Doncaster

Doncaster (/ˈdɒŋkəstər/,[1] /ˈdɒnkæs-/) is a large town in South Yorkshire, England. Together with its surrounding suburbs and settlements, the town forms part of the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster, which had a mid-2017 est. population of 308,900.[2] The town itself has a population of 109,805[3] The Doncaster Urban Area had a population of 158,141 in 2011 and includes Doncaster and neighbouring small villages. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire until 1974, Doncaster is about 17 miles (30 km) north-east of Sheffield, with which it is served by an international airport, Doncaster Sheffield Airport in Finningley. Under the Local Government Act 1972, Doncaster was incorporated into a newly created metropolitan borough in 1974, itself incorporated with other nearby boroughs in the 1974 creation of the metropolitan county of South Yorkshire.

Doncaster
St Georges Doncaster 3

Doncaster Minster is a grade I listed building and was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott in the 1850s.
Doncaster is located in the Borough of Doncaster
Doncaster
Doncaster
Shown within the Borough of Doncaster
Doncaster is located in South Yorkshire
Doncaster
Doncaster
Location within South Yorkshire
Population109,805 (2011 Census)
OS grid referenceSE5702
Metropolitan borough
Metropolitan county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townDONCASTER
Postcode districtDN1-DN12
Dialling code01302
PoliceSouth Yorkshire
FireSouth Yorkshire
AmbulanceYorkshire
EU ParliamentYorkshire and the Humber
UK Parliament
WebsiteDoncaster Council

History

Alternative Ermine Street
Ermine Street's alternative route: Eboracum (York) to Lagecium (Castleford), 21 miles, to Danum (Doncaster), 16 miles, to Agelocum (Littleborough), 21 miles, to Lindum (Lincoln), 13 miles. A separate spur connected Danum with Calcaria (near Tadcaster).

Roman

Possibly inhabited by earlier people, Doncaster grew up at the site of a Roman fort constructed in the 1st century at a crossing of the River Don. The 2nd-century Antonine Itinerary and the early-5th-century Notitia Dignitatum (Register of Dignitaries) called this fort Danum. The first section of the road to the Doncaster fort had probably been constructed since the early 50s, while a route through the north Derbyshire hills was opened in the latter half of the 1st century, possibly by Governor Gn. Julius Agricola during the late 70s. Doncaster provided an alternative direct land route between Lincoln and York. The main route between Lincoln and York was Ermine Street, which required parties to break into smaller units to cross the Humber in boats. As this was not always practical, the Romans considered Doncaster to be an important staging post. The Roman road through Doncaster appears on two routes recorded in the Antonine Itinerary. The itinerary include the same section of road between Lincoln and York, and list three stations along the route between these two coloniae. Routes 7 and 8 (Iter VII & VIII) are entitled "the route from York to London".

Several areas of known intense archaeological interest have been identified in the town, although many—in particular St Sepulchre Gate—remain hidden under buildings. The Roman fort is believed to have been located on the site that is now covered by St George's Minster, next to the River Don. The Doncaster garrison units are named in the Register produced near the end of Roman rule in Britain: it was the home of the Crispinian Horse, presumably named because it was originally recruited from among the tribes living near Crispiana in Pannonia Superior (near present-day Zirc in western Hungary), but possibly owing to Crispus, son of Constantine the Great, being headquartered there while his father was based in nearby York. The Register names the unit as under the command of the "Duke of the Britons".

MedievalDoncaster
Map showing the boundary of the fortified Medieval township of Doncaster with four Gates

Medieval

Doncaster is generally believed to be the Cair Daun[4] listed as one of the 28 cities of Britain in the 9th-century History of the Britons traditionally attributed to Nennius.[5][7][8] It was certainly an Anglo-Saxon burh, during which period it received its present name: "Don-" (Old English: Donne) from the Roman settlement and river and "-caster" (-ceaster) from an Old English adaptation of the Latin castra ("military camp; fort"). The settlement was mentioned in the 1003 will of Wulfric Spott. Shortly after the Norman Conquest, Nigel Fossard refortified the town and constructed Conisbrough Castle. By the time of the Domesday Book, Hexthorpe in the wapentake of Strafforth was described as having a church and two mills.[9] The historian David Hey says that these facilities represent the settlement at Doncaster. He also suggests that the street name Frenchgate indicates that Fossard invited fellow Normans to trade in the town.[10] Doncaster was ceded to Scotland in the Treaty of Durham; it was never formally returned to England. [11][12]

Conisbrough Castle Doncaster winter time
12th-century Conisbrough Castle, open to the public and property of English Heritage

As the 13th century approached, Doncaster matured into a busy town; in 1194 King Richard I granted it national recognition with a town charter. Doncaster had a disastrous fire in 1204, from which it slowly recovered. At the time, buildings were built of wood, and open fireplaces were used for cooking and heating. Fire was a constant hazard.

St Mary Magdalene Doncaster
Norman church of St Mary Magdalene, at demolition in 1846

In 1248, a charter was granted for Doncaster's market to be held around the Church of St Mary Magdalene, built in Norman times. In the 16th century, the church was adapted for use as the town hall. It was finally demolished in 1846.[10] Some 750 years on, the market continues to operate, with its busy traders located both under cover, at the 19th-century 'Corn Exchange' building (1873)[13] and in outside stalls. The Corn Exchange was extensively rebuilt in 1994 after a major fire.

During the 14th century, numerous friars arrived in Doncaster who were known for their religious enthusiasm and preaching. In 1307 the Franciscan friars (Greyfriars) arrived, and Carmelites (Whitefriars) arrived in the middle of the 14th century. In the Medieval period, other major features of the town included the Hospital of St Nicholas and the leper colony of the Hospital of St James, a moot hall, grammar school, and the five-arched stone town bridge, with a chapel dedicated to Our Lady of the Bridge. By 1334, Doncaster was the wealthiest town in southern Yorkshire and the sixth most important town in Yorkshire as a whole, even boasting its own banker. By 1379, it was recovering from the Black Death, which had reduced its population to 1,500. In October 1536, the Pilgrimage of Grace ended in Doncaster. This was a rebellion led by the lawyer Robert Aske, who commanded 40,000 people of Yorkshire against Henry VIII in protest about the monarch's Dissolution of the Monasteries. Many of Doncaster's streets are named with the suffix 'gate'. The word 'gate' is derived from the old Danish word 'gata,' which meant street. During Medieval times, craftsmen or tradesmen with similar skills, tended to live in the same street. Baxter is an ancient word for baker: Baxtergate was the bakers' street. Historians believe that 'Frenchgate' may be named after French-speaking Normans who settled on this street.

