Donald Markwell

For the Montgomery, Alabama, talk radio personality, see Don Markwell

Donald John Markwell (born 19 April 1959) is an Australian social scientist[1], who has been described as a "renowned Australian educational reformer".[2] In November 2017, it was announced that he would become Head of St Paul's College at the University of Sydney from early 2018.[3] He was Senior Adviser to the Leader of the Government in the Australian Senate from October 2015 to December 2017,[4] and was previously Senior Adviser on Higher Education to the Australian Minister for Education.[5][6]

Early life and education

Markwell was born in Quilpie, Queensland. He was educated at Brisbane Grammar School followed by the University of Queensland, the University of Oxford (where he was the 1981 Rhodes Scholar for Queensland) and Princeton University.[7] He studied economics, law and international relations.


Markwell was a Research Fellow of New College, Oxford, from 1985 to 1986, and then a Fellow and Tutor in Politics at Merton College, Oxford, from 1986 to 1997.[8] He served as a reforming Warden (president) of Trinity College (University of Melbourne) from 1997 to 2007;[9] Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Education) of the University of Western Australia from 2007 to 2009;[7] and Warden of Rhodes House, Oxford, from 2009 to 2012 (succeeding Sir Colin Lucas).[10]

From 2007 to 2009, Markwell led a curriculum review at the University of Western Australia. The review proposed significant curriculum reform;[11] it was implemented as "New Courses 2012".[12]

Markwell was the first Rhodes Scholar and the second Australian to serve as Warden of Rhodes House (the global CEO of the Rhodes Trust and the Rhodes Scholarships).[10] As Warden from 2009 to 2012, Markwell expanded activities for Rhodes Scholars in Oxford, expanded alumni communications, events and consultation, initiated governance reform and raised significant funds to support the Rhodes Scholarships.[13] The appointments of several new Rhodes Trustees from around the world included John MacBain, who was later recognized as the "Second Century Founder" of the Rhodes Trust for a gift of £75 million.[14][15] As well as discussing leadership, liberal education and collegiate education, Markwell's speeches drew attention to Cecil Rhodes' goal of promoting international peace.[16] He initiated discussion on increasing the number of countries in which Rhodes Scholarships are offered, leading to the later creation of Rhodes Scholarships for China and other countries.[16][17] He is credited with helping to initiate the review of undergraduate women's leadership at Princeton University, chaired by Nannerl O. Keohane,[18] and of helping to make scholarships in South Africa open to women.[19]

In 2012, Markwell stepped down as Warden of Rhodes House to return to Australia, where his family lives, and to become the Executive Director of the Menzies Research Centre. The Chairman of the Rhodes Trust, John Hood, paid tribute to "the extraordinary energy and commitment Markwell has brought to the advancement of the Rhodes Trust's affairs", and to the "many notable accomplishments under his leadership".[20]

As Executive Director of the Menzies Research Centre (a public policy think tank in Australia named for Australia's longest-serving Prime Minister, Sir Robert Menzies, and associated with the Liberal Party of Australia),[21] his activities included consultations with Julie Bishop for developing a 'New Colombo Plan' to encourage Australian university students to study abroad in Asia-Pacific universities,[22][23][24] and co-editing State of the Nation: aspects of Australian public policy.[25][26]

In October 2013, following the Australian federal election of September 2013, Markwell was appointed as Senior Adviser on Higher Education to the new Australian Minister for Education, Christopher Pyne, MP.[5] In October 2015, after the change of Prime Minister from Tony Abbott to Malcolm Turnbull, he became Senior Adviser to the new Leader of the Government in the Australian Senate, George Brandis, who was also Attorney-General of Australia, until December 2017.[27] Markwell gave constitutional advice to the Prime Minister and Attorney-General during the prorogation, recall, and double dissolution of the Australian Parliament in 2016.[28]

In November 2017, it was announced that he would become Head of St Paul's College at the University of Sydney in early 2018.[29]

Portraits of Markwell hang at Trinity College, University of Melbourne, and Rhodes House, Oxford.[30]


Markwell's academic works include contributions to international relations, political science, the history of economic thought, constitutional history and public law, and education. They address such questions as how to promote order and peace in the international society of states, the role of conventions in constitutional systems, and higher education for the 21st century.

