
ϝεργάδδομαι wergaddomai I work (Attic ergazomai)
ϝῆμα garment (Attic heima) (Aeolic emma) (Koine (h)immation)(Cf.Attic amphi-ennumi I dress, amph-iesis clothing) Wêma
ἰβῆν wine (Dialectal ibên Ϝοἶνος Woînos Attic oinos) (accusative ἰβῆνα ibêna)
ἴττον one (Attic hen itton ἕν)
καρανώ goat karanô
ϟόσμος and kosmos kormos archontes in Crete, body of kosmoi (Attic κόσμος order, ornament, honour, world - kormos trunk of a tree)
κύφερον, κυφή head (Attic kephalê) kypheron, kuphê
λάκος rag, tattered garment (Attic rhakos) ( lakos Aeolic brakos long robe, lacks the sense 'ragged')
μαλκενίς (Attic parthenos) Hsch: malakinnês. malkenis
ὄθρυν mountain (Attic oros) (Cf. othrun Othrys)
ῥυστόν spear rhyston
σεῖφα darkness (Attic zophos, skotia) (Aeolic dnophos) seipha
σπεῦσδος title of Cretan officer (Cf.speudô speus- rush) speusdos
τάγανα (Attic tauta) these things tagana
τίρος summer (Homeric, Attic theros) tiros τρέ you, accusative ( Attic se ) tre
ἀβήρ storeroom abêr οἴκημα στοὰς ἔχον, ταμεῖον Λάκωνες
ἀβώρ abôr dawn (Attic ἠώς êôs) ( Latin aurora)
ἄδδα adda need, deficiency (Attic endeia) Aristophanes of Byzantium(fr. 33)
ἀδδαυόν addauon dry (i.e. azauon) or addanon (Attic xêron)
αἴκουδα aikouda (Attic aischunē) αἰσχύνη. Λάκωνες
αἵματία blood-broth, Spartan Melas Zomos haimatia Black soup) (haima haimatos blood)
ἀΐτας aïtas (Attic ἐρώμενος ) "beloved boy (in a erōmenos pederastic relationship)"
ἀκκόρ tube, bag (Attic askos) akkor
ἀκχαλίβαρ bed (Attic skimpous)( akchalibar Koine krabbatos)
ἀμβροτίξας having begun, past participle(amphi or ana..+ ?) (Attic aparxamenos, aparchomai) (Doric -ixas for Attic -isas) ambrotixas
ἀμπέσσαι (Attic amphiesai) to dress ampesai
ἀπαβοίδωρ apaboidôr out of tune (Attic ekmelôs) (Cf.Homeric singer Aoidos) / emmelôs, aboidôr in tune
Ἀπέλλα (Attic apella ἐκκλησία ) "assembly in ekklēsia Sparta" (verb apellazein)
ἀρβυλίς arbylis (Attic ἀρύβαλλος ) (Hesychius: aryballos ἀρβυλίδα λήκυθον. Λάκωνες)
ἄττασι wake up, get up (Attic anastêthi) attasi
βάβαλον babalon imperative of cry aloud, shout (Attic kraugason)
βάγαρον (Attic χλιαρόν bagaron chliaron 'warm') (Cf. Attic φώγω phōgō 'roast') ( Laconian word)
βαφά vafi bapha broth (Attic zômos) (Attic dipping of red-hot iron in water ( βαφή baphê Koine and Modern Greek βαφή dyeing)
βείκατι twenty (Attic εἴκοσι eikosi) beikati
βέλα sun and dawn Laconian (Attic bela helios Cretan abelios)
βερνώμεθα Attic bernômetha klêrôsômetha we will cast or obtain by lot (inf. berreai) (Cf.Attic meiresthai receive portion, Doric bebramena for heimarmenê, allotted by Moirai)
βέσκερος bread (Attic artos) beskeros
βήλημα hindrance, river dam (Laconian) bêlêma
βηρίχαλκον fennel (Attic marathos) (chalkos bronze) bêrichalkon
βίβασις Spartan dance for boys and girls bibasis
βίδυοι bidyoi bideoi, bidiaioi also "officers in charge of the ephebes at Sparta"
βίὡρ almost, maybe (Attic biôr ἴσως isôs, σχεδόν schedon) wihôr (ϝίὡρ)
βλαγίς spot (Attic kêlis) blagis
βοῦα "group of boys in the boua Spartan " agōgē
