Dominion of India

India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with King George VI as the head of state between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950. It was created by the Indian Independence Act 1947 and was transformed into the Republic of India by the promulgation of the Constitution of India in 1950.[3]

The King was represented by the Governor-General of India. However, the Governor-General was not designated Viceroy, as had been customary under the British Raj. The office of Viceroy was abolished on independence. Two governors-general held office between independence and India's transformation into a republic: Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (1947–48) and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (1948–50). Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister of India throughout.

India

1947–1950
India Administrative Divisions 1951
CapitalNew Delhi
GovernmentFederal constitutional monarchy
Monarch 
• 1947–1950
George VI
Governor-General 
• 1947–1948
Louis Mountbatten
• 1948–1950
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
Prime Minister 
• 1947–1950
Jawaharlal Nehru[2]
LegislatureConstituent Assembly
History 
15 August 1947
22 October 1947
26 January 1950
Area
19503,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)
CurrencyIndian rupee
ISO 3166 codeIN
Preceded by
Succeeded by
British Raj
Republic of India

History

Partition of India

The Partition of British India on 15 August 1947[4] led to the creation of two sovereign states, both dominions: Pakistan (which later split into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh in 1971) and India (later the Republic of India).

Since the 1920s the Indian independence movement had been demanding Pūrṇa Swarāj (complete self-rule) for the Indian nation and the establishment of the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan was a major victory for the Swarajis. Nevertheless, the Partition was controversial among the people, and resulted in significant political instability and displacement.[5]

Aftermath

Most of the 565[6] princely states within Indian territory acceded to the Dominion of India. The Hindu-majority Junagadh State located in modern-day Gujarat attempted to accede to Pakistan under Nawab Sir Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III, who was a Muslim. It was annexed militarily by the Indian government. Similarly, the State of Hyderabad sought to remain independent and was also annexed by India in 1948.[5]

Conflict with Pakistan

The newly created states of Pakistan and India both joined the Commonwealth, a platform for cooperation between the countries that had been part of the British Empire. Nevertheless, they soon found themselves at war beginning in October 1947, over the contested princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistani militants entered the state, alarming Maharaja Hari Singh who appealed to India for military intervention, in exchange for the signing of the Instrument of Accession and annexation into India. The region is contested to this day and two other Indo-Pakistan wars occurred as part of the Kashmir conflict.[5]

Hostilities and Mahatma Gandhi's attempt to reconcile the two nations via a fast led to his assassination in 1948 by Nathuram Godse, further increasing tensions between the two new states.

The Dominion of India began working towards a constitution based on liberal democracy immediately after independence.

Republic of India

The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of India, drafted by a committee headed by B. R. Ambedkar, on 26 November 1949. India abolished the role of the constitutional monarchy and became a federal, democratic republic after its constitution came into effect on 26 January 1950; henceforth celebrated as Republic Day. The governmental structure was similar to that of the United Kingdom but within a federal system. Rajendra Prasad became the first President of India.

Government

Monarchy

The sovereign and head of state of the dominion of India was a hereditary monarch, George VI, who was also the sovereign of the United Kingdom and the other dominions in the British Commonwealth of Nations. His constitutional roles were mostly carried out by the Governor-General of India. The royal succession was governed by the Act of Settlement 1701.

The monarchy was abolished on 26 January 1950, when India became a republic within the Commonwealth, the first Commonwealth country to do so.

List of monarchs

The King in relation to independent India held the following official style and titles:

  • 15 August 1947 to 22 June 1948: His Majesty George the Sixth, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India[7]
  • 22 June 1948 to 26 January 1950: His Majesty George the Sixth, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith [8]
House of Windsor
Portrait Name Birth Death Monarch From Monarch Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
King George VI of England, formal photo portrait, circa 1940-1946 King George VI 14 December 1895 6 February 1952 15 August 1947 26 January 1950 Son of George V, Emperor of India

