Dominion of Pakistan

Pakistan[4] (Bengali: পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য pakistan ôdhirajyô; Urdu: مملکتِ پاکستانmumlikāt-ē pākistān), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan. The dominion, which included much of modern-day Pakistan and Bangladesh, was conceived under the two-nation theory as an independent country composed of the Muslim-majority areas of the former British India.

To begin with, it did not include the princely states of Pakistan, which acceded slowly between 1947 and 1948. Dominion status ended in 1956 with the creation of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which was administratively split into West Pakistan and East Pakistan. In 1971 East Pakistan seceded from the union to become Bangladesh.

Pakistan[1]

مملکتِ پاکستان
পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য
1947–1956[2]
Pakistan in 1956
Pakistan in 1956
CapitalKarachi
Common languagesEnglisha, Urdub, Bengalic
GovernmentFederated parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Monarch 
• 1947–1952
George VI
• 1952–1956
Elizabeth II
Governor-General 
• 1947–1948
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
• 1948–1951
Khawaja Nazimuddin
• 1951–1955
Malik Ghulam
• 1955–1956
Iskander Mirza (Last)
Prime Minister 
• 1947–1951
Liaquat Ali Khan
• 1951–1953
Khawaja Nazimuddin
• 1953–1955
Muhammad Ali Bogra
• 1955–1956
Muhammad Ali
LegislatureConstituent Assembly
History 
• Formation
14 August 1947[3]
23 March 1956
Area
1956943,665 km2 (364,351 sq mi)
CurrencyPakistani rupee
ISO 3166 codePK
Preceded by
Succeeded by
British Raj
Interim Government of India
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Today part of Pakistan
 Bangladesh
a. Official Language: 14 August 1947
b. First National Language: 23 February 1948
c. Second National Language: 29 February 1956

Partition of British India

Section 1 of the Indian Independence Act 1947 provided that from "the fifteenth day of August, nineteen hundred and forty-seven, two independent dominions shall be set up in India, to be known respectively as India and Pakistan." The Dominion of India held seventy-five percent of the territory and eighty percent of the population of British India and was treated by the United Nations as the successor state to the former British India. As it was already a member of the United Nations, India continued to hold its seat there and did not apply for a new membership. However, Pakistan needed to apply to join. It was admitted as a UN member on 30 September 1947, a few weeks after its independence.[5] The British monarch became head of state of the new dominion, with Pakistan sharing a king with the United Kingdom and the other Dominions of the British Commonwealth, but the monarch's constitutional roles were delegated to the Governor-General of Pakistan, and most real powers resided with the new government headed by Jinnah.

Before August 1947, about half of the area of present-day Pakistan was part of the Presidencies and provinces of British India, in which the agents of the sovereign as Emperor of India had full authority, while the remainder was a series of princely states in subsidiary alliances with the British, enjoying internal self-government. The British abandoned these alliances in August 1947, leaving the states entirely independent, and between 1947 and 1948 the states all acceded to Pakistan, while retaining internal self-government for several years.

Territory

The dominion began as a federation of five provinces: East Bengal (later to become Bangladesh), West Punjab, Balochistan, Sindh, and the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). Each province had its own governor, who was appointed by the Governor-General of Pakistan. In addition, over the following year the princely states of Pakistan, which covered a significant area of West Pakistan, acceded to Pakistan. They included Bahawalpur, Khairpur, Swat, Dir, Hunza, Chitral, Makran, and the Khanate of Kalat.

Radcliffe Line

The controversial Radcliffe Award, not published until 17 August 1947 specified the Radcliffe Line which demarcated the border between the parts of British India allocated to the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan. The Radcliffe Boundary Commission sought to separate the Muslim-majority regions in the east and northwest from the areas with a Hindu majority. This entailed the partition of two British provinces which did not have a uniform majority — Bengal and Punjab. The western part of Punjab became the Pakistani province of Punjab and the eastern part became the Indian state of Punjab. Bengal was similarly divided into East Bengal (in Pakistan) and West Bengal (in India).

