Domuztepe (meaning Pig Hill in Turkish) was a large, late Neolithic settlement in south east Turkey, occupied at least as early as c.6,200BC and abandoned c.5,450BC. The site is located to the south of Kahramanmaraş. Covering 20 hectares, it is primarily a Halaf site of the 6th millennium BC and is the largest known settlement of that date.
The site was investigated between 1995 and 2006 by a team from the University of Manchester and the University of California, Los Angeles. Work resumed in 2008, since when the excavation has been a joint project between the University of Manchester and the British Museum.
Domuztepe Höyüğü (Kahramanmaraş)
A view of Domuztepe from the north east
Shown within Turkey
The site was certainly founded by the Ceramic Neolithic (c.6400BC) but earlier occupation may well be present. By the late Halaf almost all of the 20 hectare area of the site was probably occupied. Prehistoric occupation ended towards the end of the Halaf period (c.5450 BC). The site was reoccupied during the Hellenistic period and was occupied by a significant settlement during the first millennium AD. There is evidence for a church at this time, and a small Christian cemetery has been excavated.
The excavated part of the prehistoric sequence starts at the transition between the Ceramic Neolithic and the Early Halaf (c.6100 BC) and continues until c.5450 BC. The Halaf occupation has been traced in a series of trenches across the site, providing rich evidence for both circular and rectangular buildings, ceramics, stone bowls, beads, figurines, chipped stone, bone tools and stamp seals, as well as a rich assemblage of animal bones and botanical remains.
Excavation has concentrated on Operation I, on the summit of the southern mound. In the Early Halaf an east-west terrace was built up from red clay, with a series of occupational deposits to the south, and maintained in subsequent phases.
Between 1997 and 2003 a highly complex burial was excavated, called the ‘Death Pit’. This pit was more than 3m in diameter and about 1.5m deep, filled with layers of dis-articulated human and animal bones, broken pottery and other artifacts. The ceremonies that produce this feature probably took place over a few weeks and had several phases.
The earliest layer of the Death Pit mainly contained animal bones, apparently from large-scale feasting. Later deposits included the remains of up to 40 people. The bodies had been heavily fragmented and cannibalism may have taken place. After the Death Pit was filled, it was covered in a thick layer of ash and marked with large posts. Further deposits of human remains were placed around its edges.
Recent research identified some Armenian obsidian at Domuztepe. Electron microprobe analysis and portable X-ray fluorescence were used. 15 artifacts from Domuztepe match de:Pokr Arteni, a common obsidian source in Armenia. Thus, the Late Neolithic settlement of Domuztepe traded over a walking distance of 800 km. Four other obsidian sources from the Kura-Araxes basin were also identified at Domuztepe.
Campbell, S., E. Carter, et al. (1999) ‘Emerging complexity on the Kahramanmaras Plain, Turkey: The Domuztepe Project 1995-1997’ American Journal of Archaeology 103: 395-418.
Carter, E., S. Campbell, et al. (2003) ‘Elusive Complexity : New Data from late Halaf Domuztepe in South Central Turkey’ Paléorient 29(2): 117-133.
Campbell, S. "Domuztepe 2004 Excavation Season", Anatolian Archaeology 10 (2004) 4-6
Campbell, S. "Domuztepe 2005", Anatolian Archaeology 11 (2005) 13-15
Campbell, S. "Domuztepe 2006", Anatolian Archaeology 12 (2006), 17-18
Campbell, S. "Domuztepe 2008", Anatolian Archaeology 14 (2008), 13-14
Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).Aslantaş Dam
Aslantaş Dam (Turkish: Aslantaş Barajı) is an embankment dam on Ceyhan River in Osmaniye Province, southern Turkey, built between 1975 and 1984.
Aslantaş Dam is situated 80 km (50 mi) northeast of Adana. Built for irrigation, flood control and electricity generation purposes by the State Hydraulic Works (DSI), the dam is 95 m (312 ft) high and has a volume of 8.493 hm3 (11,108,425 cu yd) filled with rock. The dam creates a 49 km2 (19 sq mi) wide lake with 1,150 hm3 (4.1×1010 cu ft) capacity at normal water level. It irrigates an area of 149,849 ha (370,280 acres). It also supports a 138 MW power station, which generates 569 GWh electricity annually. According to some sources, the construction of the Aslantaş Dam resulted in involuntary resettlement of 60,000 people.
Partly on the western and eastern banks of the dam reservoir, the Karatepe-Aslantaş National Park is located. On a peninsula at the west bank, the hill Karatepe is situated inside the national park. Overlooking the dam reservoir, a walled settlement of the Neo-Hittites was discovered on Karatepe dating back to the 8th century BC. Following archaeological excavations between 1946 and 1952, the site was preserved as the Karatepe-Aslantaş Open-Air Museum in 1958. The Kumkale on Domuztepe, another settlement of the Neo-Hittites and a fortification built by the Crusaders , which is located about 2 km (1.2 mi) north of this site, was flooded by the dam reservoir.Bahadır Alkım
Uluğ Bahadır Alkım (February 28, 1915 – May 6, 1981) was a Turkish archaeologist.