List of Governors-General

Flag of the Governor-General of India (1947–1950)
Standard of the Governor-General (1947–1950)
Name
(birth–death)
Picture Took office Left office Appointer
Governors-General India, 1947–1950
The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma[9]
(1900–1979)
Lord Mountbatten 4 Allan Warren 15 August 1947 21 June 1948 George VI
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
(1878–1972)
C Rajagopalachari 1944 21 June 1948 26 January 1950

List of Prime Ministers

Name
(birth–death); constituency
Portrait Party
(Alliance)
Term of office[10] Elections
(Lok Sabha)
Council of
Ministers
Appointed by
1 Jawaharlal Nehru
(1889–1964)
MP for Phulpur
Jnehru Indian National Congress 15 August
1947
26 January
1950
Nehru I Lord Mountbatten

See also

References

  1. ^ "Press Communique' - State Emblem" (PDF). Press Information Bureau of India - Archive. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 February 2018.
  2. ^ As Prime Minister of India until 1964.
  3. ^ Winegard, Timothy C. (2011), Indigenous Peoples of the British Dominions and the First World War, Cambridge University Press, pp. 2–, ISBN 978-1-107-01493-0
  4. ^ Section 1 of the Indian Independence Act, 1947
  5. ^ a b c India: A History. New York, USA: Grove Press. 2000. ISBN 978-0-8021-3797-5.
  6. ^ "Indian Princely States before 1947 A-J".
  7. ^ Heraldic.org website
  8. ^ "No. 38330". The London Gazette. 22 June 1948. p. 3647. Royal Proclamation of 22 June 1948, made in accordance with the Indian Independence Act 1947, 10 & 11 GEO. 6. CH. 30. ('Section 7: ...(2) The assent of the Parliament of the United Kingdom is hereby given to the omission from the Royal Style and Titles of the words "Indiae Imperator" and the words "Emperor of India" and to the issue by His Majesty for that purpose of His Royal Proclamation under the Great Seal of the Realm.')
  9. ^ Created Earl Mountbatten of Burma on 28 October 1947.
  10. ^ "Former Prime Ministers". PM India. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
1947 in India

Events in the year 1947 in India. It was a very eventful year as it became independent from the British crown, resulting in the split of India and Pakistan. Many people died during partition and India became a democracy.

Accession day

An Accession Day is usually the anniversary of the date on which a monarch or executive takes office. The earliest records of accession celebrations date from the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England, and the custom is now observed in many nations.

Accession Day in India's Jammu and Kashmir commemorates the day in 1947 when the area joined the Dominion of India.

Battle of Hyderabad

The Battle of Dubbo, sometime called as The Battle of Hyderabad was fought on 24 March 1843 between the forces of British East India Company and the Talpur Emirs of Sindh near Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. A small British force, led by Captain James Outram, were attacked by the Talpurs and forced to make a fort of the British residence, which they successfully defended until they finally escaped to a waiting river steamer. After the British victory at Meeanee (also spelt Miani), Charles Napier continued his advance to the Indus River and attacked the Sindh capital of Hyderabad. Hyderabad was defended by 20,000 troops and baloch tribes under the command of His Highness Mir Sher Muhammad Khan Talpur "Sher-i-Sindh" and Hosh Mohammad sheedi. Charles Napier with a force of only 3,000 men but with artillery support stormed the city. During the battle Hosh Mohammad sheedi was killed and his forces routed; Talpurs resistance collapsed and Sindh came under British rule.

Britain–India–Nepal Tripartite Agreement

The Tripartite Agreement between the United Kingdom, India and Nepal was a treaty signed in 1947 concerning the rights of Gurkhas in military service.

Central Provinces and Berar

The Central Provinces and Berar was a province of British India and later the Dominion of India which existed from 1936 to 1950. It was formed by the merger of the Central Provinces with the province of Berar, which was territory leased by the British from the Hyderabad State. Through an agreement signed on 5 November 1902, 6th Nizam Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI leased Berar permanently to the British for an annual payment of 25 lakhs Rupees. Lord Curzon decided to merge Berar with the Central Provinces, and this was proclaimed on 17 September 1903.The Central Provinces was formed in 1861 by the merger of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories and Nagpur Province. Administration of the Berar region of the Hyderabad princely state was assigned to the Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces in 1903, and for administrative purposes, Berar was merged with the Central Provinces to form the Central Provinces & Berar on October 24, 1936. After Indian Independence in 1947, a number of princely states were merged into the Central Provinces and Berar, which, when the Constitution of India went into effect in 1950, became the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat, merged with Madhya Pradesh in 1956, also meaning Central Province.