The Radcliffe commission had no power to divide the territory of the princely states of India.

Reign of Elizabeth II

During the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953, she was crowned as Queen of seven independent Commonwealth countries, including Pakistan,[6] which was still a dominion at the time, whereas India was not, as the dominion of India had become a republic under the new Indian constitution of 1950.

Pakistan ceased being a dominion on 23 March 1956 on the adoption of a republican constitution.[7] However, Pakistan became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations.

The Queen visited Pakistan as Head of the Commonwealth in 1961 and 1997, accompanied by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

Pakistan left the Commonwealth in 1972 over the issue of the former East Pakistan province becoming independent as Bangladesh. It rejoined in 1989, then was suspended from the Commonwealth twice: firstly from 18 October 1999 to 22 May 2004 and secondly from 22 November 2007 to 22 May 2008.

List of monarchs

Portrait Name Birth Death Monarch From Monarch Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
King George VI of England, formal photo portrait, circa 1940-1946 King George VI 14 December 1895 6 February 1952 15 August 1947 6 February 1952 None (position created). Emperor of India before partition.
Queen Elizabeth II - 1953-Dress Queen Elizabeth II 21 April 1926 6 February 1952 23 March 1956 Daughter of George VI

References

  1. ^ As to official name being just "Pakistan" and not "Dominion of Pakistan": Indian Independence Act 1947, Section1.-(i) As from the fifteenth day of August, nineteen hundred and forty-seven, two independent Dominions shall be set up in India, to be known respectively as India and Pakistan."
  2. ^ Timothy C. Winegard (29 December 2011). Indigenous Peoples of the British Dominions and the First World War (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1107014930. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
  3. ^ Singh Vipul (1 September 2009). Longman History & Civics Icse 10. Pearson Education India. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-81-317-2042-4.
  4. ^ As to official name being just "Pakistan" and not "Dominion of Pakistan": Indian Independence Act 1947, Section1.-(i) As from the fifteenth day of August, nineteen hundred and forty-seven, two independent Dominions shall be set up in India, to be known respectively as India and Pakistan."
  5. ^ [1] at legalserviceindia.com
  6. ^ "The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II". Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  7. ^ John Stewart Bowman (2000). Columbia chronologies of Asian history and culture. Columbia University Press. p. 372. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4. Retrieved 22 March 2011.

Further reading

1948 in India

Events in the year 1948 in India.

Baghdad Pact

The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was a military alliance of the Cold War. It was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom and dissolved in 1979.

US pressure and promises of military and economic aid were key in the negotiations leading to the agreement, but the United States could not initially participate. John Foster Dulles, who was involved in the negotiations as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower, claimed that was due to "the pro-Israel lobby and the difficulty of obtaining Congressional Approval." Others said that the reason was "for purely technical reasons of budgeting procedures."In 1958, the US joined the military committee of the alliance. It is generally viewed as one of the least successful of the Cold War alliances.The organization's headquarters were in Baghdad, Iraq, in 1955 to 1958 and in Ankara, Turkey, in 1958 to 1979. Cyprus was also an important location for CENTO because of its location in the Middle East and the British Sovereign Base Areas on the island.

Bengal Provincial Muslim League

The Bengal Provincial Muslim League (BPML) was the branch of the All India Muslim League in the British Indian province of Bengal. It was established in Dacca on 2 March 1912. Its official language was Bengali. The party played an important role in the Bengal Legislative Council and in the Bengal Legislative Assembly, where two of the Prime Ministers of Bengal were from the party. It was vital to the creation of the Dominion of Pakistan, particularly after its election victory in 1946.