John Maynard Keynes and International Relations: Economic Paths to War and Peace[31] was widely cited in the Keynesian revival of 2008 for its emphasis on international economic cooperation (including the international coordination of economic policies, and the development of international economic institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and World Bank). It was also cited for its emphasis on economic causes of war and economic means to promote peace,[32] and in a 2013 controversy for rebutting the claim of Niall Ferguson that the ideas in Keynes's The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919) were significantly influenced by Keynes's attraction to a German banker, Carl Melchior.[33][34] It is one of a number of Markwell's publications on both John Maynard Keynes,[35] and idealism in international relations (especially interwar idealists, such as Sir Alfred Zimmern [who sought to promote the 'rule of law' in international society],[36] Cecil Rhodes, [who aimed to promote peace through international scholarships], Florence Stawell, and Keynes himself, who sought economic means to promote peace).[16][37]

Markwell's contributions to international relations are in the tradition of the so-called English school of international relations theory, and specifically of Hedley Bull, but with an added emphasis on economic determinants of order in the international society of states. His study of Keynes and Australia traces the links between Keynes and Australia, from Keynes's opposition to the approach of William Morris Hughes to reparations after World War I, through the early impact in Australia of Keynesian ideas in the 1930s and 1940s, to the role of Australia in the creation of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank at Bretton Woods in 1944.[38]

Markwell's writings in political science and public law have been especially concerned with constitutional issues, including federalism, constitutional conventions in the Westminster system, and the monarchy and republicanism in Commonwealth countries, including the reserve powers.[39] He uncovered the extensive history of consultations of judges of the High Court (such as Sir Samuel Griffith and Sir Edmund Barton) by Governor-Generals of Australia.[40] He worked closely with the former Governor-General of Australia, Sir Zelman Cowen, in the writing of A public life: the memoirs of Zelman Cowen[41], including through an oral history project with Sir Zelman Cowen.[42] He spoke at the state memorial service or funeral of two Governors-General of Australia (Sir John Kerr[43] and Sir Zelman Cowen),[44] and has written on "the office of Governor-General".[45]

Markwell's book Constitutional Conventions and the Headship of State: Australian Experience, published in 2016, is a selection of papers focused on constitutional conventions and the role of the Governor-General in Australia.[46]

In 1984 he co-edited with George Brandis and Tom Harley a collection of essays, Liberals face the future: essays on Australian liberalism.[47] In 2013 he co-edited with Rachael Thompson and Julian Leeser a further collection of essays, State of the Nation: aspects of Australian public policy, with critiques of Australian public policy since 2007 by 15 experts.[25][26]

Markwell's A large and liberal education: higher education for the 21st century[48] reflects his advocacy of broad undergraduate education, improving teaching and learning in universities,[49] equity and access, the value of collegiate education and student engagement, and the importance of educational philanthropy. It consists largely of papers from his tenure as Warden of Trinity College, University of Melbourne.

Its sequel, 'Instincts to lead': on leadership, peace, and education,[50] based on Markwell's speeches and writings on those topics as Warden of Rhodes House, Oxford, and as Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Education) at the University of Western Australia, was published in 2013. The title was drawn from Cecil Rhodes saying in his will that he wanted as Rhodes Scholars young people with 'instincts to lead'.[51]


  • George Brandis, Tom Harley and Don Markwell (eds) (1984). Liberals face the future: essays on Australian liberalism. Oxford & Melbourne: Oxford University Press
  • D J Markwell (1987). The Crown and Australia. London: University of London[52]
  • Donald Markwell (2000). Keynes and Australia. Sydney: Reserve Bank of Australia[35]
  • Donald Markwell (ed) (2003). Improving Teaching and Learning in Universities. Melbourne: B-HERT NEWS, Business-Higher Education Round Table[49]
  • Sir Zelman Cowen (2006). A public life: The memoirs of Zelman Cowen. Melbourne: Melbourne University Publishing
  • Donald Markwell (2006). John Maynard Keynes and International Relations: Economic Paths to War and Peace. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press
  • Donald Markwell (2007). A large and liberal education: higher education for the 21st century. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing & Trinity College, University of Melbourne
  • Donald Markwell (2009). Keynes and International Economic and Political Relations. Trinity Paper No. 33, Trinity College, University of Melbourne[53]
  • Donald Markwell (2010). The need for breadth: on liberal education and the value of university residential colleges. Ashley Lectures, Trent University, Canada
  • Don Markwell, Rachael Thompson and Julian Leeser (eds) (2013). State of the Nation: aspects of Australian public policy. Connor Court[26]
  • Donald Markwell (2013). 'Instincts to lead': on leadership, peace, and education. Connor Court[50]
  • Donald Markwell (2016). Constitutional Conventions and the Headship of State: Australian Experience. Connor Court[46]

