Donald A. Glaser

Donald Arthur Glaser (September 21, 1926 – February 28, 2013) was an American physicist, neurobiologist, and the winner of the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the bubble chamber used in subatomic particle physics.[1][2][3]

Donald A. Glaser
Donald Glaser
Donald A. Glaser
Donald Arthur Glaser

September 21, 1926
DiedFebruary 28, 2013 (aged 86)
Alma mater
Known for
  • Ruth Bonnie Thompson (m. 1960; 2 children)
  • Lynn Bercovitz (m. 1975)
Scientific career
FieldsPhysics, Molecular biology
ThesisThe momentum distribution of charged cosmic ray particles near sea level (1949)
Doctoral advisorCarl David Anderson


Born in Cleveland, Ohio, Glaser completed his Bachelor of Science degree in physics and mathematics from Case School of Applied Science[2]:10 in 1946. He completed his Ph.D. in physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1949.[4] Glaser accepted a position as an instructor at the University of Michigan in 1949, and was promoted to professor in 1957. He joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley, in 1959, as a Professor of Physics. During this time his research concerned short-lived elementary particles. The bubble chamber enabled him to observe the paths and lifetimes of the particles.

Starting in 1962, Glaser changed his field of research to molecular biology, starting with a project on ultraviolet-induced cancer. In 1964, he was given the additional title of Professor of Molecular Biology. Glaser's position (since 1989) was Professor of Physics and Neurobiology in the Graduate School.

Personal life

Donald Glaser was born on September 21, 1926, in Cleveland, Ohio, to Russian Jewish immigrants, Lena and William J. Glaser, a businessman.[5][6] He enjoyed music and played the piano, violin, and viola. He went to Cleveland Heights High School, where he became interested in physics as a means to understand the physical world.[2]:2,6,8 He died in his sleep at the age of 86 on February 28, 2013 in Berkeley, California.[7] He is survived by his wife, Lynn Glaser, his daughter, Louise Glaser, his son, William Glaser, and his grandson Aaron Cohen, granddaughters Emily and Katherine Schreiner and Caroline and Julia Glaser.

Education and early career

Glaser attended Case School of Applied Science (now Case Western Reserve University), where he completed his bachelor's degree in physics and mathematics in 1946. During the course of his education there, he became especially interested in particle physics.[2]:15 He played viola in the Cleveland Philharmonic while at Case, and taught mathematics classes at the college after graduation.[2]:12 He continued on to the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), where he pursued his Ph.D. in physics. His interest in particle physics led him to work with Nobel laureate Carl David Anderson, studying cosmic rays with cloud chambers.[2]:22 He preferred the accessibility of cosmic ray research over that of nuclear physics. While at Caltech he learned to design and build the equipment he needed for his experiments,[2]:22 and this skill would prove to be useful throughout his career. He also attended molecular genetics seminars led by Nobel laureate Max Delbrück;[2]:20 he would return to this field later. Glaser completed his doctoral thesis, The Momentum Distribution of Charged Cosmic Ray Particles Near Sea Level, after starting as an instructor at the University of Michigan in 1949.[2]:28 He received his Ph.D. from Caltech in 1950, and he was promoted to Professor at Michigan in 1957.[2]:43

Bubble chamber

A bubble chamber.

While teaching at Michigan, Glaser began to work on experiments that led to the creation of the bubble chamber.[2]:37 His experience with cloud chambers at Caltech had shown him that they were inadequate for studying elementary particles. In a cloud chamber, particles pass through gas and collide with metal plates that obscure the scientists' view of the event. The cloud chamber also needs time to reset between recording events and cannot keep up with accelerators' rate of particle production.[2]:31–32

He experimented with using superheated liquid in a glass chamber. Charged particles would leave a track of bubbles as they passed through the liquid, and their tracks could be photographed. He created the first bubble chamber with ether.[2]:37–38 He experimented with hydrogen while visiting the University of Chicago, showing that hydrogen would also work in the chamber.[2]:44