In 1929, a faction of the party broke away as the Praja Party. Members of the BPML later became prominent statesmen of Pakistan and Bangladesh, including holding offices such as the Prime Minister of Pakistan (Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin, Mohammad Ali of Bogra, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Nurul Amin), Governor General of Pakistan (Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin), Chief Minister of East Bengal (Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin, Nurul Amin, A. K. Fazlul Huq and Ataur Rahman Khan), President of Bangladesh (Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Mohammad Mohammadullah and Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad), Vice President of Bangladesh (Syed Nazrul Islam) and Prime Minister of Bangladesh (Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Tajuddin Ahmad, Muhammad Mansur Ali and Ataur Rahman Khan).

Bengali language movement

The Bengali Language Movement (Bengali: ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolôn) was a political movement in former East Pakistan (currently Bangladesh) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script.

When the Dominion of Pakistan was formed by the partition of India in 1947, it was composed of various ethnic and linguistic groups, with the geographically non-contiguous East Bengal province (that was renamed in 1956 as East Pakistan) having a mainly Bengali population. In 1948, the Government of the Dominion of Pakistan ordained Urdu as the sole national language, sparking extensive protests among the Bengali-speaking majority of East Bengal. Facing rising sectarian tensions and mass discontent with the new law, the government outlawed public meetings and rallies. The students of the University of Dhaka and other political activists defied the law and organised a protest on 21 February 1952. The movement reached its climax when police killed student demonstrators on that day. The deaths provoked widespread civil unrest. After years of conflict, the central government relented and granted official status to the Bengali language in 1956.

The Language Movement catalysed the assertion of Bengali national identity in East Bengal and later East Pakistan, and became a forerunner to Bengali nationalist movements, including the 6-Point Movement and subsequently the Bangladesh Liberation War and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. In Bangladesh, 21 February (Ekushey February) is observed as Language Movement Day, a national holiday. The Shaheed Minar monument was constructed near Dhaka Medical College in memory of the movement and its victims. In 1999, UNESCO declared 21 February as International Mother Language Day, in tribute to the Language Movement and the ethno-linguistic rights of people around the world.

British heritage of Pakistan

The Dominion of Pakistan (later the 'Islamic Republic of Pakistan') was founded in 1947 as a result of the independence of India from British rule, when India was simultaneously partitioned to create the new country of Pakistan (in two non-contiguous halves called East Pakistan & West Pakistan). The majority of Pakistanis (living in East Pakistan) seceded in 1971 as a result of the Language Movement followed by the Bangladesh War of Independence, and West Pakistan has continued the Pakistan national identity since then. The influence of British culture can be seen in both the former halves of the erstwhile Dominion of Pakistan.

The British had left an influential mark in language, public administration, education, architecture, communication, the political system, thinking and culture of the lands that Pakistan inherited. These marks are the British heritage of Pakistan which is traced in deep life cycles of common man's life in Pakistan.

The 200 years of British rule that radically reshaped the superstructure of the country can clearly be seen in average life in Pakistan today.

Dir (princely state)

Dir (or Dhir) was a small Muslim princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India within the Northwest Frontier Province until August 1947 when the British left the subcontinent. For some months it was unaligned, until February 1948, when its accession to the new Dominion of Pakistan was accepted.

Dir ceased to exist as a state in 1969, when it was incorporated into Pakistan. The territory it once covered, some 5,282 km2 (2,039 sq mi), is today within the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, forming two districts called Upper Dir and Lower Dir.

East Bengal

East Bengal (Bengali: পূর্ব বাংলা Purbô Bangla) was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh. With its coastline on the Bay of Bengal, it bordered India and Burma. It was located very near to, but did not share a border with, Nepal, China, the Kingdom of Sikkim and the Kingdom of Bhutan. Its capital was Dacca.

The Partition of British India, which divided Bengal along religious lines, established the borders of Muslim majority East Bengal. The province existed during the reign of two monarchs, including George VI and Elizabeth II; and three Governors-General, including Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Khawaja Nazimuddin and Ghulam Muhammad. Its provincial governors included a British administrator and several Pakistani statesmen. Its chief ministership was held by leading Bengali politicians.

