Donald Tusk

Donald Franciszek Tusk (/tʊsk/; Polish: [ˈdɔnalt franˈt͡ɕiʂɛk ˈtusk] (listen); born 22 April 1957) is a Polish politician who has been the President of the European Council since 2014.[1] He served as Prime Minister of Poland from 2007 to 2014 and was a co-founder and chairman of the Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska) political party.[2]

Tusk has been involved in Polish politics since the early 1990s, having founded several political parties and held elected office almost continuously since 1991. Tusk was one of the co-founders of the free-market-oriented Liberal Democratic Congress party. He entered the Sejm (lower chamber of Poland's parliament) in 1991, but lost his seat in the 1993 election which went badly for the Congress.

In 1994, the Congress merged with the Democratic Union to form the Freedom Union. In 1997, Tusk was elected to the Senate, and became its deputy speaker. In 2001, he co-founded another centre-right party, Civic Platform (PO), and he was again elected to the Sejm, and became its deputy speaker.[3]

He was elected Prime Minister in 2007 and with his party's victory in the 2011 Polish parliamentary election, he became the first Prime Minister to be re-elected since the fall of Communism in Poland.[4] In 2014, he became President of the European Council, and was re-elected to this position in 2017. He resigned as Polish Prime Minister to take the role, having been the longest-serving Prime Minister of the Third Polish Republic.


Donald Tusk
EPP Helsinki Congress in Finland, 7-8 November 2018 (31908957628) (cropped)
Tusk in 2018
President of the European Council
Assumed office
1 December 2014
Preceded byHerman Van Rompuy
14th Prime Minister of Poland
In office
16 November 2007 – 22 September 2014
PresidentLech Kaczyński
Bronisław Komorowski (Acting)
Bogdan Borusewicz (Acting)
Grzegorz Schetyna (Acting)
Bronisław Komorowski
DeputyWaldemar Pawlak
Grzegorz Schetyna
Janusz Piechociński
Jacek Rostowski
Elżbieta Bieńkowska
Preceded byJarosław Kaczyński
Succeeded byEwa Kopacz
Leader of Civic Platform
In office
1 June 2003 – 8 November 2014
Preceded byMaciej Płażyński
Succeeded byEwa Kopacz
Personal details
Born
Donald Franciszek Tusk

22 April 1957 (age 61)
Gdańsk, Poland
Political partyCivic Platform (2001–present)
Other political
affiliations
Liberal Democratic Congress (before 1994)
Freedom Union (1994–2001)
Spouse(s)
Małgorzata Sochacka (m. 1978)
Children2
Alma materUniversity of Gdańsk
AwardsPER Order of the Sun of Peru - Grand Cross BAR.png Order of the Sun of Peru
NOR Royal Norwegian Order of Merit - Grand Cross BAR.png Royal Norwegian Order of Merit
EST Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana - 1st Class BAR.png Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
Signature
Donald Tusk's signature
WebsiteOfficial website

Early life

Tusk was born in Gdańsk in northern Poland.[5] He has German (maternal grandmother)[6] and Kashubian[7][8] ancestry. His father, also named Donald Tusk (1930–1972), was a carpenter, and his mother, Ewa (née Dawidowska) Tusk (1934–2009),[9][10] was a nurse.[5] His grandfather, Józef Tusk (1907–1987), was a railway official who was imprisoned at the Neuengamme concentration camp; later, as a former citizen of the Free City of Danzig, he was apparently conscripted by German authorities into the Wehrmacht. Later on, he was successful in joining the Polish Armed Forces in the West.[11]

Tusk has described the city of his youth as "a typical frontier town" with "many borders ... between ethnicities". This, together with his Kashubian ethnic ancestry and multilingual family, meant that he grew up with an awareness that "nothing is simple in life or in history", which informed his adult political view that it is "best to be immune to every kind of orthodoxy, of ideology and most importantly, nationalism". He has described his young life under communism as "so hopeless" due to the boredom and monotony, with "no hope for anything to change". His young self was a "typical hooligan" who often got into fights - "we would roam the streets, you know, cruising for a bruising".[12]