It has often been claimed that Glaser was inspired to his invention by the bubbles in a glass of beer; however, in a 2006 talk, he refuted this story, saying that although beer was not the inspiration for the bubble chamber, he did experiments using beer to fill early prototypes.[8]

His new invention was ideal for use with high-energy accelerators,[2]:47 so Glaser traveled to Brookhaven National Laboratory with some students to study elementary particles using the accelerator there. The images that he created with his bubble chamber brought recognition of the importance of his device, and he was able to get funding to continue experimenting with larger chambers. Glaser was then recruited by Nobel laureate Luis Alvarez,[2]:59 who was working on a hydrogen bubble chamber at the University of California at Berkeley. Glaser accepted an offer to become a Professor of Physics there in 1959.[2]:60

Nobel Prize

Glaser was awarded the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for the invention of the bubble chamber. His invention allowed scientists to observe what happens to high-energy beams from an accelerator, thus paving the way for many important discoveries.[2]:64–65

Transition to molecular biology

After winning the Nobel Prize, Glaser began to think about switching from physics into a new field. He wanted to concentrate on science, and found that as the experiments and equipment grew larger in scale and cost, he was doing more administrative work. He also anticipated that the ever-more-complex equipment would cause consolidation into fewer sites and would require more travel for physicists working in high-energy physics.[2]:68 Recalling his interest in molecular genetics that began at Caltech, Glaser began to study biology. He spent a semester at MIT as a visiting professor and attended biology seminars there.[9] He also spent a semester in Copenhagen with Ole Maaloe, the prominent Danish molecular biologist.[2]:72

He worked in UC Berkeley's Virus Lab (now the Biochemistry and Virus Laboratory),[2]:76 doing experiments with bacterial phages, bacteria, and mammalian cells. He studied the development of cancer cells, in particular the skin cancer xeroderma pigmentosum.[2]:69 As with the bubble chamber, he used his experience designing equipment to improve the experimental process. He automated the process of pouring out agar, spreading culture, and counting colonies of cells using a machine he called the dumbwaiter. It took photographs, administered chemicals, and had a mechanical hand to pick up colonies.[2]:76–77

Commercial ventures

While continuing to work at UC Berkeley, Glaser started Berkeley Scientific Laboratory with Bill Wattenberg in 1968. The short-lived partnership worked on automating diagnostic procedures.[2]:88

In 1971 he founded Cetus Corporation with Moshe Alafi, Ron Cape, and Peter Farley.[2]:89–90 Glaser's position was Chairman of the Science Advisory Board.[2]:96 The founders felt that the knowledge scientists had gained about DNA had not yet been applied to solve real problems.[2]:112 The company did microbial strain improvement,[2]:96–97 and then genetic engineering,[2]:110 becoming the first biotechnology company. Cetus was purchased by Chiron Corporation in 1991.[2]:115

Transition to neurobiology

As molecular biology became more dependent on biochemistry, Glaser again considered a career change. His experience automating visual tasks in physics and molecular biology led him to an interest in human vision and how the brain processes what is seen. He began to work on computational modeling of the visual system and visual psychophysics, and spent a sabbatical at the Rowland Institute.[1][2]:116


  1. ^ a b Poggio, Tomaso (2013). "Donald Arthur Glaser (1926–2013) Physicist and biotechnologist who invented the bubble chamber". Nature. 496 (7443): 32. Bibcode:2013Natur.496...32P. doi:10.1038/496032a. PMID 23552936.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Vettel, Eric (2006). "Donald Glaser: The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology – an oral history conducted in 2003–2004" (PDF). Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
  3. ^ Glaser, D. (1952). "Some Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Formation of Bubbles in Liquids". Physical Review. 87 (4): 665. Bibcode:1952PhRv...87..665G. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.87.665.
  4. ^ Glaser, Donald A. (1950). The momentum distribution of charged cosmic ray particles near sea level (Ph.D.). California Institute of Technology. OCLC 1014494852 – via ProQuest. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  5. ^ "Donald Glaser, Young Jewish Nobel Prize Winner, is Contributor to U.J.A". November 7, 1960. Archived from the original on April 15, 2013. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
  6. ^ "Donald A. Glaser - Biography". 2005. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
  7. ^ Sanders, Robert (March 1, 2013). "Physics Nobelist and biotech pioneer Donald Glaser dies at 86". Retrieved March 2, 2013.
  8. ^ Anne Pinckard (July 21, 2006). "Front Seat to History: Summer Lecture Series Kicks Off – Invention and History of the Bubble Chamber". Berkeley Lab View Archive. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
  9. ^ "Interview (Donald Glaser)" (PDF).