East Bengal was the most populous and cosmopolitan province in the dominion. East Bengal was a hub of political movements, including the Bengali Language Movement and pro-democracy groups. It was dissolved and replaced by East Pakistan during the One Unit scheme implemented by Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra.

The provincial legislature was the East Bengal Legislative Assembly.

Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention (Revised), 1949

Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention (Revised), 1949 is an International Labour Organization Convention.

It was established in 1949, with the preamble stating:

Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to the revision of the Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention, 1933,..

Flag of Pakistan

The national flag of Pakistan (Urdu: قومی پرچم‬‎, Qaumī Pārc̱am) was adopted in its present form during a meeting of the Constituent Assembly on August 11, 1947, just three days before the country's independence, when it became the official flag of the Dominion of Pakistan. It was afterwards retained by the current-day Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The flag is a green field with a white crescent moon and five-rayed star at its centre, and a vertical white stripe at the hoist side. Though the green colour is mandated only as 'dark green', its official and most consistent representation is Pakistan green, which is shaded distinctively darker.

The flag is referred to in the national anthem as the Flag of the Crescent and Star. It is flown on several important days of the year including Republic Day, Independence Day and Defence Day. It is often hoisted every morning at schools, offices and government buildings to the sound of the national anthem and lowered again before sunset. A notable flag raising and lowering ceremony is carried out each day with great pomp and enthusiasm at the Wagah Border attended by hundreds of spectators. The leadership of the Muslim League adopted the flag of the Dominion of Pakistan on 11 August 1947. The government of Pakistan has pronounced rules about the flying of the flag. It is to be displayed at full mast on 23 March of each year, marking the adoption of the Lahore Resolution in the 1940s and the Declaration of the Republic of Pakistan in 1956, and on 14 August in celebration of Independence Day, when Pakistan was carved out from British India as a home for Indian Muslims. The flag of Pakistan is also mentioned in Pakistan's own national anthem in the third verse reading "پرچمِ ستاره و ہلال رہبرِ ترقّی و کمال"‬ which translates to "Flag with the Star and Crescent, the leader of progress and ascent".

Geneva Convention (1929)

The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929. Its official name is the Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva July 27, 1929. It entered into force 19 June 1931. It is this version of the Geneva Conventions which covered the treatment of prisoners of war during World War II. It is the predecessor of the Third Geneva Convention signed in 1949.

On their web site, the International Committee of the Red Cross states that:

Provisions concerning the treatment of prisoners of war are contained in the Hague Regulations of 1899 and 1907. In the course of World War I they revealed several deficiencies as well as a lack of precision. Such defects were partly overcome by special agreements made between belligerents in Berne in 1917 and 1918. In 1921, the International Red Cross Conference held at Geneva expressed the wish that a special convention on the treatment of prisoners of war be adopted. The International Committee of the Red Cross drew up a draft convention which was submitted to the Diplomatic Conference convened at Geneva in 1929. The Convention does not replace but only completes the provisions of the Hague regulations. The most important innovations consisted in the prohibition of reprisals and collective penalties, the organization of prisoners' work, the designation, by the prisoners, of representatives and the control exercised by protecting Powers.

Khanate of Kalat

The Khanate of Kalat (Balochi: خانات ءِ قلات‎) was a princely state that existed from 1666 to 1955 in the centre of the modern-day province of Balochistan, Pakistan. Prior to that they were subjects of Mughal emperor Akbar. Ahmedzai Baloch and Brahui Khan ruled the state independently until 1839, when it became a self-governing state in a subsidiary alliance with British India. After the signature of the Treaty of Mastung by the Khan of Kalat and the Baloch Sardars in 1876, Kalat became part of the Baluchistan Agency. It was briefly independent from 12 August 1947 till 27 March 1948, later the Khan acceded his state to the new Dominion of Pakistan. It remained a princely state of Pakistan until 1955, when it was incorporated into the country.