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ H.M. Evans & T.P. Burt (eds), The Collegiate Way: University Education in a Collegiate Context, Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, 2016, p. 63.
  3. ^
  4. ^ "DON MARKWELL (Queensland & Trinity 1981) - The Rhodes Scholarships". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  5. ^ a b "Menzies Research Centre - Public policy ideas with impact for a free society - Dr Don Markwell to become Senior Adviser on Higher Education to Minister for Education". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  6. ^ "Don Markwell is the best qualified for a tough job". 2013-11-11. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  7. ^ a b "University of Western Australia leader to head Rhodes Scholarships | University News : The University of Western Australia". 2009-02-25. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  8. ^ See, e.g., G.H. Martin & J.R.L. Highfield, A History of Merton College, Oxford University Press, 1998. Christopher Hood, Desmond King, & Gillian Peele, eds, Forging a Discipline, Oxford University Press, 2014, page 199]]
  9. ^ See, e.g. Donald Markwell, A Large and Liberal Education, Trinity College, University of Melbourne, and Australian Scholarly Publishing, 2007]]
  10. ^ a b "The Warden of Rhodes House - The Rhodes Scholarships". Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  11. ^ "Future Students". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  12. ^ "Future Students". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  13. ^ "'Glimpses of Rhodes' videos - The Rhodes Scholarships". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  14. ^ "Eight new Rhodes Trustees from around the world - The Rhodes Scholarships". 2010-04-13. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  15. ^ "Rhodes Scholarships receive landmark £75 million donation from McCall MacBain Foundation - The Rhodes Scholarships". 2013-09-19. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  16. ^ a b c "Cecil Rhodes's goal of Scholarships promoting peace highlighted - The Rhodes Scholarships". 25 September 2011. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  17. ^ "The Rhodes Trust announces the launch of Rhodes Scholarships for China - The Rhodes Scholarships". 2015-03-30. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  18. ^ "Fostering Undergraduate Women's Leadership - e-Archive: Shirley M. Tilghman". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  19. ^ "New partnerships for South African schools' Rhodes Scholarships - The Rhodes Scholarships". 2012-05-03. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  20. ^ "Chairman announces Dr Don Markwell's resignation as Warden of Rhodes House - The Rhodes Scholarships". 2012-09-24. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  21. ^ "Menzies Research Centre - Public policy ideas with impact for a free society - Professor Don Markwell to lead Menzies Research Centre". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  22. ^ "20th anniversary dinner Menzies Research Centre, Speech, 26 Jun 2014, Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, The Hon Julie Bishop MP". 2014-06-26. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  23. ^ "Menzies Research Centre - Public policy ideas with impact for a free society - Expert input at policy roundtable on New Colombo Plan". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  24. ^ "New Rhodes lead to Asia". 2013-04-29. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  25. ^ a b "Menzies Research Centre - Public policy ideas with impact for a free society - State of the Nation: aspects of Australian public policy". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  26. ^ a b c "State of the Nation: Aspects of Australian Public Policy - $29.95 : Connor Court Publishing, Australian Publisher". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  27. ^ "DON MARKWELL (Queensland & Trinity 1981) - The Rhodes Scholarships". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  28. ^ Donald Markwell (2016). Constitutional Conventions and the Headship of State: Australian Experience. Connor Court. Pages 23-4.
  29. ^
  30. ^ "Professor Donald Markwell | Professor Donald Markwell 2006 J…". Flickr. 2011-03-20. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  31. ^ Donald Markwell (2006), John Maynard Keynes and International Relations: Economic Paths to War and Peace, Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
  32. ^ [1]
  33. ^ Read. "More Niallism: Keynes opposed Versailles because he was a screaming queen | Coffee House". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  34. ^ "Keynesian Economics: The Gay Science?". 2013-05-07. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  35. ^ a b [2]
  36. ^ E.g., Donald Markwell (1986), 'Sir Alfred Zimmern Revisited: Fifty Years On', Review of International Studies.
  37. ^ [3]
  38. ^ [4]
  39. ^ Donald Markwell (1987). "The Crown and Australia" (PDF). London: University of London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2009.
  40. ^ Donald Markwell (1999), 'Griffith, Barton and the Early Governor-Generals: Aspects of Australia's Constitutional Development', Public Law Review.
  41. ^ Zelman Cowen (2006), A public life: The memoirs of Zelman Cowen, Melbourne: Melbourne University Publishing.
  42. ^
  43. ^ "Kingsley Siebel Barrister SC (NSW); Registered Indexer (Aus SI)" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  44. ^ Markwell, Donald (2012). "Browse journals by subject". The Round Table. 101: 23–27. doi:10.1080/00358533.2012.656027. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  45. ^ "Markwell, Donald - "The Office of Governor-General" [2015] MelbULawRw 13; (2015) 38(3) Melbourne University Law Review 1098". Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  46. ^ a b "Constitutional conventions and the headship of state - $49.95 : Connor Court Publishing, Australian Publisher". 2016-08-01. Retrieved 2016-12-22. See review by Michael Crommelin at
  47. ^ George Brandis, Tom Harley, Don Markwell (eds) (1984), Liberals face the future: essays on Australian liberalism, Oxford & Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
  48. ^ Donald Markwell(2007), A large and liberal education: higher education for the 21st century, Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing & Trinity College, University of Melbourne
  49. ^ a b [5]
  50. ^ a b "Instincts to lead - Donald Markwell - $44.95 : Connor Court Publishing, Australian Publisher". 2013-07-11. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  51. ^ [6]
  52. ^ [7]
  53. ^ "Publications | Trinity College - The University of Melbourne". Retrieved 2016-12-22.