External links

1960 in science

The year 1960 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.


2013 (MMXIII)

was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2013th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 13th year of the 3rd millennium, the 13th year of the 21st century, and the 4th year of the 2010s decade.

2013 was designated as:

International Year of Water Cooperation

International Year of Quinoa

Bubble chamber

A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it. It was invented in 1952 by Donald A. Glaser, for which he was awarded the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physics. Supposedly, Glaser was inspired by the bubbles in a glass of beer; however, in a 2006 talk, he refuted this story, although saying that while beer was not the inspiration for the bubble chamber, he did experiments using beer to fill early prototypes.While bubble chambers were extensively used in the past, they have now mostly been supplanted by wire chambers and spark chambers. Notable bubble chambers include the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) and Gargamelle.

Carl David Anderson

Carl David Anderson (September 3, 1905 – January 11, 1991) was an American physicist. He is best known for his discovery of the positron in 1932, an achievement for which he received the 1936 Nobel Prize in Physics, and of the muon in 1936.

Cetus Corporation

Cetus Corporation was one of the first biotechnology companies. It was established in Berkeley, California in 1971, but conducted most of its operations in nearby Emeryville. Before merging with another company in 1991, it developed several significant pharmaceutical drugs as well as a revolutionary DNA amplification technique.

Cetus was founded in 1971 by Ronald E. Cape, Peter Farley, and Nobelist Donald A. Glaser. Its early efforts involved automated methods to select for industrial microorganisms that could produce greater amounts of chemical feedstocks, antibiotics, or vaccine components. By the late-1970s, however, three new revolutionary techniques had been developed: recombinant DNA, monoclonal antibodies, and gene expression, the foundations of the biotechnology industry. In order to enter these new fields, Cetus raised $108 million in an Initial Public Offering in 1981, the largest IPO to that date.

Its first large development project, in conjunction with Triton Biosciences, was the successful cloning, expression, modification, and production of beta-interferon. Unfortunately, the resultant protein did not live up to its expectations as a broad-spectrum anti-cancer drug, and only much later was it approved for use to treat symptoms of multiple sclerosis. The product is now sold under the name Betaseron.

The company's flagship product was Interleukin-2 (IL-2), an important modifier of the immune system. In the early 1980s, an intense competition to clone the gene for IL-2 was underway among Cetus, Genentech, Immunex, and the Japanese researcher, Tadatsugu Taniguchi, and in 1982 Taniguchi was the first to succeed. By 1983 Cetus created a proprietary recombinant version of IL2 and collaborated with Steven Rosenberg to begin clinical trials. The drug showed promising effects in treating renal cancer, but also had significant side effects on patients. In 1990 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) refused to approve the drug for clinical use, asking for additional information. It wasn't until two years later, after Cetus had been sold, that IL-2 was approved. It is now distributed under the name Proleukin.

The company also had a broad effort to research and develop techniques for DNA diagnostics. Collaborations were made with Perkin-Elmer for diagnostic instruments, and with Kodak for commercial diagnostic kits. It was here that the technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplification was conceived by Kary Mullis. The technique has been widely used in DNA research, forensics, and genetic disease diagnostics. Its inventor received the Nobel Prize in 1993, the only one awarded for research performed at a biotechnology company.

The delay in FDA approval for IL-2 created a major funding crisis at Cetus, which had been spending a considerable fraction of its investments to produce and test the drug. The company's CEO resigned six weeks later, and patent rights to the PCR process were sold to Hoffman-La Roche. Losses continued, and in 1991 the company was sold to Chiron Corporation. Chiron continued the development of IL-2, which was finally approved by the FDA in 1992. Chiron also collected the scattered rights for the production of beta-interferon, which was approved for clinical use in 1993.