Tusk credits his interest in politics to watching clashes between striking workers and riot police when he was a teenager.[5] He enrolled at the University of Gdańsk to study history, and graduated in 1980.[13] While studying, he was active in the Student Committee of Solidarity, a group that opposed Poland's communist rule at the time.[13]

Early political career

Tusk was one of the founders of the Liberal Democratic Congress (Kongres Liberalno-Demokratyczny KLD), which in the 1991 elections won 37 seats in the lower house of parliament.[13] The KLD later merged with the Democratic Union (UD) to become the Freedom Union (UW).[13] Tusk became deputy chairman of the new party, and was elected to the Senate in the next election in 1997.[13] In 2001, he co-founded the Civic Platform, and became deputy speaker in parliament after the party won seats in the year's election.[5] in 2005, Tusk was defeated in the presidential election by Lech Kaczyński, and the Civic Platform lost Parliament to the Law and Justice party.[5]

Prime Minister of Poland (2007–2014)

Tusk L Kaczynski 2007
Donald Tusk (right) being appointed as Prime Minister by the President Lech Kaczyński on 9 November 2007
Donald Tusk AB
Donald Tusk's speech at the second edition of the annual National Bank of Poland Conference on the future of the European economy

Tusk and his Civic Platform party emerged victorious in the 2007 Polish parliamentary election, defeating incumbent Prime Minister Jarosław Kaczyński's Law and Justice party with about 42% of the vote to Law and Justice's 32%.[14] Tusk and his assembled cabinet were sworn in on 16 November, as he became the fourteenth prime minister of the Third Polish Republic.[15]

In the 2011 Polish parliamentary election, Civic Platform retained their Parliamentary majority, giving Tusk a second term as Prime Minister and making him Poland's first PM to win reelection since the fall of communism.[16] In September 2014, Tusk resigned his position as Prime Minister of Poland in order to take the position of President of the European Council.[17]

Domestic policy

In the 2007 parliamentary election campaign and at an early stage of his rule Tusk promised to continue the free-market policies, streamline the bureaucracy, enact long-term stable governance, cut taxes to attract greater foreign business ventures, lure foreign-working Poles back to Poland, and privatise state-owned companies.[18] Later on in his rule, Tusk changed his views on the role of taxation in the functioning of the state and his government never cut any taxes.[19] Instead, it raised the value-added tax from 22% to 23% in 2011,[20] increased the excise imposed on diesel oil, alcoholic beverages, tobacco and coal,[21][22] and eliminated many tax exemptions.[23][24][25] The number of people employed in public administration also grew considerably.[26][27] By 2012, the value of foreign investments in Poland had not reached its heights attained in 2006–2007, before Tusk's take-over.[28] The number of Poles staying abroad in 2013 was almost the same as in 2007.[29]

The construction of a more adequate and larger national road network in preparation for the UEFA 2012 football championships was a stated priority for the Tusk government.[30] On 27 October 2009, Tusk declared that he wanted to partially outlaw gambling.[31]

During the 2009 swine flu pandemic, Tusk defended his government's decision not to purchase swine flu vaccine, citing the lack of testing by pharmaceutical companies and its unavailability to be purchased freely through the market. Tusk criticised other nations' responses to the pandemic. "The eagerness of some countries seems to be excessive and disproportionate to the real epidemiological situation", Tusk stated, referring to the pandemic's relatively low fatality rate.[32]

Donald Tusk is moderately conservative on social issues. He is opposed to legalising abortion on demand, believing that Poland's current legislation on abortion (which allows for legal abortion only when the pregnancy threatens the mother's life or health, when the fetus is seriously malformed, and when the pregnancy results from rape or incest) protects human life best.[33] Tusk has publicly stated that he opposes euthanasia[34] and the legalization of marijuana.[35]