The Medieval township of Doncaster is known to have been protected by earthen ramparts and ditches, with four substantial gates as entrances to the town. These gates were located at Hall Gate, St Mary's Bridge (old), St Sepulchre Gate and Sunny Bar. Today the gates at Sunny Bar are commemorated by huge 'Boar Gates'; similarly, the entrance to St Sepulchre Gate is commemorated with white marble 'Roman Gates'. The boundary of the town principally extended from the River Don, along a route formed by what is now Market Road, Silver Street, Cleveland Street and Printing Office Street.

Modern

Because access into town was restricted, some officeholders secured charters to collect tolls. In 1605, King James I granted to William Levett of Doncaster, brother of York merchant Percival Levett, the right to levy tolls at Friar's and St Mary's bridges. Having served as mayors and aldermen of Doncaster, the Levetts probably believed they could control a monopoly. In 1618 the family began enforcing it but, by 1628, the populace revolted. Capt. Christopher Levett, Percival's son, petitioned Parliament to enforce the tolls. But Parliament disagreed, calling the tolls "a grievance to the subjects, both in creation and execution," and axed the Levett monopoly.[14] (Doncaster's Levet Road is named for this family, as are the nearby hamlets of Hooton Levitt and the largely extinct Levitt Hagg, where much of the town's early limestone was quarried.)

During the 16th and 17th centuries, the town of Doncaster continued to expand, although it suffered several outbreaks of plague between 1562 and 1606. Each time the plague struck down significant numbers of the town's population.

During the campaign of the First English Civil War, King Charles I marched by Bridgnorth, Lichfield and Ashbourne to Doncaster, where on 18 August 1645 he was met by great numbers of Yorkshire gentlemen who had rallied to his cause. On 2 May 1664, Doncaster was rewarded with the title of 'Free Borough' by way of the King (Charles I's son, King Charles II) expressing his gratitude for Doncaster's allegiance.

Doncaster has traditionally been a prosperous area[15] within the wapentake of Stafford and Tickhill.[16] The borough was known for its rich landowners with vast estates and huge stately homes such as Brodsworth Hall, Cantley Hall, Cusworth Hall, Hickleton Hall, Nether Hall and Wheatley Hall (demolished 1934). This wealth is evidenced in the luxurious and historic gilded 18th-century Mansion House on High Street. This land ownership developed over what is an ancient market place and large buildings were erected in the 19th century, including the Market Hall and the Corn Exchange. Perhaps the most striking building is St George's Minster, constructed in the 19th century and promoted from a parish church in 2004.

Doncaster was already a communications centre at this time. Doncaster sat on the Great North Road or A1, due to its strategic geographical importance and essentially Roman inheritance. This was the primary route for all traffic from London to Edinburgh and Doncaster benefited from its location.

Politics

Doncaster is represented in the House of Commons by three MPs; all three constituencies are currently held by Labour. Rosie Winterton represents Doncaster Central, former Labour Party leader, Ed Miliband represents Doncaster North, and Caroline Flint represents Don Valley.

At a European level, Doncaster is part of the Yorkshire and the Humber constituency and is represented by six MEPs.

Doncaster is one of only twelve UK boroughs to have a directly-elected mayor, a position currently held by Labour's Ros Jones.

In September 2014, UKIP held its annual party conference at Doncaster Racecourse. UKIP party leader Nigel Farage claimed that by holding the conference in Doncaster, UKIP were "now parking our tanks on the Labour Party's lawn" referring to Labour leader Ed Miliband's Doncaster North constituency. Shortly afterwards in the seat, at the 2015 general election, UKIP won 8,928 votes to Labour's 20,708. In the 2016 EU Referendum, however, Doncaster voted 69% to leave the European Union.[17][18]

Geography

High Street and Frenchgate shopping centre. - geograph.org.uk - 510444
High Street and Frenchgate shopping centre

Doncaster is a large settlement and borough in South Yorkshire. The borough expanded dramatically in population with the development of coal mining. Closure of coal mines in the 1970s, and the early 1980s caused some economic difficulties; the town then developed its service industry; the already good communication links with the rest of the UK supported this development.

The Doncaster skyline is dominated by the minster in the middle of the town. The Frenchgate Shopping Centre holds an important position in the skyline, along with the Doncaster College Hub building and Cusworth Hall. Cusworth Hall is an 18th-century Grade I listed country house in Cusworth, near Doncaster. Set in the landscaped parklands of Cusworth Park, Cusworth Hall is a good example of a Georgian country house.

Most of the old Doncaster College, the Council House and surrounding buildings have been demolished, and work has commenced to replace them with more modern facilities including a new theatre, council house and hotel which together will form the Doncaster Civic and Cultural Quarter. There are also plans for expansion onto land north of the new college (The Hub) if it gains university status.

Potteric Carr, including Potteric Carr Nature Reserve, lies to the south.

Climate

Doncaster has a maritime climate, lacking in extreme temperatures, as with the rest of the British Isles. The town lies at a low elevation in the Don valley, in the lee of the Pennines, and inland from the North sea, meaning daytime summer temperatures are no lower than parts of South East England, despite the more northerly location. The nearest weather station is RAF Finningley, now known as Doncaster Sheffield Airport, located about 5.5 miles (8.9 km) to the south-east of Doncaster town centre, and at a similar elevation.