Cleveland Heights High School

Cleveland Heights High School (commonly known as Heights) is the senior high school of the Cleveland Heights-University Heights City School District.

Cloud chamber

A cloud chamber, also known as a Wilson cloud chamber, is a particle detector used for visualizing the passage of ionizing radiation.

A cloud chamber consists of a sealed environment containing a supersaturated vapor of water or alcohol. An energetic charged particle (for example, an alpha or beta particle) interacts with the gaseous mixture by knocking electrons off gas molecules via electrostatic forces during collisions, resulting in a trail of ionized gas particles. The resulting ions act as condensation centers around which a mist-like trail of small droplets form if the gas mixture is at the point of condensation. These droplets are visible as a "cloud" track that persist for several seconds while the droplets fall through the vapor. These tracks have characteristic shapes. For example, an alpha particle track is thick and straight, while an electron track is wispy and shows more evidence of deflections by collisions.

Cloud chambers played a prominent role in the experimental particle physics from the 1920s to the 1950s, until the advent of the bubble chamber. In particular, the discoveries of the positron in 1932 (see Fig. 1) and the muon in 1936, both by Carl Anderson (awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1936), used cloud chambers. Discovery of the kaon by George Rochester and Clifford Charles Butler in 1947, also was made using a cloud chamber as the detector.. In each case, cosmic rays were the source of ionizing radiation.

February 28

February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 306 days remain until the end of the year (307 in leap years).


Glaser is a surname that is derived from the occupation of the glazier, or glass cutter.

Jewel Akens

Jewel Eugene Akens (September 12, 1933, Houston, Texas – March 1, 2013, Inglewood, California) was an American singer and record producer.

John Sirica

John Joseph Sirica (March 19, 1904 – August 14, 1992) was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, where he became famous for his role in the trials stemming from the Watergate scandal. He rose to national prominence when he ordered President Richard Nixon to turn over his recordings of White House conversations. Sirica's involvement in the case began when he presided over the trial of the Watergate burglars. He did not believe the claim that they had acted alone, and through the use of provisional sentencing, strongly encouraged them to give information about higher-ups before final sentencing. One defendant, James W. McCord Jr., wrote a letter describing a broader scheme of involvement by people in the Nixon administration. For his role in uncovering the truth about Watergate, Sirica was named Time magazine's Man of the Year in January 1974.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). It is located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California, overlooking the main campus of the University of California, Berkeley. It is managed and operated by the University of California.

List of Jewish American physicists

This is a list of famous Jewish American physicists.

For other famous Jewish Americans, see List of Jewish Americans.

Alexei Abrikosov, condensed matter physics, Nobel Prize (2003) (Jewish mother; naturalized citizen)

Ralph Alpher, background radiation, nucleosynthesis

John N. Bahcall, astrophysicist

Hans Bethe, nuclear physicist, Nobel Prize (1967) (Jewish mother)

Felix Bloch, nuclear physicist, Nobel Prize (1952) (naturalized citizen)

David Bohm, quantum physicist, philosopher of science

Niels Bohr, physicist

Gregory Breit, physicist

Samuel T. Cohen, physicist

Mildred Dresselhaus, physicist, National Medal Of Science, Kavli Prize, Presidential Medal of Freedom (Jewish)

Albert Einstein (German), theoretical physicist, Nobel Prize (1921) (naturalized citizen)

Jeremy England, biophysicist

Paul Sophus Epstein, theoretical physicist, quantum mechanics

Herman Feshbach, nuclear physicist

Richard P. Feynman, physicist, Nobel Prize (1965) (though he always refused to appear in lists such as this one and other lists or books that classified people by race )

David Finkelstein, physicist

James Franck, physicist, Nobel Prize (1925)

Edward Fredkin, digital physicist

Jerome Friedman, physicist, Nobel Prize (1990)

Murray Gell-Mann, quarks, Nobel Prize (1969)

Donald A. Glaser, bubble chamber, Nobel Prize (1960)