βο(υ)αγός bo(u)agos "leader of a boua at Sparta"
βυλλίχης Laconian dancer (Attic orchêstês) bullichês
βώνημα speech (Homeric, Ionic eirêma bônêma eireo) (Cf.Attic phônêma sound, speech)
γαβεργόρ labourer (ga earth wergon work) (Cf.geôrgos farmer) gabergor
γαιάδας citizens, people (Attic dêmos) gaiadas
γονάρ gonar mother Laconian (gonades children Eur. Med. 717)
δαβελός torch (Attic dalos)(Syracusan dabelos daelos, dawelos)(Modern Greek davlos) (Laconian δαβῇ dabêi (Attic kauthêi) it should be burnt)
δίζα goat (Attic aix) and Hera aigophagos Goat-eater in Sparta diza
εἴρην eirēn (Attic ἔφηβος ) " ephēbos Spartan youth who has completed his 12th year"
εἰσπνήλας (Attic eispnēlas ἐραστής erastēs) one who inspires love, a lover (Attic eispneô inhale, breathe)
ἐξωβάδια exôbadia (Attic enôtia ; ôta ears)
ἔφοροι (Attic ephoroi ἔφοροι ἄρχοντες ) "high officials at Sparta". Cf. Attic archontes ἔφορος ephoros "overseer, guardian"
Θοράτης Thoratês Apollon thoraios containing the semen, god of growth and increase
θρῶναξ thrônax drone (Attic kêphên)
κάφα washing, bathing-tub (Attic loutêr) (Cf. kapha skaphê basin, bowl)
κελοῖα keloia (kelya, kelea also) "contest for boys and youths at Sparta"
κίρα fox (Attic alôpêx) (Hsch kiraphos). kira
μεσόδμα mesodma, messodoma woman and (Attic gunê) ἀνθρωπώ anthrôpô
μυρταλίς myrtalis Butcher's broom (Attic oxumursinê) (Myrtale real name of Olympias)
πάσορ pasor passion (Attic pathos)
πόρ leg, foot (Attic pous) por
πούρδαιν restaurant (Koine mageirion) (Cf. pourdain purdalon, purodansion (from pyr fire hence pyre)
σαλαβάρ cook (Common Doric/Attic mageiros) salabar
σίκα 'pig' (Attic hus) and sika grôna female pig.
σιρία safeness (Attic asphaleia) siria
ψιθωμίας psithômias ill, sick (Attic asthenês) Λάκωνες τὸν ἀσθενῆ
ψιλάκερ first dancer psilaker ὠβά ôba (Attic κώμη kōmē) "village; one of five quarters of the city of Sparta"
Magna Graecian Doric
ἀστύξενοι astyxenoi Metics, Tarentine
βάννας king bannas basileus, wanax, anax 
βειλαρμοσταὶ cavalry officers Tarentine (Attic beilarmostai ilarchai) (ilē, squadron + Laconian harmost-)
δόστορε dostore 'you make' Tarentine (Attic ποιεῖτε)
Θαύλια Thaulia "festival of Tarentum", θαυλακίζειν thaulakizein 'to demand sth with uproar' Tarentine, θαυλίζειν thaulizein "to celebrate like Dorians", Θαῦλος Thaulos " Macedonian Ares", Thessalian Ζεὺς Θαύλιος Zeus Thaulios, Athenian Ζεὺς Θαύλων Zeus Thaulon, Athenian family Θαυλωνίδαι Thaulonidai
ῥάγανον easy rhaganon Thuriian (Attic rhaidion) (Aeolic braidion)
σκύτας 'back-side of neck' (Attic trachēlos) skytas
τήνης till Tarentine (Attic tênês ἕως heôs)
τρυφώματα whatever are fed or nursed, children, cattle (Attic thremmata) tryphômata ὑετίς huetis jug, amphora Tarentine (Attic hydris, hydria)( huetos rain) North-West
ἀγρίδιον agridion 'village' Aetolian (Attic chôrion)(Hesychius text: * dim. of ἀγρίδιον κωμάριον, χωρίον vA [παρὰ Αἰτωλοῖς] agros countryside, field)
ἀερία aeria fog Aetolian (Attic omichlê, aêr air)(Hsch. ) ἀερία ὀμίχλη, παρὰ Αἰτωλοῖς.