As its name suggests, the province was situated in the center of the Indian peninsula. It comprised large portions of the broad belt of hill and plateau which interposes between the plains of the Ganges and the Deccan plateau. The Central Provinces and Berar were bounded on the north and northeast by the Central India Agency, including the Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand agencies, and along the northern edge of Sagar District by the United Provinces of Agra & Oudh; on the west by the princely states of Bhopal, Indore and by the Kandesh District of Bombay Presidency; on the south by Hyderabad State, and on the east by Orissa (till 1937, a part of Bengal Presidency) and the Eastern States Agency.

Darkoti

Darkoti State was one of the Princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. Its last ruler signed the accession to the Dominion of India on 15 April 1948. Currently, it is part of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.

Indian Independence Medal

The Indian Independence Medal was instituted by George VI in 1949 as a commemorative medal. It was used to reward all members of the Indian armed forces serving on 15 August 1947 and all British military personnel for their contribution after the independence of the Dominion of India in August 1947.

Instrument of Accession

The Instrument of Accession was a legal document first introduced by the Government of India Act 1935 and used in 1947 to enable each of the rulers of the princely states under British paramountcy to join one of the new dominions of India or Pakistan created by the Partition of British India.

Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir)

The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharaja Hari Singh, ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947. By executing this document under the provisions of the Indian Independence Act 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh agreed to accede to the Dominion of India.In a letter sent to Maharaja Hari Singh on 27 October 1947, the then Governor-General of India, Lord Mountbatten accepted the accession with a remark, "it is my Government's wish that as soon as law and order have been restored in Jammu and Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invader the question of the State's accession should be settled by a reference to the people." Lord Mountbatten's remark and the offer made by the Government of India to conduct a plebiscite or referendum to determine the future status of Kashmir led to a dispute between India and Pakistan regarding the legality of the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India. India claims that the accession is unconditional and final while Pakistan maintains that the accession is fraudulent.The accession to India is celebrated on Accession Day, which is held annually on 26 October.The full text of the Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir) executed by Maharaja Hari Singh on 26 October 1947 and accepted by Lord Mountbatten of Burma, Governor-General of India, on 27 October 1947 (excluding the schedule mentioned in its third point) is as follows:

Some scholars have questioned the official date of the signing of the accession document by the Maharaja. They maintain that it was signed on 27 October rather than 26 October. However, the fact that the Governor General accepted the accession on 27 October, the day the Indian troops were airlifted to Kashmir, is generally accepted. An Indian commentator, Prem Shankar Jha, has argued that the accession was actually signed by the Maharaja on 25 October 1947, just before he left Srinagar for Jammu.

Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)

Jammu and Kashmir was, from 1846 until 1952, a princely state of the British Empire in India and ruled by a Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty. The state was created in 1846 from the territories previously under Sikh Empire after the First Anglo-Sikh War. The East India Company annexed the Kashmir Valley, Jammu, Ladakh, and Gilgit-Baltistan from the Sikhs, and then transferred it to Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu in return for an indemnity payment of 7,500,000 Nanakshahee Rupees.

At the time of the British withdrawal from India, Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of the state, preferred to become independent and remain neutral between the successor dominions of India and Pakistan. However, an uprising in the western districts of the State followed by an attack by raiders from the neighbouring Northwest Frontier Province, supported by Pakistan, put an end to his plans for independence. On 26 October 1947, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession joining the Dominion of India in return for military aid. The western and northern districts presently known as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan passed to the control of Pakistan, while the remaining territory became the Indian state Jammu and Kashmir.