The Doncaster area is about as far north as the 21.5 °C (70.7 °F) average July/August maximum temperature isotherm reaches – Indeed, the August 1990 record high of 35.5 °C (95.9 °F)[19] is the most northerly temperature above 35 °C (95 °F) in the British Isles. The nearby town of Bawtry just slightly further south still holds the UK's September monthly record high temperature of 35.6 °C (96.1 °F),[20] set in 1906. Typically, the warmest day of the year should reach 29.1 °C (84.4 °F)[21] and 12.58 days will report a daytime maximum of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or above.

The absolute minimum temperature stands at −13.5 °C (7.7 °F),[22] set during December 1981. However, online records only relate to the period 1960–2000, so lower temperatures may have been recorded at nearby locations outside of this timeframe. According to the 1971–2000 period, 51.9 nights of the year will record an air frost on average.

Typically 106.9 days[23] of the year will report 1mm or more of rainfall. Total annual precipitation is slightly below 560 mm (22 in),[24] comparable to the driest parts of the United Kingdom, due to Doncaster's location in the rain shadow of the Pennines.

  1. ^ Weather station is located 6 miles (10 km) from the Doncaster town centre.

Green belt

Doncaster is within a green belt region that extends into the wider surrounding counties. First defined in 1966,[27] the policy is controlled throughout the town by the local planning authority, Doncaster council. It is in place to reduce urban sprawl, prevent areas in the Doncaster conurbation from further uncontrolled convergence, protect the identity of outlying communities, encourage brownfield reuse, and preserve nearby countryside. This is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas, and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building.[27]

It surrounds the side of the urban area west of the East Coast Line, preventing suburbs such as Sprotborough, New Edlington, Old Edlington, Scawsby and New Rossington merging. A subsidiary aim of the green belt is to encourage recreation and leisure interests,[27] with rural landscape features, greenfield areas and facilities including the River Calder and valley west of Hexthorpe; Hexthorpe Park; Cusworth Hall, museum and country park; Potteric Carr and Huxter Well Marsh; and the Trans Pennine Trail.

Economy

Doncaster Town Center
The High Street in Doncaster town centre.

Doncaster emerged as an industrial centre in the late 18th century to 20th century. Its communication links, particularly its waterways, meant that Doncaster became extremely busy and experienced vast migration to its centre. Underneath Doncaster lies a huge natural resource by way of deep seam coal. Recently there has been an expansion in commercial and residential developments along with good transportation links with the rest of the United Kingdom.

Distribution centres

Due to its proximity to major urban centres and motorway/rail infrastructure, Doncaster has a number of major distribution centres, including the 420 acre Doncaster International Railport, which dispatches goods to Europe by rail. Large warehousing and logistic capabilities for retailers such as Next, Tesco, IKEA, Amazon.com, Lidl and Faberge are also sited there. The B&Q distribution centre next to the DFS UK headquarters at Redhouse A1(M) junction 38 was the largest free-standing warehouse in the UK. A significant proportion of fresh and frozen goods for northern supermarkets is dispatched by road from Doncaster.

Regeneration initiatives

On 5 March 2004, Doncaster was granted Fairtrade Town status. In recent years, its centre has undergone redevelopment including the construction of an Education City campus, currently the largest education investment of its kind in the UK. Over the last few years the Doncaster Lakeside, which is home to the Doncaster Rovers ground, has undergone modernisation. Doncaster has a bowling alley and a cinema near Lakeside. 'The Dome', opened in 1989, by Princess Diana, contains a swimming pool, gym and ice rink, as well as a café. The Frenchgate Centre, a shopping centre and transport interchange, has been extended to connect with the railway station and bus station. Lakeside Village, a retail outlet with some 45 retail shops and restaurants is located along the A6182 dual carriageway. The Waterdale area of the town centre is currently undergoing rejuvenation, with a new theatre (known as CAST), new civic offices and a new public square already having been completed, on the site of the old Waterdale car park. The old council house and civic theatre have been demolished and new housing is being constructed both in the town itself, opposite Doncaster Racecourse and in out of town suburbs.

Confectionery

During the 19th and 20th century a number of confectioners were based in Doncaster including Parkinson's[28] the Butterscotch inventors, Nuttalls Mintoes[29] and Murray Mints. In August 2011 Parkinson's put their 190-year-old trademark up for sale on eBay.[30] The sale was completed in 2012 to Confection by Design in Harrogate.

Coal and industrial expansion

The waterways, River Don and Don Navigation were used to transport coal from Doncaster to the steel production centres at Rotherham, Scunthorpe and Sheffield. A large number of mining jobs were lost in the late 1980s, and today coal mining has ceased.

Rockware Glass is a specialist glass manufacturer. A production facility for chemical polymers was built on Wheatley Hall Road. It changed hands during its existence until DuPont closed it in the mid-1990s.

Steel foundries, rolling mills and wire mills were built close to the railways that brought steel from Rotherham and Sheffield. Bridon Ropes produces wire rope, including the ropes used at coal mines to haul coal and miners. It is claimed to be the largest wire rope manufacturing plant in Europe. Bridon supplied wire rope for the Olympic Stadium for the 2012 Olympic Games.[31]

During the First World War and Second World War, the town became involved in munitions manufacture.

The railways and locomotive works

During the Industrial Revolution the railway came to Doncaster, and the Great Northern Railway established the Doncaster Locomotive and Carriage Building Works. The reasons for this were Doncaster's communication links, the necessity to transport coal quickly and efficiently and Doncaster's expertise in specialist metal products. An extensive housing programme was undertaken for the increased population. The Chairman of the Great Northern, anxious about the workers and their families' spiritual welfare, persuaded the directors to contribute towards the building of St James' Church, which became known as the "Plant Church". The railway also built St James' School. The Doncaster Plant became famous for building LNER 4-6-2 locomotives Mallard and the Flying Scotsman, as well as many thousands more locomotives.[32] Current plant owner Wabtec continues to do refurbishment in Doncaster.

Today, Doncaster railway station, on the East Coast Main Line, is linked to many towns and cities across the UK such as Wakefield, Leeds, Hull, Sheffield, Manchester, Birmingham, London, York, Darlington, Newcastle upon Tyne, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Edinburgh, Motherwell, Glasgow, and Lincoln.