κίββα wallet, bag kibba Aetolian (Attic πήρα pêra) (Cypr. kibisis) (Cf.Attic κιβωτός kibôtos ark kibôtion box Suid. cites kibos) πλήτομον plêtomon Acarnanian old, ancient (Attic palaion, palaiotaton very old)
δείλομαι will, want deilomai Locrian, Delphian(Attic boulomai) ( Coan dêlomai) (Doric bôlomai) (Thessalian belloumai)
ϝαργάνα Wargana female worker epithet for Athena ( Delphic) (Attic Erganê) (Attic ergon work, Doric Wergon, Elean ϝάργον Wargon
ϝέρρω go away Werrô Locrian (Attic errô) (Hsch. berrês fugitive, berreuô escape)
Ϝεσπάριοι Λοϟροὶ Wesparioi Lokroi Epizephyrian (Western) Locrians (Attic hesperios of evening, western, Doric wesperios) (cf. Latin Vesper) ὀπλίαι places where the opliai Locrians counted their cattle
ἀϝλανέο̄ς without fraud, honestly IvO7 (Attic adolôs)(Hsch. aWlaneôs alanes true)(Tarentinian alaneôs absolutely)
ἀμίλλυξ scythe (Attic drepanon) in accus. amillux ἀμίλλυκα ( Boeotian amillakas wine)
ἀττάμιος unpunished (Attic azêmios) from an earliest attamios addamios (cf.Cretan, Boeotian damioô punish)
βάβακοι cicadas babakoi Elean (Attic tettiges) (in Pontus babakoi frogs)
βαίδειος ready (Attic hetoimos) (heteos fitness) baideios
βενέοι beneoi Elean 
βορσός borsos cross (Attic stauros)
βρα brothers, brotherhood (Cf.Attic bra phratra)
βρατάνα bratana ladle (Attic torune) (Doric rhatana) (cf. Aeolic bradanizô brandish, shake off)
δειρῆται small birds ( deirêtai Macedonian δρῆες drêes or δρῆγες drêges) (Attic strouthoi) (Hsc. trikkos small bird and king by Eleans)
ϝράτρα law, contract (Attic rhetra) Wratra
σερός yesterday (Attic chthes) seros
στερχανά sterchana funeral feast (Attic perideipnon)
φίλαξ philax young oak ( Macedonian ilax, Latin (Laconian ilex dilax ariocarpus, sorbus)( Modern Cretan azilakas Holm Oak, Quercus ilex) φόρβυτα phorbuta gums (Attic oula) (Homeric pherbô feed, eat)
ἀγχωρίξαντας anchôrixantas having transferred, postponed   Chaonian (Attic metapherô, anaballô) (anchôrizo anchi near + horizô define and Doric x instead of Attic s) (Cf. Ionic anchouros neighbouring) not to be confused with Doric anchôreô Attic ana-chôreô go back, withdraw.