Sheldon Glashow, physicist, Nobel Prize (1979)

Roy Glauber, physicist, Nobel Prize (2005)

Herbert Goldstein, Columbia physicist, author of standard textbook on classical mechanics

Samuel Goudsmit, electron spin

Brian Greene, string theorist

David Gross, string theorist, Nobel Prize (2004)

Alan Guth, cosmic inflation

Eugene Guth, polymer physics, nuclear physics, solid state physics

Robert Herman, cosmology, background radiation, operations research

Robert Hofstadter, physicist, Nobel Prize (1961)

Robert Jastrow, physicist, astronomer, cosmologist

Herman Kahn, nuclear physicist

Theodore von Kármán, aeronautical engineer

Joseph B. Keller, mathematical physics, wave propagation, National Medal Of Science, Wolf Prize

Daniel Kleppner, atomic research

Walter Kohn, physicist, Nobel Prize (1998)

Rudolf Kompfner, engineer and physicist

Lawrence Krauss, theoretical physicist and cosmologist

Cornelius Lanczos, mathematical physicist

Rolf Landauer, physicist, information theory

Leon M. Lederman, physicist, Nobel Prize (1988)

David Morris Lee, superfluidity, Nobel Prize (1996)

Fritz London, quantum chemistry

Theodore Maiman, first operable laser

Albert A. Michelson, speed of light, Nobel Prize (1907)

Alexander Migdal, theoretical high energy physics (naturalized citizen)

Ben Roy Mottelson, physicist, Nobel Prize (1975)

Frank Oppenheimer, nuclear physicist (brother of Robert)

Robert Oppenheimer, nuclear physicist (brother of Frank)

Douglas D. Osheroff, superfluidity, Nobel Prize (1996)

Jeremiah P. Ostriker, astrophysicist

Abraham Pais, historian of science

Wolfgang Pauli, nuclear physicist, Nobel Prize (1945) (Jewish father, half-Jewish mother; naturalized citizen)

Arno Allan Penzias, background radiation, Nobel Prize (1978)

Martin Lewis Perl, physicist, Nobel Prize (1995)

H. David Politzer, physicist, Nobel Prize (2004)

Alexander Polyakov, theoretical high energy physics (naturalized citizen)

Martin Pope, physical chemist, Davy Medal (2006)

Isidor Isaac Rabi, physicist, Nobel Prize (1944) (naturalized citizen)

Simon Ramo, physicist, engineer

Mark G. Raizen, physicist, quantum physics

Sidney Redner, statistical physics

L. Rafael Reif, Venezuelan-born American electrical engineer, president of MIT

Frederick Reines, neutrino experiment, Nobel Prize (1995)

Burton Richter, physicist, Nobel Prize (1976)

Carl Sagan, astronomer and science popularizer

Arthur Schawlow, laser spectroscopy, Nobel Prize (1981) (Jewish father)

Melvin Schwartz, physicist, Nobel Prize (1988)

John Schwarz, string theorist

Julian Schwinger, quantum physicist, Nobel Prize (1965)

Emilio G. Segrè, anti-proton, Nobel Prize (1959) (naturalized citizen)

Mikhail Shifman, theoretical particle physics (naturalized citizen)

Michael F. Shlesinger

Lee Smolin, loop quantum gravity

Alan Sokal, Sokal affair

H. Eugene Stanley, econophysics, phase transitions, critical phenomena

Jack Steinberger, physicist, Nobel Prize (1988)

Otto Stern, physicist, Nobel Prize (1943)

Andrew Strominger, string theory

Leonard Susskind, string theory (Jewish father)

Leó Szilárd, nuclear physicist (naturalized citizen)

Edward Teller, nuclear physicist

Arkady Vainshtein, theoretical high energy physics (naturalized citizen)

Alexander Vilenkin, cosmology (naturalized citizen)

Steven Weinberg, electroweak force, Nobel Prize (1979)

Victor Frederick Weisskopf (1908–2002), physicist; during World War II, he worked at Los Alamos on the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb, and later campaigned against the proliferation of nuclear weapons

Eugene Wigner, quantum physicist, Nobel Prize (1963)

Edward Witten, mathematical physicist, Fields Medal (1990), founder of M-Theory, only physicist to win Fields Medal, and currently the driving force behind theoretical/mathematical physics

George Zweig, quarks

List of Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation.