Doncaster PSB is one of the largest signalling centres on the UK network, controlling hundreds of route miles of railway. Doncaster International Railport is an important road-rail intermodal terminal.

The rail freight company DB Cargo UK has its headquarters in Doncaster.[33]

Aviation

In 1909 Doncaster Racecourse was chosen as the venue for an airshow, after the world's first international air display in Reims, France in 1909. Around a dozen aviators were present, the most famous being Léon Delagrange and Roger Sommer. Samuel Cody (no relation to William F. Cody) in an attempt to win a prize offered by the Daily Mail for the first British pilot in a British aeroplane to fly a circular mile signed British naturalisation papers in front of the crowd with the band playing both God Save the King and the Star Spangled Banner. Unfortunately, he crashed his aeroplane on the first day of the meeting and made no significant flights.

During World War I fighters based first from the racecourse, then a temporary airstrip near Finningley (later RAF Finningley and now Doncaster Sheffield Airport) and finally, in 1916, from a newly built airfield alongside the racecourse, were deployed to defend the east coast against Zeppelins. On a number of occasions fighters took off to search for the intruders but none were ever seen. The Royal Flying Corps station trained pilots for the war in France. Within months of the war ending the entire station was put up for sale and two of its three Belfast hangars, the same type of hangar that now forms the basis for the Royal Air Force Museum at Hendon, were sold to a Sheffield motor manufacturing company for storage and assembly at Finningley. The third of the hangars stayed in place, mainly housing buses, until the 1970s when it was knocked down and replaced with modern buildings.

In 1920 the Government asked local authorities to assist in the formation of a chain of airfields so the country would not lag behind other nations in the provision of civil air services. Doncaster took heed and, with expert advice from Alan Cobham, on 26 May 1934, opened its 'aviation centre'. Development of the airfield continued and on 1 July 1936 an international service was opened to Amsterdam. On 1 November 1938, after long discussions with the Air Ministry, 616 (South Yorkshire) Squadron of the Royal Auxiliary Air Force was formed. Shortly after the outbreak of war in 1939 the squadron went to its battle station and played a part in the Battle of Britain. After the departure of 616 squadron its place was taken by the formation of 271 (Transport) Squadron composed mainly of requisitioned civilian aircraft and obsolescent twin engined bombers. 616 squadron was the first Allied jet fighter squadron, equipped with the Gloster Meteor, famed for using their wingtips to throw German V-1 Flying Bombs off course. In 1944, after being equipped with American-made Douglas DC-3 "Dakotas", the squadron moved south to take part in Operation 'Overlord' and later in the airborne invasion at Arnhem where Flight Lieutenant David Lord was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross.

After the war the airfield reverted to civilian flying and finally closed in 1992.

Tractor production

Ploughing - geograph.org.uk - 280384
Ploughing by tractor

In 1930, International Harvester (IH) started the production of agricultural implements at a factory on Wheatley Hall Road and later at another in the Carr Hill area of Doncaster. The first tractor built at the factory was a Farmall M, which came off the production line on 13 September 1949.[34] Tractors were initially built from parts shipped from the US. The Wheatley Hall Road factory was extended after the war with a new foundry to make the heavy castings. The factory started Crawler tractor production in 1953. By 1960 the factory was making a range of tractors from scratch, designed specifically for British and European markets, and sold under the 'McCormick International' name. Assembly moved in 1965 to the Carr Hill plant. In 1983 tractor production was moved to IH's other Doncaster factory at Wheatley Hall. In 1985, International Harvester sold its agricultural division to Tenneco, Inc. which then merged the operation with its subsidiary J.I. Case to form Case IH, who continued to design and build its European tractor range in Doncaster, shutting the David Brown Ltd. tractor factory near Huddersfield. The 350,000th tractor came off the production line in 1999.

In 2000, the factory was purchased by ARGO SpA, an Italian-based agricultural equipment builder. Doncaster was the sole production site of the McCormick Tractors brand, and the factory employed around 380 people (although approximately 1,100 people are employed in the worldwide McCormick group). In December 2006 the parent company, ARGO Spa, announced that the Doncaster facility was to close in 2007 with the loss of around 325 jobs. The announcement was made only one week before Christmas. 61 years of tractor production in Doncaster came to an end in 2007 when McCormick tractor production was moved to Italy.

Transport

European

Doncaster sits on the European route E15 and is the starting point of European route E13. The E13 connects Doncaster, Sheffield, Nottingham to London. In the United Kingdom, European route designators are not displayed on road signs. The M18 Junction 2 at Doncaster was the original intended starting point of the M1 motorway where the motorway meets the A1(M). The intended motorway design is evidenced in road maps. The M1 was extended northward to Leeds, which is why the E13 starts at Doncaster and follows the path of the M18 and the M1.

National

Doncaster is situated on the A1(M) and M18 motorways, and is within 20 minutes of the key M1 and M62 motorways. The 15-mile (24 km) A1(M) motorway bypass cost £6 million and was opened by Ernest Marples in 1961. The former route is now the A638, and partly the A614 to Blyth. Doncaster is also an important railway town with a station on the East Coast Main Line.

Regional

Doncaster is a European hub with a new international airport, Doncaster Sheffield Airport opened in 2005. Doncaster International Railport facilities link to the Channel Tunnel.

Metropolitan borough

New developments include campus facilities for Doncaster College and the Frenchgate Interchange (a unification of bus and railway stations with the Frenchgate Centre). The extension to the shopping centre and the new bus station opened on 8 June 2006, when all Doncaster bus routes started to use the station.

Demography

In 2011, Doncaster had a population of 109,805 which makes it very slightly larger than Rotherham.

Doncaster compared 2011 Doncaster Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster
White British 84.9% 91.8%
Asian 5.3% 2.5%
Black 1.3% 0.8%

[35][36]

In 2011, 15.1% of Doncaster's population were non-white British, compared with 8.2% for the surrounding Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster. This makes Doncaster more ethnically diverse than Middlesbrough and nearly as diverse as Rotherham in terms of these groups. Doncaster town has twice the percentage of Asian people compared with the borough, and a slightly larger percentage of black people.