Foreign policy

Obama Poland Tusk (2)
Tusk with Barack Obama, 2013

In foreign policy, Tusk sought to improve relations severely damaged during the previous Kaczyński government, particularly with Germany and Russia. While he criticised the words of German politician Erika Steinbach with regard to her opinion over the expulsion of Germans from Poland following World War II, Tusk has stressed the need for warm relations with Berlin.[36] Tusk also advocated a more realistic relationship with Moscow, especially in regard to energy policy.[36] Under Tusk's premiership, Russian bans on Polish meat and agricultural products were lifted, while Poland reversed its official policy of disagreement on a European Union-Russian partnership agreement.[37]

Msc 2009-Saturday, 11.00 - 13.00 Uhr-Dett 014 Ischinger Sarkozy Merkel Tusk
Prime Minister Donald Tusk with German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Nicolas Sarkozy
Dmitry Medvedev in Poland 6 December 2010-16.jpeg
Donald Tusk with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2010
Wizyta Orbana 12.03.2014 (13)
Donald Tusk with Prime Minister of Hungary Viktor Orbán in 2014

During a speech delivered to the Sejm in the first weeks of his premiership, Tusk outlined a proposal to withdraw military units from Iraq, stating that "we will conduct this operation keeping in mind that our commitment to our ally, the United States, has been lived up to and exceeded."[38] The last Polish military units completed their withdrawal in October 2008.[39]

In regards to U.S. plans of hosting missile defense shield bases in the country, Tusk hinted skepticism toward the project, saying that their presence could potentially increase security risks from Russia, and rejected U.S. offers in early July 2008.[40] By August, however, Tusk relented, and supported the missile shield, declaring: "We have achieved the main goal. It means our countries, Poland and the United States will be more secure."[41] Following President Barack Obama's decision to scrap and revise missile defense strategy, Tusk described the move as "a chance to strengthen Polish-US co-operation in defense..." He said: "I took this declaration from President Obama very seriously and with great satisfaction."[42]

Tusk announced that Polish soldiers would not take military action in Libya, although he voiced support for the 2011 military intervention in Libya and pledged to offer logistical support.[43][44]

Contrary to the condemnation of foreign governments and the leadership of the European Union, Tusk supported Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán in his efforts of implementing a new controversial constitution. Tusk stated that the Hungarian constitution's democratic controversies were "exaggerated" and that Hungary had "a European level standard of democracy."[45] Tusk's support for the Hungarian government garnered a rare show of solidarity with the opposition Law and Justice, which also publicly displayed support for Orbán's efforts.[46]

In early 2012, Tusk announced his support for committing Poland to signing the international Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA). In response, websites for the Chancellery, Sejm and Presidency were hacked in mid-January.[47] Following Anonymous's claim of responsibility for the web attack, Tusk remained undeterred by internet protests, authorising the Polish ambassador in Japan to sign the agreement, yet promised that final legislation in the Sejm would not go ahead without assurances regarding freedom to access the Internet.[48] Despite the government's guarantees, mass protests erupted in late January, with demonstrations held in Warsaw, Kraków, Wrocław and Kielce.[49][50] Further web attacks were reported on the website of Foreign Minister Radek Sikorski.[51]

European policy

In continental policy, Tusk strongly supported greater political and economic integration within the European Union, strongly backing the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty, standing in stark contrast to President Lech Kaczyński's vehement opposition.[52] Tusk repeatedly stated his government's intention in bringing Poland into the Eurozone. Originally wanting to introduce the euro by 2012, Tusk envisaged in 2009 a starting year of 2015 as "a realistic and not overly-ambitious goal."[53] However, during the European sovereign debt crisis, Tusk and his government displayed less optimism in joining the monetary union under contemporary economic circumstances, leading to Finance Minister Jan Vincent-Rostowski calling any move "unthinkable."[54] Despite not being a member of the eurozone, Tusk pressed that Poland, along with the other non-eurozone states of the EU, should be included in future euro financial negotiations.[55]

Rada Krajowa Platformy Obywatelskiej RP (22 marca 2014) (13328160354)
Tusk with Ukrainian politician Vitali Klitschko, 22 March 2014

Between July and December 2011, Poland under Tusk's government presided over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.[56] Under its presidency tenure, Poland supported and welcomed Croatia's entry into the European Union through the Treaty of Accession 2011.[57]

While being a constituent member of the Weimar Triangle with fellow states Germany and France, Tusk showed displeasure over German Chancellor Angela Merkel's and French President Nicolas Sarkozy's dominating roles in eurozone negotiations, remarking to Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera in January 2012 that "this should not translate into a lasting political monopoly: things cannot be left to only two capitals of Europe."[58]

Constitutional reform

Rząd Donalda Tuska
The Tusk cabinet in the Presidential Palace, November 2007.