Karachi Agreement

The Karachi Agreement of 1949 was signed by the military representatives of India and Pakistan, supervised by the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan, establishing a cease-fire line in Kashmir following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. It established a cease-fire line which has been monitored by United Nations observers from the United Nations since then.

Line of succession to the former throne of Vadodara (Baroda)

The line of succession to the former throne of Vadodara (Baroda), one of the pre-eminent Indian salute states, was by male primogeniture. Baroda State acceded to the Dominion of India in 1949.

List of High Commissioners of the United Kingdom to India

Countries belonging to the Commonwealth of Nations exchange High Commissioners rather than Ambassadors. Though there are a few technical differences (for instance, whereas Ambassadors present their diplomatic credentials to the host country's head of state, High Commissioners are accredited to the head of government), they are in practice the same office. The following persons have served as British High Commissioner to India.

List of ambassadors of the United States to India

The United States Ambassador to India is the chief diplomatic representative of United States in India. The U.S. Ambassador's office is situated at the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi.

Mudhol State

Mudhol State was a princely state during the British Raj. It was one of the former states of the Southern Maratha Country and its capital was the city of Mudhol in present-day Bagalkot District of Karnataka State in India. The last ruler was HH Shrimant Raja Bhairavsinhrao Malojirao Ghorpade II. Mudhol acceded to the Dominion of India on 8 March 1948, and is currently a part of Karnataka state.

Covering an area of 508 km2 (196 sq mi), Mudhol State enjoyed revenue estimated at £20,000 in 1901. According to the 1901 census, the population was 63,001, with the population of the town itself at 8,359 in that year.

Royal Indian Navy

The Royal Indian Navy (RIN) was the naval force of British India and the Dominion of India. Along with the Presidency armies, later the Indian Army, and from 1932 the Indian Air Force, it was one of the Armed Forces of British India.

From its origins in 1612 as the East India Company's Marine, the Navy underwent various changes, including changes to its name. Over time it was named the Bombay Marine (1686), the Bombay Marine Corps (1829), the Indian Navy (1830), Her Majesty's Indian Navy (1858), the Bombay and Bengal Marine (1863), the Indian Defence Force (1871), Her Majesty's Indian Marine (1877) and the Royal Indian Marine (1892). It was finally named the Royal Indian Navy in 1934. However, it remained a relatively small force until the Second World War, when it was greatly expanded.

After the partition of India into two independent states in 1947, the Navy's one-thirds of the assets and personnel were split with the new Royal Pakistan Navy. Approximately two thirds of the fleet remained with the Union of India, as did all land assets within its territory, and this force, still under the name of "Royal Indian Navy", became the navy of the Dominion of India until the country became a republic on 26 January 1950. It was then renamed the Indian Navy.

State Emblem of India

The State Emblem of India, as the national emblem of India is called, is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, preserved in the Sarnath Museum near Varanasi, India. A representation of Lion Capital of Ashoka was initially adopted as the emblem of the Dominion of India in December 1947. The current version of the emblem was officially adopted on 26 January 1950, the day that India became a republic.

United Provinces

United Provinces may refer to:

Former names of present-day Uttar Pradesh, India:

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (1902–1921), a former province of British India

United Provinces of British India (1921–1937), a former province of British India

United Provinces (1937–1950), a former province of British India & Dominion of IndiaUnited Provinces of New Granada, (1810–1816), a Confederacy formed after the independence of Colombia

United Provinces of Central America (1823–1838), a former country in Central America

United Provinces of Central Italy (1859–1860), a short-lived client state of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia

United Provinces of China (1911–1912), was an early translation of the Republic of China in Xinhai Revolution

United Provinces of Heilongjiang and Nenjiang (1947), a short-lived Communist Chinese province; now Heilongjiang

United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (1816–1831), official name of Argentina.

United Provinces, another name for the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), now the Netherlands

Wadiyar dynasty

The Wadiyar (alternatively spelt Wodeyer or Odeyer) dynasty was a Hindu dynasty in Indian subcontinent that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1950, with a brief interruption in the late 1700s. The kingdom was incorporated into the Dominion of India after its independence from British rule.

Current
Former

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