ἀκαθαρτία akathartia impurity (Attic/Doric akatharsia) (Lamelles Oraculaires 14)
ἀποτράχω apotrachô run away (Attic/Doric apotrechô) 
ἄσπαλοι fishes Athamanian (Attic ichthyes) ( aspaloi Ionic chlossoi) (Cf.LSJ aspalia angling, aspalieus fisherman, aspalieuomai I angle metaph. of a lover, aspalisai: halieusai, sagêneusai. ( hals sea)
Ἄσπετος Aspetos divine epithet of Achilles in Epirus ( Homeric aspetos 'unspeakable, unspeakably great, endless' (Aristotle F 563 Rose; Plutarch, Pyrrhus 1; SH 960,4)    
γνώσκω gnôskô know (Attic gignôskô) (Ionic/Koine ginôskô) (Latin nōsco)(Attic gnôsis, Latin notio knowledge) (ref. Orion p. 42.17)
διαιτός diaitos (Hshc. judge kritês) (Attic diaitêtês arbitrator) Lamelles Oraculaires 16
ἐσκιχρέμεν lend out eskichremen πὲρ τοῖ (Lamelles Oraculaires 8 of Eubandros) (Attic eis + inf. kichranai from chraomai use) ἀργύρροι
Ϝεῖδυς Weidus knowing (Doric Ϝειδώς) weidôs) (Elean ϝειζός weizos) (Attic εἰδώς) eidôs) ( PIE *weid- "to know, to see", Sanskrit veda I know) Cabanes, L'Épire 577,50
κάστον kausimon kaston wood Athamanian (Attic xylon from xyô scrape, hence xyston) (Dialectical kalon wood from kaiô burn kauston sth that can be burnt, fuel)
λῃτῆρες lêïtêres Athamanian priests with garlands Hes.text ἱεροὶ στεφανοφόροι. Ἀθαμᾶνες(LSJ: lêitarchoi public priests ) (hence Leitourgia
μανύ small Athamanian (Attic mikron, brachu) (Cf. manu manon rare) (PIE *men- small, thin) (Hsch. banon thin) ( manosporos thinly sown manophullos with small leaves Thphr.HP7.6.2-6.3)
Νάϊος Naios or Naos epithet of Dodonaean Zeus (from the spring in the oracle) (cf. Naiades and Pan Naios in Pydna SEG 50:622 (Homeric naô flow, Attic nama spring) ( PIE *sna-)
παγάομαι 'wash in the spring' (of pagaomai Dodona) (Doric paga Attic pêgê running water, fountain)
παμπασία pampasia (to ask peri pampasias cliché phrase in the oracle) (Attic pampêsia full property) (Doric paomai obtain)
Πελιγᾶνες or Peliganes Peligones ( Epirotan, Macedonian senators)
πρᾶμι prami do optative (Attic πράττοιμι prattoimi) Syncope (Lamelles Oraculaires 22)
τίνε tine (Attic/Doric tini) to whom (Lamelles Oraculaires 7) τριθυτικόν trithutikon triple sacrifice tri + thuo(Lamelles Oraculaires 138) See also References
^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in:
The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
Buck, Carl Darling (1900). "The Source of the So-Called Achaean-Doric κοινη". . American Journal of Philology 21 (2): 193–196. doi: 10.2307/287905.
Çabej, E. (1961). "Die alteren Wohnsitze der Albaner auf der Balkanhalbinsel im Lichte der Sprache und der Ortsnamen". VII Congresso internaz. di sciense onomastiche: 241–251. ; Albanian version BUShT 1962:1.219-227
Eric Hamp. Birnbaum, Henrik; Puhvel, Jaan, eds. . The position of Albanian, Ancient IE dialects, Proceedings of the Conference on IE linguistics held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25–27, 1963
Huld, Martin E. (1986). "Accentual Stratification of Ancient Greek Loanwords in Albanian". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung (99.2): 245–253.