Language Movement Day

Language Movement Day or Language Revolution Day or Bengali Language Movement Day (Bengali: ভাষা আন্দোলন দিবস Bhasha Andolôn Dibôs), 21 February (Ekushey February), which is also referred to as Language Martyrs' Day or Martyrs' Day (Bengali: শহীদ দিবস Shôhid Dibôs), is a national holiday of Bangladesh to commemorate protests and sacrifices to protect Bengali as a national language during the Bengali Language Movement of 1952.

Liaquat–Nehru Pact

The Liaquat–Nehru Pact or Delhi Pact was a bilateral treaty between the two South-Asian states, India and Pakistan, whereby refugees were allowed to return unmolested to dispose off their property, abducted women and looted property were to be returned, forced conversions were unrecognized, and minority rights were confirmed. The treaty was signed in New Delhi by the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru and the Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan on April 8, 1950. The treaty was the outcome of six days of talks sought to guarantee the rights of minorities in both countries after the Partition of India and to avert another war between them.

Minority commissions were set up in both countries. More than one million refugees migrated from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) to West Bengal in India.

List of Indian High Commissioners to Pakistan

The following people have served as High Commissioners or Ambassadors from India to Pakistan. Pakistan vacated its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations from January 1972 until August 1989. From 1999 until 2004, and during 2007-2008, Pakistan was suspended from the Commonwealth of Nations. During those periods, India and Pakistan exchanged Ambassadors instead of High Commissioners.

Moder Gorob

Moder Gorob or Our Pride is a sculpture situated in front of Bangla Academy building in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It was dedicated to the memory of those killed during the Bengali Language Movement demonstrations of 1952, when protesters demanding Bengali as a state language of former Dominion of Pakistan were massacred by Pakistan Police.

Pakistan (disambiguation)

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a South Asian country.

Pakistan may also refer to:

Dominion of Pakistan, the country founded in 1947 consisting of the present countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh

West Pakistan, the name of the western wing of Pakistan until 1971

East Pakistan, a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1947 and 1971 (now Bangladesh)

Little Pakistan, an ethnic enclave populated by overseas Pakistanis

Pakistan International Airlines, Pakistani airline

Pakistanis, the people of Pakistan

Pakistan, India, a village in Purnia district of Bihar, India

Pakestan, a village in the Ardabil Province of Iran

Princely states of Pakistan

The princely states of Pakistan (Urdu: پاکستان کی نوابی ریاستیں) were former princely states of the British Indian Empire which acceded to the new Dominion of Pakistan between 1947 and 1948, following the Partition of (British) India and its independence.

At the time of the withdrawal of British forces from the subcontinent on 15 August 1947, West Pakistan was less than half of its ultimate size. It took a year of negotiations, threats, and accidents to bring the princely states into Pakistan, and a long process of integration followed.

Punjab States Agency

The Punjab States Agency was a political office of the British Indian Empire. The agency was created in the 1930s, on the model of the Central India Agency and Rajputana Agency, and dealt with forty princely states in northwest India formerly dealt with by the British province of the Punjab.After 1947, most of the states chose to accede to the Union of India, the rest to the Dominion of Pakistan.

Secretary of State for India

His (or Her) Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for India, known for short as the India Secretary or the Indian Secretary, was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of the British Indian Empire (usually known simply as 'the Raj' or British India), Aden, and Burma. The post was created in 1858 when the East India Company's rule in Bengal ended and India, except for the Princely States, was brought under the direct administration of the government in Whitehall in London, beginning the official colonial period under the British Empire.

In 1937, the India Office was reorganised which separated Burma and Aden under a new Burma Office, but the same Secretary of State headed both Departments and a new title was established as His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for India and Burma. The India Office and its Secretary of State were abolished in August 1947, when the United Kingdom granted independence in the Indian Independence Act, which created two new independent dominions, the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. Burma soon achieved independence separately in early 1948.

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