After being elected prime minister, relations between Tusk and President Lech Kaczyński were often acrimonious due to different political ideologies and the constitutional role of the presidency. Using presidential veto powers, Kaczyński blocked legislation drafted by the Tusk government, including pension reform, agricultural and urban zoning plans, and restructuring state television.[59]

In his premiership, Tusk has proposed various reforms to the Polish constitution. In 2009, Tusk proposed changes to the power of the presidency, by abolishing the presidential veto. "The president should not have veto power. People make their decision in elections and then state institutions should not be in conflict", said Tusk.[60] Tusk again reiterated his desire for constitutional reform in February 2010, proposing that the presidential veto be overridden by a simple parliamentary majority rather than through a three-fifths vote. "Presidential veto could not effectively block the will of the majority in parliament, which won elections and formed the government", stated Tusk.[61] Further constitutional reforms proposed by Tusk include reducing the Sejm from a membership of 460 to 300, "not only because of its savings, but also the excessive number of members' causes blurring certain plans and projects".[61] Similarly, Tusk proposed radical changes to the Senate, preferring to abolish the upper house altogether, yet due to constitutional concerns and demands from the junior coalition Polish People's Party partner, Tusk proposed reducing the Senate from 100 to 49, while including former presidents to sit in the Senate for political experience and expertise in state matters.[61] Parliamentary immunity for all members of the Sejm and Senate would also be stripped, except for in special situations.[61] In addition, Tusk proposed that the prime minister's role in foreign policy decisions would be greatly expanded.[62] By decreasing the president's role in governance, executive power would further be concentrated in the prime minister, directly responsible to the cabinet and Sejm, as well as avoiding confusion over Poland's representation at international or EU summits.[63] The opposition conservative Law and Justice party deeply criticised Tusk's constitutional reform proposals, opting in opposing legislation for the presidency to garner greater power over the prime minister.[64]

In an interview with the Financial Times in January 2010, Tusk was asked if he considered running again as Civic Platform's candidate for that year's presidential election. Tusk replied that although the presidential election typically drew the most voters to the polls and remained Poland's most high-profiled race, the presidency had little political power outside of the veto, and preferred to remain as prime minister. While not formally excluding his candidacy, Tusk declared that "I would very much like to continue to work in the government and Civic Platform, because that seems to me to be the key element in ensuring success in the civilisational race in which we are engaged".[65] A day after the interview, Tusk formally announced his intention of staying as prime minister, allowing his party to choose another candidate (and eventual winner), Bronisław Komorowski.[66]

Donald Tusk, Karlspreis 2010-3
Tusk receiving the Charlemagne Prize

Honours and awards

The Charlemagne Prize of the city of Aachen was awarded to Tusk on 13 May 2010 for his merits in the further unification of Europe and for his role as a "patriot and great European". He dedicated the prize to the people killed in a plane crash of a Polish Air Force Tu-154 in April 2010 including the Polish president Lech Kaczyński. The eulogy was given by German chancellor Angela Merkel.[67]

He was also awarded an Economy Raspberry Award (similar to the Golden Raspberry Award in movies) by the Puls Biznesu ("Business' Pulse") and organizacja Pracodawców RP (Polish Employers Confederation) awarded to the persons who had negative influence in Polish economy, destroyed entrepreneurship and damaged quality standards of capital market.[68][69]