List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley

This list of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley comprehensively shows the alumni, faculty members as well as researcher of the University of California, Berkeley who were awarded the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Nobel Prizes, established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, are awarded to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine. An associated prize, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (commonly known as the Nobel Prize in Economics), was instituted by Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, in 1968 and first awarded in 1969.As of October 2018, 107 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with UC Berkeley, and 48 of them are officially listed as "Berkeley's Nobel Laureates" by UC Berkeley for being graduates (obtained degrees), current faculty members, or deceased faculty who retired at Berkeley. Among the 107 laureates, 34 are Berkeley alumni (graduates and attendees), and 40 have been long-term academic members of the Berkeley faculty or Berkeley-affiliated research organizations. Subject-wise, 33 laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physics, more than any other subject. In addition, Linus Pauling is the only UC Berkeley-affiliated Nobel laureate (Visiting Lecturer in Physics and Chemistry, 1929–1934) to win two Nobel prizes: he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962; since this is a list of laureates, not prizes, he is counted only once.

List of Sigma Alpha Mu brothers

The following are members of Sigma Alpha Mu:

Martin Agronsky, political journalist and commentator, recipient of DuPont-Columbia Award

Marv Albert, sports commentator for NBC

Daved Benefield, professional American football player who played 13 seasons in the Canadian Football League (CFL)

Dave Bing, Mayor of Detroit, Michigan, former NBA player, and Detroit businessman.

Albert Boscov, businessman, philanthropist, and the long-time chairman and CEO of Boscov's Inc.

Maurice Brodie, polio researcher

LeVar Burton, American actor

Ernie Davis, 1961 Heisman Trophy winner

Bob Dylan, American singer-songwriter, musician and artist

Jamie Eldridge, Massachusetts State Senator

Bernie Fine, Syracuse Orange men's basketball Assistant Coach

Thomas Downey, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives

Donald Fehr, Executive Director of the National Hockey League Players Association

Sam Fox, United States Ambassador to Belgium

Donald A. Glaser, Nobel Laureate in Physics

Paul Michael Glaser, actor and director

Harry Glickman, founder and President of the NBA's Portland Trail Blazers

Stanley Gold, lawyer, investment company executive, and philanthropist

Leonard Goldenson, Chairman of ABC

Steve Goodman, folk music singer-songwriter

Peter Grace, former Fidelity Investments VP, Grateful Dead fan.

Hank Greenberg, Major League Baseball Hall of Fame player

Maurice R. Greenberg, Chairman and CEO of American International Group

Irwin M. Jacobs, Chairman and co-founder of Qualcomm Inc.(QCOM); pioneered CDMA technology.

Joshua Jay, magician, author, and lecturer

Adam Kellerman, Australian wheelchair tennis player

Tom Lantos, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives

Bora Laskin, Former Chief Justice of Canada

Michael Levy, Auto Broker, CEO of Car Guys USA, 305-CAR-GUYS

Earle I. Mack is an American businessman and former United States Ambassador to Finland

Bernard Madoff, former stockbroker, investment advisor, financier, and white collar criminal

Morris Marx, Former President University of West Florida

Don Most, actor, from television sitcom Happy Days

Michael Milken, Financial Executive for Drexel Burnham Lambert; UC Berkeley

Alan Rafkin, Emmy Award-Winning Television Director, Producer, and Actor

Michael E. Reiburn (1893–1982), New York assemblyman and state senator, disbarred lawyer, convicted of theft and fraud

Mark Rosenker, Chairman National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Major General USAF (ret) currently with CBS News

Philip Roth, author

Frank Gibeau, CEO of Zynga

Alan Rothenberg, President of the US Soccer Federation

Marshall Rothstein, Canadian Supreme Court Justice

Danny Schayes, NBA player

Adam Schefter, sports writer, television analyst, and the NFL Insider for ESPN.