Culture and tourism

Mansion House and New Betting Room, Doncaster, Nathaniel Whittock & John Rogers, published by I.T. Hinton, London, 1829
The Mansion House and New Betting Room, Doncaster, engraved by John Rogers after a drawing by Nathaniel Whittock, published by Isaac Taylor Hinton,[37] London, 1829. The architect was James Paine, 1746–1748.

Doncaster Museum and Art Gallery is the town's main museum. It opened in 1964, and explores natural history, archaeology, local history, and fine and decorative art.[38] It has a major exhibit dedicated to silverware and trophies won at Doncaster Racecourse. The museum houses the Regimental Museum of the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry.

Doncaster is home to Yorkshire Wildlife Park, the park has over 400 animals and over 70 different species of animal including the only polar bears in England and is a major tourist attraction.

The aircraft museum Aeroventure is based on the site of the former site of RAF Doncaster at Doncaster Lakeside. The Trolleybus Museum in the nearby village of Sandtoft specialises in the preservation of trolleybuses, and claims to have the largest collection of preserved trolleybuses in Europe, with over 60 examples. Markham Grange Steam Museum, in a garden centre in the nearby village of Brodsworth, features a private collection of steam engines.

Cusworth Hall is an 18th-century Grade I listed country house in Cusworth. It is open to the public and features displays documenting the history of South Yorkshire. Doncaster Mansion House features an art gallery and displays on local history.

Ashworth Barracks Museum is a military museum in Balby telling the story of the men awarded the Victoria Cross. It also houses a First World War exhibit including a 'Weekers Helmet' one of only two known to exist in the UK.

Since 1973, Doncaster has been the home of the Doncaster Youth Jazz Association (DYJA). Founded by John Ellis, DYJA has been a training ground for generations of amateur and professional jazz musicians including, Andy Cato (of Groove Armada), Denis Rollins, John Escreet, Nadim Teimoori and Reuben Fowler, .

Theatre and cinemas

  • Cast is the new £22 million venue opened officially on Monday 2 September 2013. Cast includes a 620-seat auditorium, a flexible studio space, drama studio, dance studio, education and ancillary space, and a large foyer with a café. Its director was Kully Thiarai, formerly of the Contact Theatre, Manchester.[39]
  • The Doncaster Little Theatre is a 99-seat community theatre which puts on their own in-house shows including a pantomime, along with two films a month during the day. Hire companies also use the theatre space for their own shows.
  • The town has an 11-screen multiplex Vue which was expanded as part of a £5 million upgrade.[40]
  • Events and concerts take place at Doncaster Racecourse and The Dome Leisure Centre.

Nightlife

The Silver Street, Cleveland Street and High Street areas have over 40 bars and clubs within a 2–3-minute walk of each other and other bars can be found on Priory Walk, Lazarus Court, Bradford Row and around the Market Place. Various restaurants serving food from around the world can also be found in the town centre, especially in the Netherhall and Copley Road areas.

Sport

Doncaster Racecourse

Doncaster Racecourse 2
Doncaster Racecourse

From around the 16th century, Doncaster embraced the wealthy stagecoach trade. This led to horse breeding in Doncaster, which in turn led to the start of horseraces there. The earliest important race in Doncaster's history was the Doncaster Gold Cup, first run over Cantley Common in 1766. The Doncaster Cup is the oldest continuing regulated horserace in the world.

Rugby football

Founded in 1951, Doncaster (formerly known as Doncaster Dragons RLFC and Doncaster Lakers) have played consistently in rugby league's National League One and its successor the RFL Championship, with its home at the Keepmoat Stadium.

Doncaster Knights Rugby Football Club has shown success in recent years, being the most promoted club in English Rugby Union History, and competing at the top of National League One. 2008 saw the completion of the 1,650-seat De Mulder–Lloyd stand at Castle Park. The creation of the new RFU Championship means that the Knights compete in the newly launched second tier of professional rugby in England.

Football

Recent leisure developments include a new community sports stadium for sports teams including the towns men's football club, Doncaster Rovers F.C., and one of the most successful women's football clubs in the country, Doncaster Rovers Belles who play at the Keepmoat Stadium. It is also the home of the British professional wrestling promotion One Pro Wrestling.

Others

Speedway racing was staged at Doncaster Greyhound Stadium in 1969 and 1970. The team was known as the Stallions and then the Dragons. The team raced in the British League Second Division.

Doncaster has a men's basketball team called the Doncaster Danum Eagles who compete in National League Division 2. Doncaster has an American Football team called the Doncaster Mustangs, who are in Division 1 of the British American Football League.

The town also has regular involvement in the Tour de Yorkshire cycling event, having the finish line of stage two, of the 2016 Tour de Yorkshire hosted in Doncaster, as well as the finish line of stage one of the 2018 Tour de Yorkshire hosted in the town as well.