External links

Academic offices
Preceded by
Revd. Dr. Evan Burge
Warden of Trinity College, University of Melbourne
Succeeded by
Revd. Dr. Andrew McGowan
Preceded by
Sir Colin Lucas
Warden of Rhodes House, Oxford
Succeeded by
Mr. Charles R. Conn
Preceded by
Revd. Dr. Ivan Head
Warden of St Paul's College, University of Sydney
Succeeded by
Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Julian Leeser
Executive Director of Menzies Research Centre
Succeeded by
Nick Cater
Alfred Eckhard Zimmern

Sir Alfred Eckhard Zimmern (1879–1957) was an English classical scholar and historian, and political scientist writing on international relations. His book The Third British Empire was among the first to apply the expression "British Commonwealth" to the British Empire. He is also credited with the phrase "welfare state", which was made popular a few years later by William Temple.

Bob Tulloch

Bob Tulloch (born 1950) is a British portrait painter whose portraits hang in the National Portrait Gallery in London, several colleges of the University of Oxford, and elsewhere. He was educated in London, at Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art in Oxford, and at the Royal Academy Schools, London.Tulloch's portraits include Dame Muriel Spark (National Portrait Gallery), heads of Oxford colleges such as Ruth Deech (St Anne's College) and Michael Beloff QC (Trinity College), and others. His 1999 portrait of the poet Ted Hughes is held by the Royal Collection Trust. Portraits by Tulloch at Rhodes House, Oxford, include Lord Waldegrave of North Hill and former Wardens, Sir Colin Lucas and Dr. Donald Markwell. Portraits of other prominent scholars include the political philosopher Larry Siedentop (Keble College) and the professor of English literature and reviewer John Carey.

Chief Justice of Australia

The Chief Justice of Australia is the presiding justice of the High Court of Australia and the highest-ranking judicial officer in the Commonwealth of Australia. The incumbent is Susan Kiefel, who is the first woman to hold the position.

Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom. Closely related to economic liberalism, it developed in the early 19th century, building on ideas from the previous century as a response to urbanization and to the Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States. Notable individuals whose ideas contributed to classical liberalism include John Locke, Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Robert Malthus and David Ricardo. It drew on the classical economic ideas espoused by Adam Smith in Book One of The Wealth of Nations and on a belief in natural law, utilitarianism and progress. The term "classical liberalism" has often been applied in retrospect to distinguish earlier 19th-century liberalism from social liberalism.