In May 2012, he received the Walther-Rathenau-Preis "in recognition for his commitment to European integration during Poland's Presidency of the Council of the EU in the second half of 2011 and for fostering Polish-German dialogue". In her speech German chancellor Angela Merkel praised Tusk as "a farsighted European".[70] In December 2017, he was awarded an honorary doctorate at the University of Pécs, Hungary in recognition of Tusk's "achievements as a Polish and European politician, which are strongly connected with Hungarian, regional and European history".[71] On 16 December 2018, Tusk was awarded an honorary doctorate at TU Dortmund University, Germany "in recognition of his services to European politics and his contribution to the debate on European values".[72]

President of the European Council (2014–present)

Tusk succeeded Herman Van Rompuy as President of the European Council on 1 December 2014.[76]

Since assuming office, Tusk has notably worked to promote a unified European response to Russia's military intervention in Ukraine.[77] Tusk made attempts to co-ordinate the EU's response to the European migrant crisis, and warned economic migrants not to come to Europe.[78][79] Ahead of the UK's EU membership referendum Tusk warned of dire consequences should the UK vote to leave.[80] After the vote he pursued a hard line on the UK's withdrawal from the European Union stating that the country's only real alternative to a "hard Brexit" is "no Brexit".[81] In September 2018 he caused controversy after his official instagram account posted an image of himself handing a slice of cake to British Prime Minister Theresa May, with the caption "A piece of cake, perhaps? Sorry, no cherries."[82][83] Tusk has opposed the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline from Russia to Germany.[84]

Volodymyr Groysman with Donald Tusk - 2018 (MUS7214)
Tusk with Ukrainian Prime Minister Volodymyr Groysman in Brussels, May 2018

On 31 January 2017, Tusk wrote an open letter to the 27 EU heads of state or government on the future of the EU before the Malta summit.[85] In this letter, he stated the Trump administration presented a threat to the EU on a par with a newly assertive China, an aggressive Russia and “wars, terror and anarchy in the Middle East and Africa.”[86]

On 9 March 2017, Tusk was re-elected for a second term to last until 30 November 2019.[87] He received 27 of 28 votes; the one vote against him came from Beata Szydło, the Prime Minister of Poland.[88] Tusk's actions in the wake of the 2010 plane crash that killed then-Polish President Lech Kaczyński provoked opposition from Poland's governing right-wing party—critics said that Tusk's centrist government did not sufficiently investigate the cause of the crash.[87][89] Szydło refused to sign the EU statement issued at the end of the Council's meeting in protest at Tusk's reelection, though other EU leaders spoke in favor of him; Prime Minister Mark Rutte of the Netherlands called him "a very good president,"[89] and European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker and German chancellor Angela Merkel both made statements supporting the vote.[87]

Donald Tusk maintains there will be no winners from Brexit and the two years following the triggering of Article 50 will be a time of damage limitation.[90]

In February 2018, Tusk urged Turkey "to avoid threats or actions against any EU member and instead commit to good neighbourly relations, peaceful dispute settlement and respect for territorial sovereignty."[91] Tusk also expressed concern over the Turkish invasion of northern Syria in 2018.[92] In response to the death of Chinese Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo, who died of organ failure while in government custody, Tusk and Jean-Claude Juncker said in a joint statement that they had learned of Liu's death "with deep sadness".[93]

On 6 February 2019, Tusk held talks with Irish Premier Leo Varadkar in Brussels to discuss Britain’s departure from the European Union, stating that there was a “special place in hell for those who promoted Brexit without even a sketch of a plan how to carry it out safely”.[94][95] Tusk opened his statement by saying there were 50 days to go until the UK's exit from the EU: "I know that still a very great number of people in the UK, and on the continent, as well as in Ireland, wish for a reversal of this decision. I have always been with you, with all my heart. But the facts are unmistakable. At the moment, the pro-Brexit stance of the UK prime minister, and the Leader of the Opposition, rules out this question. Today, there is no political force and no effective leadership for Remain. I say this without satisfaction, but you can't argue with the facts."[96]

Personal life

Donald Tusk married Małgorzata Sochacka in 1978. They have two children: a son, Michał and a daughter, Katarzyna.[5]

Tusk belongs to the Kashubian minority in Poland. In an interview with the Israeli newspaper Haaretz in December 2008, Tusk compared his own family history to the Jewish experience, describing the Kashubian minority as a people who, "like the Jews, are people who were born and live in border areas and were suspected by the Nazis and by the Communists of being disloyal".[97]