Uluğ Bahadır Alkım was born in İzmir, then Ottoman Empire on February 28, 1915. After his high school education, he entered the Faculty of Letters at Istanbul University in 1935 studying Assyriology, Hittitology, Archaeology and Ancient history. He graduated in 1939, and in 1941 he became a scientific assistant at the same faculty. Alkın obtained a PhD degree in 1944. In 1945, he became a lecturer, and in 1960, he was appointed professor serving at this post until his death. Between 1962 and 1975, he lectured at Robert College, where he acted as the Turkish director in the 1963–64 term. He founded the Institute of Archaeometry at the same institution, which is now the Boğaziçi University. He served at several European universities as visiting scholar.Alkım took part at archaeological excavations in Vize (1942), Alaca Höyük (1942), and with Leonard Woolley in Alalakh (1947). In 1947, he was elected member of the Turkish Historical Society (Turkish: Türk Tarih kurumu), which sponsored all his later archaeological excavations.He participated at Karatepe excavation in southern Turkey with Helmuth Theodor Bossert (1889–1961) and Halet Çambel (1916–2014) in 1947. The discovery of Karatepe Bilingual decisively led to the decryption of Hieroglyphic Luwian with the help of Phoenician alphabet.
In 1949, he carried out research work at Domuztepe across Karatepe. His expeditions between 1947 and 1957 in the area of Anti-Taurus Mountains and Amanos Mountains led him the discovery of an ancient trail network. From 1957 until 1961, Alkım excavated at the Yesemek Quarry and Sculpture Workshop in Gaziantep Province, which was discovered by Felix von Luschan (1854–1924). He took part also at the excavation in Amik Valley, Cilicia.His excavation between 1958 and 1972 at Tilmen Höyük unearthed four overlaid settlements dating back from the Late Chalcolithic period to the Islamic epoch, including a 19th-century BC old city and a palace building of the Yamhad Kingdom. He began in 1964 to work at Gedikli Karahöyük excavation, which lasted until 1967. There, a necropolis was revealed featuring unusual burial forms of ancient Asia Minor.Alkım localized more than fifty settlements at his surface surveys he carried out in the Black Sea Region in the years from 1971 to 1973. His last excavation was at İkiztepe near Bafra, Samsun Province, he began in 1974, and lasted until his death. At İkiztepe, finds and artifacts dating back to the Early Bronze Age and the Early Hittite Period were retrieved.Bahadır Alkım died at age 66 in Istanbul on May 6, 1981. He was married to Handan Alkım, who worked with him at several excavations.Basket weaving
Basket weaving (also basketry or basket making) is the process of weaving or sewing pliable materials into two- or three dimensional artifacts, such as mats or containers. Craftspeople and artists specialized in making baskets are usually referred to as basket makers and basket weavers.
Basketry is made from a variety of fibrous or pliable materials—anything that will bend and form a shape. Examples include pine straw, willow, oak, wisteria, forsythia, vines, stems, animal hair, hide, grasses, thread, and fine wooden splints.
Indigenous peoples are particularly renowned for their basket-weaving techniques. These baskets may then be traded for goods but may also be used for religious ceremonies.
Classified into four types, according to Catherine Erdly:
using grasses, rushes and pine needles
using materials that are wide and braidlike: palms, yucca or New Zealand flax
using materials from roots and tree bark. Twining actually refers to a weaving technique where two or more flexible weaving elements ("weavers") cross each other as they weave through the stiffer radial spokes.
"Wicker" and "Splint" basketry
using reed, cane, willow, oak, and ashCaloe
Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.Cestrus
Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.Cotenna
Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.Cyaneae
Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.Docimium
Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.Drizipara
Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.Kahramanmaraş Archaeology Museum
Kahramanmaraş Archaeology Museum is a museum in Kahramanmaraş, Turkey. The museum is on Azerbeycan Boulevard in Kahramanmaraş. Its geographic coordinates are 37°34′26″N 36°55′34″E.List of ancient settlements in Turkey
Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.Lyrbe
Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.Osmaniye Province
Osmaniye Province (Turkish: Osmaniye ili) is a Turkish province located in southern Turkey. It existed as a province by the name Cebel-i Bereket (meaning "Fertile Mountain") in the early republic until 1933, when it was incorporated into Adana Province. It was made a province again in 1996. It covers an area of 3,767 km2 and has a population of 479,221 (2010 est). The province is situated in Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region.
The capital of the province is Osmaniye (Population: 194,000).
The next largest towns are Kadirli (Population: 83,618) and Düziçi (Population: 42,000).Phellus
Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.
Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).Rhodiapolis
Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.Stratonicea (Lydia)
Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.Tyana
Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.Üçayaklı ruins
The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.