Economic reconstruction

Economic reconstruction refers to a process for creating a proactive vision of economic change. The most basic idea is that problems in the economy such as deindustrialization, environmental decay, outsourcing, industrial incompetence, poverty and addiction to a permanent war economy are based on the design and organization of economic institutions. Economic reconstruction builds on the ideas of various institutional economists and thinkers whose work both critiques existing economic institutions and suggests modes of organizing society differently (cf. Veblen, 1998). Economic reconstruction, however, places much more emphasis on the idea of alternative plans and alternative organization.The need for reconstruction occurs as fundamental problems plague the contemporary organization of the economic, political, and even "oppositional" spheres, such as the contemporary organization of social movements. These spheres each tend to support short term solutions that do not leave in their wake the organization of resources and power in a way that is responsive to citizen needs. Power, democracy and critical alternatives are not linked. In contrast to this state of affairs, economic reconstruction supports the creation of new institutions and the redesign of old ones. The basic idea is to create a new way to organize the economy and society so that institutions work for rather than against peoples' interests and needs.

Hans-Paul Bürkner

Hans-Paul Bürkner (*1952 in Varel, Germany) is the former President and CEO of The Boston Consulting Group (2004-2012). He is currently Chairman at BCG. He was the first European to be president and CEO of the company.

Hedley Bull

Hedley Norman Bull, FBA (10 June 1932 – 18 May 1985) was Professor of International Relations at the Australian National University, the London School of Economics and the University of Oxford until his death from cancer in 1985. He was Montague Burton Professor of International Relations at Oxford from 1977 to 1985, and died there.

Idealism in international relations

Idealism in foreign policy holds that a state should make its internal political philosophy the goal of its foreign policy. For example, an idealist might believe that ending poverty at home should be coupled with tackling poverty abroad. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson was an early advocate of idealism. Wilson's idealism was a precursor to liberal international relations theory, which would arise amongst the "institution-builders" after World War II. It particularly emphasized the ideal of American exceptionalism.

More generally, Michael W. Doyle describes idealism as based on the belief that other nations' stated good intentions can be relied on, whereas Realism holds that good intentions are in the long run subject to the security dilemma described by John H. Herz.

Hedley Bull wrote:

By the 'idealists' we have in mind writers such as Sir Alfred Zimmern, S. H. Bailey, Philip Noel-Baker, and David Mitrany in the United Kingdom, and James T. Shotwell, Pitman Potter, and Parker T. Moon in the United States. ... The distinctive characteristic of these writers was their belief in progress: the belief, in particular, that the system of international relations that had given rise to the First World War was capable of being transformed into a fundamentally more peaceful and just world order; that under the impact of the awakening of democracy, the growth of 'the international mind', the development of the League of Nations, the good works of men of peace or the enlightenment spread by their own teaching, it was in fact being transformed; and that their responsibility as students of international relations was to assist this march of progress to overcome the ignorance, the prejudices, the ill-will, and the sinister interests that stood in its way.

Intellectual history

Intellectual history refers to the historiography of ideas and thinkers. This history cannot be considered without the knowledge of the humans who created, discussed, wrote about, and in other ways were concerned with ideas. Intellectual history as practiced by historians is parallel to the history of philosophy as done by philosophers, and is more akin to the history of ideas. Its central premise is that ideas do not develop in isolation from the people who create and use them, and that one must study ideas not as abstract propositions but in terms of the culture, lives, and historical contexts that produced them.Intellectual history aims to understand ideas from the past by understanding them in context. The term "context" in the preceding sentence is ambiguous: it can be political, cultural, intellectual, and social. One can read a text both in terms of a chronological context (for example, as a contribution to a discipline or tradition as it extended over time) or in terms of a contemporary intellectual moment (for example, as participating in a debate particular to a certain time and place). Both of these acts of contextualization are typical of what intellectual historians do, nor are they exclusive. Generally speaking, intellectual historians seek to place concepts and texts from the past in multiple contexts.