Upon acceding to his position as President of the European Council, Tusk, while being fluent in German,[98] was criticised for his poor English skills and lack of knowledge of French.[99] Other sources however argue that he is "quite good" at English,[100] and he underwent extensive language classes in advance of assuming the role of President.[101] On 10 January 2019, Tusk gave a seven-minute speech only in Romanian at the Romanian Athenaeum in Bucharest at the ceremony that marked the beginning of Romania's EU Council Presidency.[102][103] His delivery received loud applause and won plaudits.[104][105][106]

Tusk's religious views became a matter of a debate during his presidential campaign in 2005. To avoid further speculation, just before the presidential elections Tusk requested a Catholic marriage ceremony with his wife Małgorzata, whom he had married in a civil ceremony 27 years earlier.[107][108]

See also

References

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External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Jarosław Kaczyński
Prime Minister of Poland
2007–2014
Succeeded by
Ewa Kopacz
Preceded by
Herman Van Rompuy
President of the European Council
2014–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Maciej Płażyński
Leader of the Civic Platform
2003–2014
Succeeded by
Ewa Kopacz
2005 Polish presidential election

The 2005 Presidential elections were held in Poland on October 9 and October 23, 2005. The outgoing President of Poland, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, had served two five-year terms and was unable to stand for a third term. Lech Kaczyński defeated Donald Tusk to become President of Poland.

2007 Polish parliamentary election

Parliamentary elections were held in Poland on 21 October 2007, after the Sejm voted for its own dissolution on 7 September. The election took place two years before the maximum tenure of four years, with the previous elections having been in September 2005. The early elections were a result of serious allegations of massive corruption on the part of Andrzej Lepper, leader of the Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland, whose party served as a junior coalition partner to the government of Prime Minister Jarosław Kaczyński. All 460 seats in the Sejm and all 100 seats in the Senate were up for election.

The election was won by the largest opposition group, Civic Platform (PO), which soundly defeated the ruling Law and Justice (PiS) party and its allies. Throughout the campaign, polls showed conflicting results as to which of the two parties had the greater support, yet by the closing week the polls had swung in favour of Civic Platform. Three other political groups won election into the Sejm, the centre-left Left and Democrats coalition, the agrarian Polish People's Party, and the tiny German Minority group. Both of Law and Justice's former minor coalition partners, the League of Polish Families and the Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland suffered an enormous voter backlash, failing to cross the 5% electoral threshold in order to enter the Sejm. Consequently, both parties lost all of their seats.

Prime Minister and PiS leader Jarosław Kaczyński stepped down from office on 15 November, with Civic Platform leader Donald Tusk sworn in as Poland's Prime Minister on the following day. Civic Platform consequently formed a coalition majority government with the Polish People's Party.

The turnout for the elections was 53.8%, an increase of 13.2% from the 2005 elections, seeing the highest voter turnout in a Polish parliamentary election since the semi-free elections of 1989.

2010 Polish local elections

The 2010 Polish local elections were held in two parts, with its first round on 21 November and the second on 5 December. The first round included elections of deputies to provincial voivodeship sejmiks, as well for gmina and powiat councilors. The second round of elections were marked for mayors, borough leaders, and other positions decided by runoff elections. The local elections were seen as a test to the ruling Civic Platform and Polish People's Party coalition government under Prime Minister Donald Tusk.

2014 Polish local elections

The 2014 Polish local elections were held in two parts, with its first round on November 16, 2014 and second on November 30, 2014.

The first round included elections of deputies to provincial voivodeship sejmiks, as well for gmina and powiat councilors. The second round of elections were marked for mayors, borough leaders, and other positions decided by runoff elections. The local elections were seen as a test to the ruling Civic Platform and Polish People's Party centre-right conservative liberal coalition government under Prime Minister Ewa Kopacz, after then Prime Minister Donald Tusk became the President of the European Council.

