Theodora "Dora" Bakoyannis (Greek: Θεοδώρα "Ντόρα" Μπακογιάννη; pronounced [ˈdoɾa bakoˈʝani]; née Mitsotakis; Greek: Μητσοτάκη; born May 6, 1954), is a Greek politician. From 2006 to 2009 she was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Greece, the highest position ever to have been held by a woman in the Cabinet of Greece at the time; she was also Chairperson-in-Office of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in 2009. Previously she was the Mayor of Athens from 2003 to 2006, the first female mayor in the city's history, and the first woman to serve as mayor of a city hosting the Olympic Games. She also served as Minister for Culture of Greece from 1992 to 1993. She has been serving as an independent member of the Hellenic Parliament representing unofficially Democratic Alliance, the political party she founded in 2010, having been expelled from the opposition New Democracy party due to voting against the party line. In May 2012, due to the critical situation in Greece before the elections and given the established electoral law, Democratic Alliance decided to cooperate with New Democracy, based on a specific framework of values and to suspend its activities. Dora Bakoyannis rejoined New Democracy on 21 May 2012, ahead of the parliamentary election in June, where she headed the state deputies' ballot.
|Minister for Foreign Affairs|
15 February 2006 – 6 October 2009
|Prime Minister||Kostas Karamanlis|
|Preceded by||Petros Molyviatis|
|Succeeded by||George Papandreou|
|Mayor of Athens|
1 January 2003 – 14 February 2006
|Preceded by||Dimitris Avramopoulos|
|Succeeded by||Nikitas Kaklamanis|
|Minister for Culture|
3 December 1992 – 13 October 1993
|Prime Minister||Konstantinos Mitsotakis|
|Preceded by||Anna Psarouda-Benaki|
|Succeeded by||Melina Mercouri|
|Born||May 6, 1954|
|Political party||New Democracy (Before 2010; 2012–present)|
Democratic Alliance (2010–2012)
|Spouse(s)||Pavlos Bakoyannis (m. 1974–1989; his death)|
Isidoros Kouvelos (m. 1998–present)
|Alma mater||University of Munich|
University of Athens
Bakoyannis was born in Athens in 1954 to a prominent Greek family in the field of politics. She is the eldest of four children of the veteran Greek politician Konstantinos Mitsotakis, former Prime Minister of Greece and former leader of country's main centre-right political party New Democracy, and Marika Mitsotakis (née Giannoukou). Her family originates from Chania, Crete, and has a long tradition in the politics of Greece. Besides her father and herself, other members of the family were also prominent politicians such as her grandfather, Kyriakos, and his brother Aristomenis, while her brother Kyriakos is a member of the Hellenic Parliament. She is also a great-granddaughter of Eleftherios Venizelos' sister. This decade-long involvement has been reprehended as attestation for family-rule in Greek political life.
During her early school years, she attended the German School of Athens. Her family was exiled to Paris by the Greek military junta in 1968, thus she completed her secondary schooling at the German School of Paris. She then studied political science and communication at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich without graduating. After the collapse of the junta, she returned to Greece and continued her academic studies in public law at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. In addition to Greek, Bakoyannis is fluent in English, French and German.
In the November 1989 election, Bakoyannis successfully contested her late husband's seat in the Evrytania constituency and was re-elected a member of the Hellenic Parliament in the 1990 election and served as a Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, following the election of her father as Prime Minister of Greece. From September 1991 to August 1992, she served in the General Secretariat of International Affairs for New Democracy and represented the party at the European Democrat Union and the International Democrat Union. Since December 1992, she served as Minister for Culture of Greece until the 1993 election, when she was re-elected a member of Parliament for New Democracy as the main opposition party.
On 29 April 1994, Bakoyannis was elected in the Central Committee of New Democracy by the party's Third Congress. In the 1996 election Bakoyannis was a candidate for a first time in the Athens A' electoral district and was elected again as member of Parliament, coming first of all the candidates in it, something that was repeated in the 2000 election. Meanwhile, on 22 March 1997, she was elected again to the Central Committee of New Democracy by the party's Fourth Congress. She also served for two terms as the chairperson of the party's Executive Committee later. In September 1997 she was appointed by New Democracy leader Kostas Karamanlis in the party's Department for Development and as Shadow Minister of Foreign Affairs and Defence in May 2000.