Twin towns

Doncaster is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ BBC Pronouncing Dictionary of British Names
  2. ^ "Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, Mid-2017". Office for National Statistics. 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  3. ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/php/uk-england-yorkshireandthehumber.php?cityid=E35001159
  4. ^ Nennius (attrib.). Theodor Mommsen (ed.). Historia Brittonum, VI. Composed after AD 830. ‹See Tfd›(in Latin) Hosted at Latin Wikisource.
  5. ^ Ford, David Nash. "The 28 Cities of Britain" at Britannia. 2000.
  6. ^ Newman, John Henry (1844). Lives of the English Saints: St. German, Bishop of Auxerre. London: James Toovey. p. 92. Retrieved 30 August 2018 – via archive.org.
  7. ^ Bishop Ussher, cited in Newman's life of Saint German[6]
  8. ^ John Wainwright (1829). Yorkshire: An historical and topographical introduction. J. Blackwell. p. 1. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  9. ^ Open Domesday online: Hexthorpe (at Doncaster)
  10. ^ a b Hey, David. Medieval South Yorkshire. Ashbourne: Landmark Pub. ISBN 1-84306-080-9. OCLC 54874386.
  11. ^ https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/scottish-independence/11104004/Why-an-historical-anomaly-means-Bonny-Donny-could-leave-the-UK-too.html
  12. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/scottish-independence/will-bonny-donny-also-break-away-ed-milibands-constituency-doncaster-may-actually-be-owned-by-9741151.html
  13. ^ http://public-art.shu.ac.uk/pmsa/doncaster/00000046.htm Corn Exchange Public Art (with details of construction date)
  14. ^ Collections of the Maine Historical Society, James Phinney Baxter, Maine Historical Society, Portland, 1893
  15. ^ [1] Vision of Britain: Doncaster
  16. ^ [2] Vision of Britain: Stafford and Tickhill Wapentake
  17. ^ "UK backs leaving EU as Doncaster votes two to one to get out". Doncaster Free Press. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  18. ^ "Doncaster Brexit: Financial implications of leaving EU that gave Doncaster £133m in funding". Doncaster Free Press. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  19. ^ "August 1990 maximum". Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  20. ^ "Bawtry Maximum". Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  21. ^ "Annual average maximum". Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  22. ^ "1981 Minimum". Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  23. ^ "1971–2000 Wetdays". Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  24. ^ "1971-00 Rainfall". Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  25. ^ "Doncaster 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  26. ^ "Doncaster extreme values". KNMI. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  27. ^ a b c Council, Doncaster. "Green Belt review – Doncaster Council". Government of the United Kingdom.
  28. ^ "Official Website of Parkinson's confectionery – The confectioners. Traditional Doncaster Butterscotch, Toffee, Fudge". doncasterbutterscotch.com. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
  29. ^ "Doncaster Museum". townfield.doncaster.sch.uk. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
  30. ^ Parkinson's Doncaster Butterscotch – inc trademark, eBay
  31. ^ "Bridon helps raise the roof on the 2012 Olympic Stadium". Wire Rope Exchange. 7 January 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  32. ^ Larkin. The Railway Workshops of Britain, 1823–1986. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-39431-3. OCLC 59095511.. By August 2008, the whole Plant complex had been razed to make way for a very large housing development.
  33. ^ "Our History". DB Cargo UK. 11 April 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  34. ^ The Roar of Dust and Diesel A story of International Harvester Doncaster, by Mike Teanby, published by Japonica Press (2004), ISBN 1-904686-06-0
  35. ^ http://www.ukcensusdata.com/doncaster-e08000017#sthash.EMGn7Toh.dpbs
  36. ^ https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/census/2011/ks201ew
  37. ^ Brother of John Howard Hinton.
  38. ^ "places to visit in Doncaster". visitdoncaster.co.uk.
  39. ^ "New £22m arts venue opens in Doncaster". What's on Stage. 2 September 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  40. ^ "Herten Triangle". Business Doncaster. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
  41. ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". England: Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  42. ^ "Städtepartnerschaften" (in German). Herten, Germany: Rathaus Stadt Herten. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  43. ^ "Sister Cities". Sister Cities Association of Wilmington. Retrieved 25 September 2013.

External links

2015 Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council election

The 2015 Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council election took place on 7 May 2015 to elect all members of Doncaster Council in England. This was on the same day as other local elections. Due to boundary changes all 55 seats were up for election.

The election resulted in the Labour Party retaining control of the council, with a majority of 27 seats.

Adebayo Akinfenwa

Saheed Adebayo Akinfenwa (born 10 May 1982) is an English professional footballer who plays as a striker for Wycombe Wanderers. He is known for his physical strength and heavy build.Akinfenwa's first professional breakthrough came at Doncaster Rovers, having spent time up until then in the lower leagues of English football as well as spells in Lithuania and Wales. Following a short but successful time at Doncaster, Akinfenwa moved to his seventh club, Torquay United. He proved to be a goal threat, but left the struggling team the following season to join Swansea City. After spending two seasons with the Welsh club, he joined League One side Millwall and later moved to Northampton Town. Akinfenwa spent six years switching from Northampton to Gillingham, where his goal-scoring ability was still apparent. In June 2014, he signed for League Two side AFC Wimbledon, and two years later Wycombe Wanderers.

Billy Sharp

William Louis Sharp (born 5 February 1986) is an English professional footballer who plays as a striker for Premier League club Sheffield United. He has also played for Rushden & Diamonds, Scunthorpe United, Southampton, Nottingham Forest, Reading, Doncaster Rovers and Leeds United. On 1 January 2019, Sharp scored his 220th goal and became the leading English born goalscorer in English professional football during the 21st century so far, overtaking the record set by Rickie Lambert. On 8 February 2019, Sharp scored his 100th goal in all competitions for Sheffield United when he scored his second goal in a 3-3 draw against Aston Villa.Three days after the death of his newborn son in 2011, Sharp played and scored the opener in that game, and five days later he was applauded by the opposing Ipswich Town fans following his goal against them. He and his wife set up The Luey Jacob Sharp Foundation in aid of gastroschisis research and to support other people affected by this condition.

Butterscotch

Butterscotch is a type of confectionery whose primary ingredients are brown sugar and butter, but other ingredients are part of some recipes, such as corn syrup, cream, vanilla, and salt. The earliest known recipes, in mid-19th century Yorkshire, used treacle (molasses) in place of or in addition to sugar.

Butterscotch is similar to toffee, but for butterscotch, the sugar is boiled to the soft crack stage, not hard crack as with toffee. Often credited with their invention, Parkinson's of Doncaster made butterscotch boiled sweets and sold them in tins, which became one of the town's best known exports. They became famous in 1851 when Queen Victoria was presented with a tin when she visited the town. Butterscotch sauce, made of butterscotch and cream, is used as a topping for ice cream (particularly sundaes).

The term butterscotch is also often used more specifically of the flavour of brown sugar and butter together even if the actual confection butterscotch is not involved, such as in butterscotch pudding.