Axel Springer SE

Axel Springer SE is the largest digital publishing house in Europe, with numerous multimedia news brands, such as Bild, Die Welt, and Fakt and more than 15,000 employees. It generated total revenues of about €3.3 billion and an EBITDA of €559 million in the financial year 2015. The digital media activities contribute more than 60% to its revenues and nearly 70% to its EBITDA. Axel Springer’s business is divided into three segments: paid models, marketing models, and classified ad models.

Headquartered in Berlin, Germany, the company is active in more than 40 countries with subsidiaries, joint ventures, and licensing.

It was started in 1946/1947 by journalist Axel Springer. Its current CEO is Mathias Döpfner. The Axel Springer company is the largest publishing house in Europe and controls the largest share of the German market for daily newspapers; 23.6%, largely because its flagship tabloid Bild is the highest-circulation newspaper in Europe with a daily readership in excess of 12 million.

Cabinet of Donald Tusk

Cabinet of Donald Tusk may refer to:

First Cabinet of Donald Tusk, from 16 November 2007 to 18 November 2011

Second Cabinet of Donald Tusk, from 18 November 2011 to 22 September 2014

Civic Platform

Civic Platform (Polish: Platforma Obywatelska, PO) is a liberal-conservative and Christian democratic political party in Poland. Civic Platform came to power following the 2007 general election as the major coalition partner in Poland's government, with party leader Donald Tusk as Prime Minister of Poland. Tusk was re-elected as Prime Minister in the 2011 general election but stepped down three years later to assume the post of President of the European Council. Prime Minister Ewa Kopacz led the party in the 2015 general election but was defeated by the Law and Justice party. On 16 November 2015 Civic Platform government stepped down after exactly 8 years in power. In 2010 Civic Platform candidate Bronisław Komorowski was elected as President of Poland, but failed in running for re-election in 2015. PO is the second largest party in the Sejm, with 138 seats, and the Senate, with 33 seats. Civic Platform is a member of the European People's Party (EPP).

The party was formed in 2001 as a split from Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS), under the leadership of Andrzej Olechowski and Maciej Płażyński, with Donald Tusk of the Freedom Union (UW). In the 2001 general election, PO emerged as the largest opposition party, behind the ruling centre-left party Democratic Left Alliance (SLD). PO remained the second-largest party at the 2005 general election, but this time behind the national-conservative party Law and Justice (PiS). In 2007, Civic Platform overtook PiS, now established as the dominant parties, and formed a coalition government with the Polish People's Party. Following the Smolensk disaster of April 2010, Bronisław Komorowski became the first President from PO in the 2010 presidential election.

Since its creation, the party has shown stronger electoral performances in Warsaw, the west, and the north of Poland.

Ewa Kopacz

Ewa Kopacz [ˈɛva ˈkɔpatʃ] (listen) (born Ewa Lis; 3 December 1956) is a Polish politician and a former Prime Minister of Poland. Previously she was the Marshal of the Sejm, the first woman to have held the post. In addition, she was Minister of Health from November 2007 until November 2011. Kopacz has been a member of the Civic Platform since 2001. Kopacz became Prime Minister on 22 September 2014, succeeding Donald Tusk; she is the second woman to hold the office after Hanna Suchocka. Prior to entering politics, she was a pediatrician and a general practitioner. Her term ended on 16 November 2015.

Kopacz has been described as one of the leaders of the European Union, and was ranked as the world's 40th most powerful woman by Forbes magazine in 2015, placing her ahead of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and Ellen DeGeneres.

First Cabinet of Donald Tusk

The First Cabinet of Donald Tusk was the government of Poland from November 16, 2007 to November 18, 2011 sitting in the Council of Ministers during the 6th legislature of the Sejm and the 7th legislature of the Senate. It was appointed by President Lech Kaczyński on November 16, 2007, and passed the vote of confidence in Sejm on November 24, 2007. Led by the centre-right politician Donald Tusk it was supported by the coalition of two parties: the liberal conservative Civic Platform (PO) and the agrarian Polish People's Party (PSL).