On 29 March 2002, Bakoyannis was picked to run for Mayor of Athens in the 2002 local elections, both a choice of Kostas Karamanlis who was looking for a way to demonstrate New Democracy's growing strength against the ruling Panhellenic Socialist Movement and a chance for Bakoyannis to earn prestige by this office in advance of the city hosting the Olympic games. She was elected what was aired as Athens' first female mayor in the city's 3,500-year history, defeating her socialist opponent Christos Papoutsis and receiving a percentage of 60.6% in the runoff. As mayor, she was heavily involved in the preparation of the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, the first woman to serve as mayor of a city hosting the Olympic Games, and passed the Olympic flag to the mayor of Beijing, Wang Qishan. In 2005 she was awarded the World Mayor Prize.
Bakoyannis left the office of Mayor before the end of her term, replaced by acting mayor Fotini Pipili, to become Minister of Foreign Affairs of Greece on 15 February 2006 and thus the highest-ranking woman in the history of the Cabinet of Greece. She also retained the position after the 2007 election, managing to be elected as a member of the Hellenic Parliament first among all the candidates in the Athens A' constituency once more. As Minister of Foreign Affairs, Bakoyannis assumed the rotating Greek presidency of the United Nations Security Council in September 2006, while at a time of international tensions over nuclear programs in Iran and North Korea and amidst a fragile United Nations brokered cease-fire in Lebanon.
During her incumbency, she promoted the cooperation in the Balkans, where Greek companies are heavily investing, traveled through the Middle East to help outline solutions to problems and attended meetings of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe to discuss developments in the region. She also promoted the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon by the Hellenic Parliament and supported Nicolas Sarkozy's plan about the Union for the Mediterranean, but did not reach a conciliation with Turkey and the Republic of Macedonia over the Cyprus dispute and the Macedonia naming dispute respectively.
Bakoyannis served as the Chairperson-in-Office of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe from January 2009 to 6 October 2009. As the political leader of the OSCE, she was responsible for the external representation and the appointments of the Organization. She also oversaw the activities of the OSCE in conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation. During her chairmanship, she was assisted by her staff and Marc Perrin de Brichambaut, the Secretary General of the OSCE, as well as by her predecessor Alexander Stubb and successor Marat Tazhin, who both formed along with Bakoyannis the OSCE Troika.
Bakoyannis was expelled from New Democracy on May 7, 2010, on the grounds of having defied New Democracy's line and voting "in favor" of a salient piece of legislation introducing the harsh austerity measures that were required for European Union-International Monetary Fund backed lending. She continued to hold her parliamentary seat, originally secured by New Democracy, as an independent. On November 21, 2010, she founded her own political party called the Democratic Alliance.
A member of the Greek delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe since 2012, Bakoyannis serves as chairwoman of the Sub-Committee on relations with the OECD and the EBRD. She is also a member of the Committee on Political Affairs and Democracy, which she chaired from 2014 to 2016; a member of the Committee on the Honouring of Obligations and Commitments by Member States of the Council of Europe (Monitoring Committee); rapporteur for the monitoring of Russia (alongside Liliane Maury Pasquier); and rapporteur on the Syrian Civil War.
In March 1992, the International Centre for Women awarded Bakoyannis the International Leadership Award, and in June 1993, she was recognised by the 14th International Symposium Fontana di Roma for her valuable contribution to culture. In 2003, upon the invitation of Romano Prodi, then President of the European Commission, she joined a group of 12 high-level independent figures from Europe, as a member of a prestigious round-table conference, contributing proposals on the social character, cultural identity and economic future of new Europe.
Bakoyannis received the honor of being elected World Mayor in 2005, an annual internet-based project organized by City Mayors in order to honor the mayors who have served their communities well. Her efforts to get Athens ready to host the 2004 Summer Olympics successfully, her actions to transform the city for the benefit of its residents and her fight against terrorism helped Bakoyannis win the award. During the contest she was strongly supported by the Greek community and also received thousands of votes from several countries around Europe, North America and Australia. She had also been continuously included in the Forbes Magazine's List of The World's 100 Most Powerful Women from 2006 to 2008. In 2008, she was awarded the Emperor Maximilian Award-European Award for Regional Policy and Local Government by the State of Tyrol and the city of Innsbruck. In 2009, she was named as the first female foreign associate of the French Academy in Humanities and Political Sciences (Académie française des Sciences Morales et Politiques). The same year, she was also awarded the title of Honorary Senator by the European Academy of Human and Political Sciences in Salzburg. In 2010, Dora Bakoyannis has been awarded the National Order of the Chevalry of the Legion of Honour of the French Republic (Ordre Nationale de Chevalier de la Legion d' Honneur).