It is important to realize that intellectual history is not just the history of intellectuals. It studies ideas as they are expressed in texts, and as such is different from other forms of cultural history which deal also with visual and other non-verbal forms of evidence. Any written trace from the past can be the object of intellectual history. The concept of the "intellectual" is relatively recent, and suggests someone professionally concerned with thought. Instead, anyone who has put pen to paper to explore his or her thoughts can be the object of intellectual history. A famous example of an intellectual history of a non-canonical thinker is Carlo Ginzburg's study of a 16th-century Italian miller, Menocchio, in his seminal work The Cheese and the Worms.

Although the field emerged from European disciplines of Kulturgeschichte and Geistesgeschichte, the historical study of ideas has engaged not only western intellectual traditions but others as well, including those in other parts of the world. Increasingly, historians are calling for a Global intellectual history that will show the parallels and interrelations in the history of thought of all human societies. Another important trend has been the history of the book and of reading, which has drawn attention to the material aspects of how books were designed, produced, distributed, and read.

Jane Eliza Procter Fellowship

Jane Eliza Procter Fellowships are scholarships supporting academic research at Princeton University. The Fellowships were endowed by William Cooper Procter in 1921-2, and named after his wife, Jane Eliza Johnston Procter (1864-1953). The original terms of the Fellowships were for three awards, "each with an annual stipend of two thousand dollars, upon which each year two British and one French scholar will have the privilege of residence in the Princeton Graduate College, and of pursuing advanced study and investigation". The Fellowships were to be appointed annually on the recommendation of the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, and the École Normale Supérieure. The Fellowships are now for four visiting students per year, consisting of full tuition and stipend, for "young British and French scholars, one upon recommendation by the University of Cambridge, England; one upon recommendation by the University of Oxford, England; and two upon recommendation made by the École Normale Supérieure". The fellowship funds can be used to support non-degree visiting pre-doctoral or doctoral scholars for one year.


Markwell may refer to:

Diego Markwell (born 1980), Dutch baseball player

Don Markwell, talk radio personality in Montgomery, Alabama

Donald Markwell (born 1959), Australian social scientist and college president

Terry Markwell an American born actress, born in Phoenix, Arizona


Peace is the concept of harmonious well-being and freedom from hostile aggression. In a social sense, peace is commonly used to mean a lack of conflict (such as war) and freedom from fear of violence between individuals or heterogeneous (relatively foreign or distinct) groups.

Throughout history some of the most extraordinary and benevolent leaders have used peace talks to establish a certain type of behavioral restraint that has resulted in the establishment of regional peace or economic growth through various forms of agreements or peace treaties. Such behavioral restraint has often resulted in de-escalation of rhetorical and physical conflicts, greater economic interactivity, and consequently substantial prosperity. The avoidance of war or violent hostility can be the result of thoughtful active listening and communication that enables greater genuine mutual understanding and therefore compromise. Leaders often benefit tremendously from the prestige of peace talks and treaties that can result in substantially enhanced popularity.

“Psychological peace” (such as a peaceful thinking and emotions) is perhaps less well defined yet often a necessary precursor to establishing "behavioral peace." Peaceful behavior sometimes results from a "peaceful inner disposition." Some have expressed the belief that peace can be initiated with a certain quality of inner tranquility that does not depend upon the uncertainties of daily life for its existence. The acquisition of such a "peaceful internal disposition" for oneself and others can contribute to resolving of otherwise seemingly irreconcilable competing interests.

Because psychological peace can be important to Behavioral peace, leaders sometimes de-escalate conflicts through compliments and generosity. Small gestures of rhetorical and actual generosity have been shown in psychological research to often result in larger levels of reciprocal generosity (and even virtuous circles of generosity). Such benevolent selfless behavior can eventually become a pattern that may become a lasting basis for improved relations between individuals and groups of people. Peace talks often start without preconditions and preconceived notions, because they are more than just negotiating opportunities. They place attention on peace itself over and above what may have been previously perceived as the competing needs or interests of separate individuals or parties to elicit peaceful feelings and therefore produce benevolent behavioral results. Peace talks are sometimes also uniquely important learning opportunities for the individuals or parties involved.