History of Poland (1989–present)

In 1989–1991, Poland engaged in a democratic transition which put an end to the Polish People's Republic and led to the foundation of a democratic government, known as the Third Polish Republic (following the First and Second Polish Republics). After ten years of democratic consolidation, Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.

Jacek Cichocki

Jacek Cichocki (born 17 December 1971) is an independent Polish politician and a former member of the Polish Council of Ministers. Cichocki served as the minister of interior in the second cabinet of Prime Minister Donald Tusk and later as chief of the Chancellery for Tusk and his successor Ewa Kopacz

Jerzy Miller (politician)

Jerzy Miller (born 7 June 1952 in Kraków) is a Polish politician. He served as Minister of Interior Affairs in the government of Donald Tusk from 14 October 2009 to 18 November 2011. He succeeded Grzegorz Schetyna in the post. Miller is officially independent, but was endorsed by the Civic Platform.

Joanna Kluzik-Rostkowska

Joanna Grażyna Kluzik-Rostkowska (born December 14, 1963) is a Polish politician and member of the Sejm for Civic Platform. She was elected for Law and Justice in 2007, but led a breakaway group in 2010 to form the more liberal Poland Comes First, of which she was leader. She resigned from the party in June 2011, joining Civic Platform following rumors. In November 2013, following a cabinet reshuffle by Prime Minister Donald Tusk, Kluzik-Rostkowska was appointed to head the Ministry of National Education.

Krzysztof Kwiatkowski

Krzysztof Kwiatkowski (born May 14, 1971 in Zgierz) is a Polish politician, Minister of Justice of Poland in Cabinet of Donald Tusk. He is also a member of Senate (from Civic Platform).

Marek Biernacki

Marek Biernacki (born 28 April 1959 in Sopot) is a Polish lawyer and politician. Biernacki previously served as the Minister of Justice in the cabinet of Prime Minister Donald Tusk between 2013 and 2014 and the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration under the government of Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek between 1999 and 2001. He was expelled from Civic Platform in January 2018.

Ministry of Justice (Poland)

The Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Poland is one of the ministries of Poland.

From 1956-1957, Zofia Wasilkowska was the first female to serve as a Minister of Justice in Poland's history.Each Minister of Justice between 1990 and 2010 was also Public Prosecutor General.

Ministry of Regional Development (Poland)

The Ministry of Regional Development (Polish: Ministerstwo Rozwoju Regionalnego) was a ministerial department within the government of Poland. The ministry was created under the premiership of Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz on 31 October 2005, having its functions devolved from the previous Ministry of Economy and Labour. The department was merged with the Ministry of Transport, Construction and Marine Economy in November 2013 under Prime Minister Donald Tusk, creating the Ministry of Infrastructure and Development.

Second Cabinet of Donald Tusk

The Second Cabinet of Donald Tusk was the government of Poland from November 18, 2011 to September 22, 2014 sitting in the Council of Ministers during the 7th legislature of the Sejm and the 8th legislature of the Senate. It was appointed by President Bronisław Komorowski on November 18, 2011, and passed the vote of confidence in Sejm on November 19, 2011. Led by Donald Tusk, it is a centre-right coalition of two parties: Tusk's liberal conservative Civic Platform (PO) and the agrarian Polish People's Party (PSL). By law, all vacant ministries will be led by a Deputy Prime Minister in an acting position.

Zbigniew Ćwiąkalski

Zbigniew Ćwiąkalski [ˈzbʲiɡɲɛf t͡ɕfʲɔŋˈkalskʲi] (listen) (born on March 9, 1950 in Łańcut) is a Polish politician, former Minister of Justice and Public Prosecutor General of Poland. He is a qualified lawyer, adwokat, and associate professor of law at the Jagiellonian University (Chair of Penal Law, Faculty of Law and Administration).

From 1972 to 1981 he was a member of the Polish United Workers' Party at Jagiellonian University. In 1981 he joined the Polish opposition (the Solidarity trade union).

In 1985 he was accused of being a secret collaborator of communist Służba Bezpieczeństwa, but there was no evidence of this.

From 2007 to 2009 he was the Minister of Justice in the government of Donald Tusk.

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