In December 1974, she was married to journalist Pavlos Bakoyannis and later gave birth to their two children, Alexia and Kostas. In 1977, she took examinations at the Ministry of Economic Coordination and was appointed in the Department of European Economic Community Affairs. When her father was elected leader of New Democracy in 1984, she served as chief of staff until 1989. On 26 September 1989, her husband, who had been elected a member of the Hellenic Parliament in the June 1989 election, was assassinated by members of the terrorist group Revolutionary Organization 17 November, as he entered his office building. She was married to businessman Isidoros Kouvelos in 1998, but she retains her late husband's surname.
| Minister for Culture
| Mayor of Athens
| Minister for Foreign Affairs
| Chair of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
The 2002 Greek local elections elected representatives to Greece's super-prefectures, 54 prefectures, provinces, and approximately 1,033 communities and municipalities.
The local elections in Greece traditionally occur during the month of October.
Candidates at local elections do not run under the official name of the party they belong, but form electoral platforms with different names for the purpose.Athens A
Athens A (Greek: Α΄ Αθηνών) is a parliamentary constituency in Attica represented in the Hellenic Parliament. In its present form it dates to 1958, when the Athens B constituency was split off, leaving Athens A with the Municipality of Athens. It elects fourteen Members of Parliament (MPs) by reinforced proportional representation.
Its most high-profile MP is the Prime Minister of Greece since 2015, Alexis Tsipras of Syriza.Bakoyannis
Bakoyannis (or Bakoyiannis; Greek: Μπακογιάννης) with the female form being Bakoyanni (or Bakoyianni; Μπακογιάννη) is a Greek surname. It is the surname of:
Dora Bakoyannis, Greek politician and government minister, born 1954
Kostas Bakoyannis, Greek politician and regional governor, born 1978
Niki Bakoyianni Greek high-jumper, born 1968
Pavlos Bakoyannis, Greek politician and parliamentary leader, 1935–1989Democratic Alliance (Greece)
The Democratic Alliance (Greek language: Δημοκρατική Συμμαχία — ΔΗ.ΣΥ., Dimokratiki Symmachia — DISY) was a centrist neo liberal political party in Greece. It was founded on 21 November 2010 by Dora Bakoyannis, a few months after she was expelled from the centre-right party New Democracy for voting in support of a European Union-International Monetary Fund backed financial stability loan. The party's founding congress took place on 27 May 2011.On 22 May 2014 the party rejoined New Democracy.Dimitris Avramopoulos
Dimitris Avramopoulos (Greek: Δημήτρης Αβραμόπουλος) is a Greek politician of the conservative New Democracy party, and former career diplomat. He has served in various high-level cabinet posts, including Minister for Foreign Affairs and Minister for National Defence, and was Mayor of Athens in 1995–2002. Since 1 November 2014 he is serving as EU Commissioner for Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship in the Juncker Commission.Estonia–Greece relations
Estonian-Greek relations are the relations between the Republic of Estonia and the Hellenic Republic. Greece recognised Estonia on May 19, 1922. Greece never recognised the Soviet annexation of Estonia. Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on October 2, 1991. In April 1997, Estonia has established an embassy in Athens. The Greek embassy in Tallinn opened in January 2005. Estonia has also 3 honorary consulates in Patras, Piraeus and Thessaloniki.
Both countries are full members of NATO and the European Union.Fotini Pipili
Fotini Pipili (Greek: Φωτεινή Πιπιλή) is a Greek journalist and politician and member of the Greek Parliament for the New Democracy for the Athens A constituency.
She was born in Athens, on 7 February 1950, and started her career as a journalist from the woman's magazine PANTHEON (Greek: ΠΑΝΘΕΟΝ). She has studied law in the Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki.