Gerry Schwartz, Co-Founder of CanWest Global Communications, Founder and CEO of Onex Corporation, Current Director of Scotiabank

Ron Silver, actor, starred in Blue Steel and Timecop former President of the Screen Actors Guild

Walt Singer, college football player at Syracuse University, and professional football player in the National Football League for the New York Giants.

Ed Snider, owner of the Philadelphia Flyers

David Stern, Commissioner of the NBA.

Preston Robert Tisch, businessman; chairman and part owner of the Loews Corporation

Jon Landau, producer of the films Titanic and Avatar

Bram Weinstein, sportscaster; on-air anchor for ESPNEWS and SportsCenter

Les Wexner, Chairman of The Limited, Structure, Bath and Body Works, and Express

Zollie Volchok, President of NBA Seattle SuperSonics

Andrew Wilkow, conservative political talk radio host

Art Wrubel, private equity investor

Steve Wynn, Owner of the Wynn Las Vegas, former owner of Golden Nugget, and former owner and developer of Mirage, Treasure Island, and Bellagio Casinos and Resorts in Las Vegas, Nevada

George Zimmer, entrepreneur; founder and former Executive Chairman of the Men's Wearhouse

Regional Oral History Office

The Regional Oral History Office (ROHO) is part of The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. The office was founded in 1954. ROHO conducts, analyzes, teaches about, and preserves oral history interviews on a wide range of topics related to the history of California and the United States. ROHO staff also conduct research on a wide range of historical topics, utilizing oral history as a central primary source to their scholarship.

ROHO's original name was the Regional Cultural History Office. It was the second oral history office founded in the country, following only Columbia University. The first interview conducted at the office, before it was officially recognized as a unit on campus, was with Alice B. Toklas, the long-time partner of Gertrude Stein.

Since its founding in 1954, ROHO has conducted thousands of interviews in a wide variety of subject areas ranging from law and jurisprudence to food and wine. ROHO features especially strong collections on the development of the arts and letters, science and technology, and labor, social, political, and community history in California. ROHO has also conducted numerous interviews on the history of the University of California. ROHO's interviews with scientists include Nobel Prize winners such as Arthur Kornberg, Paul Berg, Donald A. Glaser, and Charles Townes. Other notable interviews with scientists include Herbert Boyer and Stanley N. Cohen. ROHO has also conducted significant oral histories with well-known artists and authors, such as Dorothea Lange, Ansel Adams, and Carl Rakosi.

ROHO houses collections of oral histories related to women's suffrage and the home front during World War II.

The interviews conducted by ROHO are deposited in over 700 manuscript libraries worldwide. Many of the interviews are accessible online. The Bancroft Library also houses the original tapes for all of the interviews conducted by ROHO. Once completed, the oral histories are referenced by both scholars and students around the world.

ROHO's first director was Corinne Gilb, who led the program from 1954 to 1958. Between 1958 and 2000, Willa Baum directed ROHO. Under her tenure, ROHO amassed over 1,600 oral histories on a wide variety of subjects. Richard Cándida Smith, who is also a professor in the Department of History at the University of California, Berkeley, directed the office until spring of 2012. During Cándida Smith's tenure, the number of oral history transcripts made available online expanded dramatically. Neil Henry, formerly Dean of the Department of Journalism at the University of California, Berkeley, is the current director, serving a two-year appointment that commenced in September 2012.

Rowland Institute for Science

The Rowland Institute for Science was founded by Edwin H. Land, founder of Polaroid Corporation, as a nonprofit, privately endowed basic research organization in 1980. It is named for the first head of the American Physical Society, Henry Augustus Rowland. The Rowland is dedicated to experimental science across a wide range of disciplines. Research subjects at the institute includes chemistry, physics and biology, and focus on interdisciplinary work and the development of new experimental tools.

The institute merged with Harvard University on July 1, 2002, and is now called The 'Rowland Institute at Harvard'. It is located near Kendall Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and is a few miles away from the main campus.

September 21

September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 101 days remain until the end of the year.


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