R J Vincent

Raymond John Vincent (February 28, 1943 – November 2,1990), known as R J Vincent or John Vincent, was a scholar of the English school of international relations theory. He was a graduate of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, and the Australian National University. As well as holding visiting positions at Princeton University and the Australian National University, he was professor of international relations ar Keele University, Fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford, and Montague Burton Professor of International Relations at the London School of Economics from 1989 until his death.He is most famous for his books Nonintervention and International Order, which was developed from his PhD working under Hedley Bull, and Human Rights in International Relations. He was a long-term editor of the journal Review of International Studies.

Rex Nettleford

Ralston Milton "Rex" Nettleford, OM (Jamaica), FIJ, OCC (3 February 1933 - 2 February 2010), was a Jamaican scholar, social critic, choreographer, and Vice-Chancellor Emeritus of the University of the West Indies (UWI), the leading research university in the Commonwealth Caribbean.

Rhodes House

Rhodes House is part of the University of Oxford in England. It is located on South Parks Road in central Oxford, and was built in memory of Cecil Rhodes, an alumnus of the university and a major benefactor.

Roy Harrod

Sir Henry Roy Forbes Harrod (13 February 1900 – 8 March 1978) was an English economist. He is best known for writing The Life of John Maynard Keynes (1951) and for the development of the Harrod–Domar model, which he and Evsey Domar developed independently. He is also known for his International Economics, a former standard textbook, the first edition of which contained some observations and ruminations (wanting in subsequent editions) that would foreshadow theories developed independently by later scholars (such as the Balassa–Samuelson effect).

Thomas Symons

Thomas Henry Bull Symons, (born May 30, 1929) is a Canadian professor and author in the field of Canadian studies.

Born in Toronto, Ontario, he is the son of Harry Lutz Symons and Dorothy Sarah Bull, and the brother of Scott Symons. He attended Upper Canada College until 1942, and graduated from the University of Toronto Schools. He subsequently studied at the University of Toronto (B.A. 1951), Oxford (B.A. 1953, M.A. 1957) and Harvard University.

He was the founding president of Trent University, serving as its president and vice-chancellor from 1961 to 1972. He served as chairman of the Ontario Human Rights Commission from 1975 to 1978.

Between 1980 and 1986 he served two three-year terms as chairman of the board of the United World Colleges.He is the chairperson of the Peterborough Lakefield Community Police Service.On August 17, 1963, he married Christine Ryerson. They had three children: Mary, Ryerson and Jeffery.His contributions to university leadership, Canadian studies, Commonwealth studies, United World Colleges, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, and other fields has been discussed in Ralph Heintzman (ed), Tom Symons: A Canadian Life, published by University of Ottawa Press. His leadership in universities and in Commonwealth Studies is discussed in Donald Markwell, "Instincts to Lead": On Leadership, Peace, and Education (Connor Court, 2013).

Valentine Leeper

Valentine Alexa Leeper (14 February 1900 – 26 July 2001) was an Australian classicist, teacher, polemicist, and letter-writer of renown.

Zelman Cowen

Sir Zelman Cowen, (7 October 1919 – 8 December 2011) was an Australian legal scholar and university administrator who served as the 19th Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1977 to 1982.

Cowen was born in Melbourne, and attended Scotch College before going on to the University of Melbourne. His studies were interrupted by World War II, during which he served in the Royal Australian Navy. After the war's end, Cowen attended New College, Oxford, on a Rhodes Scholarship. He subsequently won the prestigious Vinerian Scholarship as the best student in the Bachelor of Civil Law degree. He remained at Oxford after graduating, serving as a fellow of Oriel College from 1947 to 1950.

In 1951, Cowen returned to Australia to become dean of the law faculty at the University of Melbourne. In 1953, still while at The University of Melbourne, he was awarded a Fulbright Senior Scholarship in Law to Harvard University. He became known as an expert on constitutional law, and was a visiting professor at a number of overseas institutions. He later served as vice-chancellor of the University of New England (1966–1970) and the University of Queensland (1970–1977). In 1977, Malcolm Fraser appointed Cowen to succeed John Kerr as governor-general. He was an uncontroversial choice, and became the second Jewish holder of the position, after Sir Isaac Isaacs. After leaving office, Cowen returned to academia, serving as provost of Oriel College, Oxford, from 1982 to 1990.

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