In 1973, during the military junta, she became the first female reporter in the state military television channel IENED.
She was member of the Town Council of Athens from 1986 to 1994. In February 2006 she was acting mayor for a week replacing Dora Bakoyannis.
In 2007 she was elected MP of the Greek Parliament for the first time. She retained her seat in the 2009 elections.
In March 2010, she starred in the Greek version of "Dancing with the Stars" on channel ANT1.Greece–Ireland relations
Greek-Irish relations are the relations between Greece and Ireland. Both countries established diplomatic relations 22 January 1975.
Since 1977, Greece has an embassy in Dublin. Ireland also has 4 honorary consulates in Corfu, Iraklion, Rhodes and Thessaloniki.
Since 1978, Ireland has an embassy in Athens. The Irish Institute of Hellenic Studies at Athens opened in 1995, and is one of 17 foreign archaeological institutes in Athens.
Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe, of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, of the European Union and of the Eurozone.Greece–Kyrgyzstan relations
Greece–Kyrgyzstan relations are foreign relations between Greece and Kyrgyzstan. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992. Greece is represented in Kyrgyzstan through its embassy in Almaty (Kazakhstan). Kyrgyzstan is represented in Greece through a non resident ambassador based in Bishkek (in the Foreign Ministry). Kyrgyz consular representation in Greece is made by the Kazakh consulate in Athens. What is now Kyrgyzstan was settled by Scythians and was conquered by Alexander the Great.Greek wiretapping case 2004–05
The Greek wiretapping case of 2004-2005, also referred to as Greek Watergate, involved the illegal tapping of more than 100 mobile phones on the Vodafone Greece network belonging mostly to members of the Greek government and top-ranking civil servants. The taps began sometime near the beginning of August 2004 and were removed in March 2005 without discovering the identity of the perpetrators.
The phones tapped included those of the Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis and members of his family, the Mayor of Athens, Dora Bakoyannis, most phones of the top officers at the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry for Public Order, members of the ruling party, ranking members of the opposition Panhellenic Socialist Movement party (PASOK), the Hellenic Navy General Staff, the previous Minister of Defense and one phone of a locally hired Greek American employee of the American Embassy. Phones of Athens-based Arab businessmen were also tapped.
Foreign and Greek media have raised United States intelligence agencies as the main suspects. AFP reported that one Greek official stated on background that the likely initial penetration occurred during the run-up to the 2004 Athens Olympics, stating: "it is evident that the wiretaps were organized by foreign intelligence agencies, for security reasons related to the 2004 Olympic Games." The leader of the PASOK socialist opposition George Papandreou said that the Greek government itself had pointed towards the US as responsible for the wiretaps by giving up the zone of listening range, in which the US embassy was included. In 2015, after an investigation lasting 10 years, Greek investigators have found conclusive evidence linking the wiretapping to the US Embassy in Athens. As a result of the investigation, Greek authorities have issued an arrest warrant for a certain William George Basil, a NSA operative from a Greek immigrant background.Ioannis Pitsikas
Ioannis Pitsikas (Greek: Ιωάννης Πιτσίκας, 1881–1975) was a Greek Army lieutenant general active in World War II, who served as Mayor of Athens and twice in cabinet posts in interim governments post-war.Liliane Maury Pasquier
Liliane Maury Pasquier (born 16 December 1956) is a Swiss politician, member of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, elected to the Swiss Council of States for the canton of Geneva in 2007, and is currently a member of a delegation that cooperates with the French parliament to foster cooperation between the countries. In June 2018 she was elected as the President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.
On 20 March 2008, Maury Pasquier was reported in the media for remarks critical of Swiss Foreign Minister, Micheline Calmy-Rey for having worn a headscarf to a meeting with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to sign a gas contract, alleging that it had offended Iranian feminists.