Mendez Dosuna -Doric dialects, p.452
Goodwin, William Watson (1874). . Plutarch's Morals, tr. by several hands. Corrected and revised by W.W. Goodwin Greek questions 9
^ IG IX,1² 3:609
^ Sophie Minon, Les Inscriptions Éléennes Dialectale - Reviewed by Stephen Colvin
^ Die Inschriften von Olympia - IvO 1
^ IG IX,1² 1:152,a
^ IG IX,1² 1:15
Potter, John (1751). . Archaeologia Graeca Or the Antiquities of Greece
^ Lamelles Oraculaires 77
Lewis, D. M.; Boardman, John (1994). . Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge Ancient History ISBN 978-0-521-23348-4.
Auroux, Sylvain (2000). . Walter de Gruyter. Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaften. Bd. 2/1.: Ein internationales Handbuch zur Entwicklung der Sprachforschung von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart ISBN 978-3-11-011103-3.
^ Cabanes, L'Épire 534,1
Masson, Olivier (2003) . "[Ancient] Macedonian language". In Hornblower, S. and Spawforth A. (eds.). (revised 3rd ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 905–906. The Oxford Classical Dictionary ISBN 0-19-860641-9.
Hammond, N.G.L (1993) . The Macedonian State. Origins, Institutions and History (reprint ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814927-1.
^ Michael Meier-Brügger,
Indo-European linguistics, Walter de Gruyter, 2003, p.28, on Google books
^ Roisman, Worthington, 2010, "A Companion to Ancient Macedonia", Chapter 5: Johannes Engels, "Macedonians and Greeks", p. 95:"This (i.e.
Pella curse tablet) has been judged to be the most important ancient testimony to substantiate that Macedonian was a north-western Greek and mainly a Doric dialect".
^ "...but we may tentatively conclude that Macedonian is a dialect related to North-West Greek.", Olivier Masson, French linguist, “Oxford Classical Dictionary: Macedonian Language”, 1996.
Masson & Dubois 2000, p. 292: "...<<Macedonian Language>> de l' Oxford Classical Dictionary, 1996, p. 906: <<Macedonian may be seen as a Greek dialect, characterized by its marginal position and by local pronunciation (like Βερενίκα for Φερενίκα etc.)>>."
^ Brian Joseph sums up that "[t]he slender evidence is open to different interpretations, so that no definitive answer is really possible", but cautions that "most likely, Ancient Macedonian was not simply an Ancient Greek dialect on a par with Attic or Aeolic" (B. Joseph (2001): "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.)
Facts about the world's major languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Online paper) In this sense, some authors also call it a "deviant Greek dialect."
^ Plutarch Greek question
^ Dionysism and Comedy
 by Xavier Riu
^ Raphael Kühner, Friedrich Blass, Ausführliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache
^ Elis — Olympia — bef. c. 500-450 BC
^ Epeiros —
Dodona — 4th c. BC SEG 15:397
^ The Oracles of Zeus: Dodona, Olympia, Ammon - Page 261
 by Herbert William Parke
^ Epeiros — Dodona — ~340 BC
SEG 26.700 - Trans.
^ Alexander the Great: A Reader
 by Ian Worthing
^ Greek Mythography in the Roman World
By Alan Cameron (Aspetides) 
^ (cf. Athenian secretary: Aspetos, son of Demostratos from
Kytheros ~340 BC) 
^ Pokorny -
aspetos Further reading Bakker, Egbert J., ed. 2010.
A companion to the Ancient Greek language. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Cassio, Albio Cesare. 2002. "The language of Doric comedy." In
The language of Greek comedy. Edited by Anton Willi, 51–83. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos, ed. 2007.
A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Colvin, Stephen C. 2007.
A historical Greek reader: Mycenaean to the koiné. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Horrocks, Geoffrey. 2010.
Greek: A history of the language and its speakers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Palmer, Leonard R. 1980. The Greek language. London: Faber & Faber. External links
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