DN postcode area

The DN postcode area, also known as the Doncaster postcode area, is a group of 32 postcode districts in England, which are subdivisions of 13 post towns. These postcode districts cover eastern South Yorkshire (including Doncaster), north Lincolnshire (including Grimsby, Scunthorpe, Barnetby, Barrow upon Humber, Barton-upon-Humber, Brigg, Cleethorpes, Gainsborough, Immingham and Ulceby), small parts of Nottinghamshire (including Retford) and the East Riding of Yorkshire (including Goole), and a very small part of North Yorkshire.

The S64 postcode district for Mexborough was originally earmarked as DN13, which has never been used. Otherwise, the area's districts are numbered sequentially up to DN22, then from DN31 to DN41 for the eastern spur of the area, in and around Grimsby.

There is one non-geographic district, DN55, which has a single purpose use to Royal Mail.

Doncaster Central (UK Parliament constituency)

Doncaster Central is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1997 by Rosie Winterton of the Labour Party. Since 2017 Winterton has served as Second Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means, one of three Deputy Speakers of the House; she is the second MP for the constituency to be a Deputy Speaker, after Harold Walker.

Doncaster Knights

Doncaster Rugby Football Club are a rugby union club representing the town of Doncaster, England. The first XV are known as the "Doncaster Knights", and play in the RFU Championship. Being the most promoted side in English history has led to huge changes at the Castle Park ground and within the team structure.

Castle Park Conference and Function centre is a multimillion-pound development and is among the top conference venues in Doncaster, while remaining a supportive place for amateur rugby in the Borough. The club motto "rugby for all" sees amateur side Doncaster Phoenix compete at the same ground, as well as the ladies side Doncaster Demons and every age group from under-7 to under-17s.

Doncaster R.L.F.C.

Doncaster Rugby League Football Club is a professional rugby league football club, from Doncaster, South Yorkshire. They play in the third tier League 1.

They have previously been known as Doncaster Dragons (1995–2005) and Doncaster Lakers (2006–2007). They were also previously informally known as The Dons but it is now their official nickname.

Doncaster Racecourse

Doncaster Racecourse (also known as the Town Moor course) is a racecourse in Doncaster, South Yorkshire, England. It hosts two of Great Britain's 36 annual Group 1 flat races, the St Leger Stakes and the Racing Post Trophy.

Doncaster Rovers Belles L.F.C.

Doncaster Rovers Belles Ladies Football Club, previously Doncaster Belles, is an English women's football club that plays in the FA Women's National League North, the third tier of women's football in England. The club is based at the Keepmoat Stadium in Doncaster, South Yorkshire.

They are one of English women's football's most famous and successful clubs, being one of only three non-London teams to have won the FA Women's Premier League National Division, in 1992 and 1994. Founded in 1969 by lottery ticket sellers at Belle Vue, home of Doncaster Rovers Football Club, they have also won the FA Women's Cup six times and reached the final on a further seven occasions.

Doncaster Rovers F.C.

Doncaster Rovers Football Club is a professional association football club based in the town of Doncaster, South Yorkshire, England. The team competes in League One, the third tier of the English football league system, after promotion from League Two in 2016–17.

The club was founded in 1879 and turned professional in 1885. Doncaster have spent the majority of their playing history between the third and fourth tiers of the English football league system and are one of four clubs to win the Division 4/Division 3/League Two title three times.

The club's colours have traditionally been red and white. Their home strip is red and white hoops, which has been the main design of the club's home shirt since 2001.The associated Doncaster Rovers Belles L.F.C. are one of the most successful women's clubs in English football.

Doncaster Sheffield Airport

Doncaster Sheffield Airport (IATA: DSA, ICAO: EGCN), formerly named Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield, is an international airport located at the former RAF Finningley station, in the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster within South Yorkshire, England. The airport lies 3 miles (5 kilometres) southeast of Doncaster Town Centre and 19 mi (31 km) east of Sheffield. Handling 1.22 million passengers in 2018, the airport is the smaller of Yorkshire's two large commercial airports, the other being Leeds Bradford Airport.The airport opened to passengers in 2005. It was initially operated by Peel Airports, a division of The Peel Group, who at the time also owned and managed Liverpool John Lennon Airport and City Airport Manchester, and had a 75% stake in Durham Tees Valley Airport. Doncaster Sheffield Airport has a CAA Public Use Aerodrome Licence (Number P876) that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction.

Doncaster railway station

Doncaster railway station is on the East Coast Main Line in the United Kingdom, serving the town of Doncaster, South Yorkshire. It is 155 miles 77 chains (251.0 km) down the line from London King's Cross and is situated between Retford and York on the main line. It is managed by London North Eastern Railway.

It is a major passenger interchange between the main line, Cross Country Route and local services running across the North of England. It is also the point for which London North Eastern Railway services branching off to Leeds diverge from the main route continuing north towards Edinburgh.

EFL League One

The English Football League One (often referred to as League One for short or Sky Bet League One for sponsorship reasons) is the second-highest division of the English Football League and the third tier overall in the entire English football league system.

League One was introduced for the 2004–05 season. It was previously known briefly as the Football League Second Division and for much longer, prior to the advent of the Premier League, as the Football League Third Division.

At present (2018–19 season), Walsall hold the longest tenure in League One, last being out of the division in the 2006–07 season when they were promoted from League Two. There are currently seven former Premier League clubs competing in League One, namely Barnsley (1997–98), Blackpool (2010–11), Bradford City (2000–01), Charlton Athletic (2006–07), Coventry City (2000–01), Portsmouth (2009–10) and Sunderland (2016–17).

Keepmoat Stadium

Keepmoat Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Doncaster, England, with a capacity of 15,231. It cost approximately £20 million to construct, as part of the wider complex it resides within which in total cost approximately £32 million, and is used by Doncaster Rovers, Doncaster Rugby League Club and Doncaster Rovers Belles Ladies Football Club.The first match at the stadium was a Rugby league match on 27 December 2006, when Sheffield Eagles beat Doncaster 16–10.