In 2011, Maury Pasquier called on Swiss banks to ban investments in companies associated with anti-personnel mines and cluster munitions, following findings according to which 16 Swiss companies are among 166 leading financial institutions worldwide that are funding cluster bomb and parts manufacturing.A member of the Swiss delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe since 2012, Maury Pasquier has served on a number of committees, including the Committee on Political Affairs and Democracy and the Committee on the Honouring of Obligations and Commitments by Member States of the Council of Europe (Monitoring Committee). In addition, she was chairwoman of the Committee on Rules of Procedure, Immunities and Institutional Affairs as well as the co-rapporteur for the monitoring of Russia (alongside former Greek foreign minister Dora Bakoyannis). She was also part of a PACE pre-electoral delegation to Armenia ahead of the 2017 national elections. She led the Socialist Group within the Assembly before being elected its President in June 2018. She is the 32nd President of the Assembly since its creation in 1949, and only the fourth woman to hold the post.Marika Mitsotakis
Marika Mitsotakis (née Giannoukou; November 29, 1930 – May 6, 2012) was the wife of the former Prime Minister of Greece Konstantinos Mitsotakis. She was regarded as a prominent political voice with the New Democracy political party, her husband's government, and Greek politics. She was nicknamed "Mrs. Marika" among Greeks.Mitsotakis
The Greek surname Mitsotakis may refer to:
Konstantinos Mitsotakis (1918–2017), Greek prime minister from 1990 to 1993
Dora Bakoyannis (née Mitsotakis) (b. 1954), politician and Greek Foreign Minister; daughter of Prime Minister Konstantinos Mitsotakis
Kyriakos Mitsotakis (b. 1968) Greek politician, son of Konstantinos Mitsotakis
Maria Mitsotáki (1907–1974), Athens socialite and a principal character in epic poem The Changing Light at Sandover
Petros Mitsotakis, Agent Blau (1914–1947), Greek citizen executed for spying for the NazisNikitas Kaklamanis
Nikitas M. Kaklamanis (Greek: Νικήτας Κακλαμάνης; born April 1, 1946 in Andros) is a Greek New Democracy (ND) politician and former Mayor of Athens. He is also a former Minister for Health and Social Solidarity. In the Greek local elections of 2010 he lost the position of mayor after being defeated by Giorgos Kaminis.Pachni
Pachni (Greek: Πάχνη, Bulgarian: Пашевик) is a settlement in the Xanthi regional unit of Greece, part of the municipal unit Kotyli. Greek foreign affairs minister Dora Bakoyannis visited the village during her tour of Thrace.Pavlos Bakoyannis
Pavlos Bakoyannis (Greek: Παύλος Μπακογιάννης) (February 10, 1935, Velota, Evrytania - September 26, 1989, Athens) was a liberal Greek politician who was well known for his broadcasts against the Greek military junta of 1967–1974 on Bayerische Rundfunk radio. He was shot and killed in the front entrance of his office in 1989 by members of the Greek urban guerrilla Marxist organization 17 November (17N).Petros Molyviatis
Petros G. Molyviatis (Greek: Πέτρος Γ. Μολυβιάτης; born 12 June 1928) is a Greek politician and diplomat who, from 28 August 2015 to 23 September 2015, was the Minister for Foreign Affairs in the caretaker cabinet of Vassiliki Thanou-Christophilou. He had previously served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 17 May to 21 June 2012 in the caretaker cabinet of Panagiotis Pikrammenos, and from 10 March 2004 to 15 February 2006 in the first cabinet of Kostas Karamanlis.World Mayor
World Mayor is a biennial award organized by The City Mayors Foundation since 2004. It intends to raise the profile of mayors worldwide, as well as honour those who have served their communities well and who have contributed to the well-being of cities, nationally and internationally. The organisers make it plain that the award has no connection with any city or organization and is run on strictly non-commercial lines. Helen Zille and Leopoldo Lopez discussed their 2008 nominations on the BBC World Service programme 'Outlook'. The Guardian looked at contenders for the 2014 prize. The 2018 World Mayor Project was dedicated to women mayors.The City Mayors Foundation commissions the trophy presented as the World Mayor Award. The trophy was designed by artist Manuel Ferrari and is handmade out of steel by the metalworker Kaspar Swankey.
|Main members of the Venizelos/Mitsotakis family. Prime Ministers of Greece are highlighted in light blue.|
|First Hellenic Republic|
|Kingdom of Greece (Wittelsbach)|
|Kingdom of Greece (Glücksburg)|
|Second Hellenic Republic|
|Kingdom of Greece (Glücksburg)|
|Third Hellenic Republic|
§ variously as Chief Secretary/General Secretary of State
† officially considered the first foreign minister of independent Greece