The official opening of the Keepmoat Stadium was on 3 August 2007, with Doncaster Rovers playing a Manchester United XI in front of a crowd of 13,080. United won the game 2–0.On 19 June 2012, it was confirmed that Doncaster Rovers had secured a 99-year operating lease from Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council to lead the management of the stadium with a view to improving operating results across the stadium sports partnership.At the Stadium Business Awards 2010, the stadium received the award for Best Matchday Experience.

Louis Tomlinson

Louis William Tomlinson (; born 24 December 1991) is an English singer, songwriter and television personality. He was a member of the boy band One Direction and began his career as an actor, appearing in ITV drama film If I Had You and the BBC drama Waterloo Road. In 2010, he became a member of One Direction after being eliminated as a solo contestant on the British music competition series The X Factor.

"Just Hold On" was released as Tomlinson's debut single as a solo artist in December 2016, it peaked at number two on the UK Singles Chart and was certified gold in both the UK and US. In 2017, Tomlinson released "Back to You" with American singer Bebe Rexha and "Miss You".In 2013, Tomlinson was signed as a footballer by Doncaster Rovers of the Football League Championship on a non-contract basis. The same year he also formed his own record label, Triple Strings, as an imprint of One Direction's label Syco. He appeared on Debrett's 2017 list of the most influential people in the UK.

Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster

The Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster is a metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire in Yorkshire and the Humber Region of England.

In addition to the town of Doncaster, the borough covers the towns of Mexborough, Conisbrough, Thorne, Bawtry and Tickhill.

The borough was created on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, as a merger of the former county borough of Doncaster along with the urban districts of Adwick le Street, Bentley with Arksey, Conisbrough, Mexborough, Tickhill along with Doncaster Rural District and Thorne Rural District, the parish of Finningley from East Retford Rural District and small parts of the parish of Harworth from Worksop Rural District from Nottinghamshire.

South Yorkshire

South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had a population of 1.34 million in 2011. It has an area of 1,552 square kilometres (599 sq mi) and consists of four metropolitan boroughs, Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham and Sheffield. South Yorkshire was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972. Its largest settlement is Sheffield.

Lying on the east side of the Pennines, South Yorkshire is landlocked, and borders Derbyshire to the west and south-west, West Yorkshire to the north-west, North Yorkshire to the north, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north-east, Lincolnshire to the east and Nottinghamshire to the south-east. The Sheffield Urban Area is the tenth most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom, and dominates the western half of South Yorkshire with over half of the county's population living within it. South Yorkshire lies within the Sheffield City Region with Barnsley also being within the Leeds City Region, reflecting its geographical position midway between Yorkshire's two largest cities.

South Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 and its metropolitan boroughs are now effectively unitary authorities, although the metropolitan county continues to exist in law. As a ceremonial county, South Yorkshire has a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff.

South Yorkshire was created from 32 local government districts of the West Riding of Yorkshire (the administrative county and four independent county boroughs), with small areas from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire.

In the 2016 referendum on the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union, South Yorkshire voted 62% leave and 38% remain, making it one of the most heavily Leave areas in the country.

St Leger Stakes

The St Leger Stakes is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies. It is run at Doncaster over a distance of 1 mile, 6 furlongs and 115 yards (2,921 metres), and it is scheduled to take place each year in September.

Established in 1776, the St Leger is the oldest of Britain's five Classics. It is the last of the five to be run each year, and its distance is longer than any of the other four.

The St Leger is the final leg of the English Triple Crown, which begins with the 2000 Guineas and continues with the Derby. It also completes the Fillies' Triple Crown, following on from the 1000 Guineas and the Oaks. The St Leger has rarely featured Triple Crown contenders in recent decades, with the only one in recent years being the 2012 2,000 Guineas and Derby winner Camelot, who finished second in the St Leger.

Climate data for Doncaster (DSA)[a], elevation: 12 m (39 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1960–2000
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.5
(58.1)
17.9
(64.2)
23.6
(74.5)
22.7
(72.9)
28.4
(83.1)
32.1
(89.8)
32.2
(90.0)
35.5
(95.9)
27.3
(81.1)
27.7
(81.9)
18.5
(65.3)
15.5
(59.9)
35.5
(95.9)
Average high °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
7.8
(46.0)
10.5
(50.9)
13.0
(55.4)
16.4
(61.5)
19.5
(67.1)
21.9
(71.4)
21.7
(71.1)
18.7
(65.7)
14.3
(57.7)
10.1
(50.2)
7.4
(45.3)
14.1
(57.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
4.4
(39.9)
6.6
(43.9)
8.6
(47.5)
11.6
(52.9)
14.7
(58.5)
16.9
(62.4)
16.6
(61.9)
14.2
(57.6)
10.6
(51.1)
6.9
(44.4)
4.4
(39.9)
9.9
(49.8)
Average low °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
1.0
(33.8)
2.6
(36.7)
4.1
(39.4)
6.7
(44.1)
9.9
(49.8)
11.9
(53.4)
11.5
(52.7)
9.6
(49.3)
6.8
(44.2)
3.6
(38.5)
1.3
(34.3)
5.9
(42.6)
Record low °C (°F) −13.3
(8.1)
−10.3
(13.5)
−9.3
(15.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
−3.5
(25.7)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.2
(37.8)
3.7
(38.7)
−1.1
(30.0)
−3.6
(25.5)
−7.5
(18.5)
−13.5
(7.7)
−13.5
(7.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.4
(1.75)
32.2
(1.27)
37.3
(1.47)
47.2
(1.86)
43.4
(1.71)
63.0
(2.48)
49.5
(1.95)
52.4
(2.06)
52.0
(2.05)
53.8
(2.12)
50.5
(1.99)
48.8
(1.92)
574.5
(22.62)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9.9 7.7 9.2 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.6 9.0 7.5 9.6 10.1 11.0 109.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 59.1 77.4 108.7 148.0 189.5 174.6 190.6 178.2 135.2 101.5 64.4 50.5 1,477.5
Source #1: Met Office[25]
Source #2: KNMI[26]
Metropolitan districts
Major settlements
Rivers
Topics

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