Dominican Civil War

The Dominican Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Dominicana) took place between April 24, 1965, and September 3, 1965, in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. It started when civilian and military supporters of former President Juan Bosch overthrew acting President Donald Reid Cabral. The coup prompted General Elías Wessin y Wessin to organize elements of the military loyal to President Reid ("loyalists"), initiating an armed campaign against the so-called constitutionalist rebels. Allegations of foreign support for the rebels led to a United States intervention in the conflict, which later transformed into an Organization of American States occupation of the country. Elections were held in 1966, in the aftermath of which Joaquín Balaguer was elected into the presidential seat. Later in the same year international troops departed from the country.

Background

Juan Bosch (1963)
Constitutionalist troops attempted to reinstate overthrown President Juan Emilio Bosch Gaviño into power.

On November 19, 1911, General Luis Tejera led a group of conspirators in an ambush on the horse-drawn carriage of Dominican President Ramón Cáceres. During the shootout, Cáceres was killed and Tejera wounded in the leg. In the ensuing power vacuum, General Alfredo Victoria, commander of the army, seized control and forced the Congress to elect his uncle, Eladio Victoria, as the new president. The general was widely suspected of bribing the Congress, and his uncle, who took office on February 27, 1912, lacked legitimacy. The former president Horacio Vásquez soon returned from exile to lead his followers, the horacistas, in a popular uprising against the new government.[5]

The result was several years of great political instability and civil war. U.S. mediation by the William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson administrations achieved only a short respite each time. A political deadlock in 1914 was broken after an ultimatum by Wilson telling Dominicans to choose a president or see the United States impose one. A provisional president was chosen, and later the same year relatively free elections put former president (1899–1902) Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra back in power. To achieve a more broadly supported government, Jimenes named opposition individuals to his Cabinet. But this brought no peace and, with his former Secretary of War Desiderio Arias maneuvering to depose him and despite a U.S. offer of military aid against Arias, Jimenes resigned on May 7, 1916.[6]

Wilson thus ordered the U.S. occupation of the Dominican Republic (United States occupation of the Dominican Republic (1916–24)). U.S. Marines landed on May 16, 1916, and had control of the country two months later. The military government established by the United States, led by Rear Admiral Harry Shepard Knapp, was widely repudiated by Dominicans, with many factions within the country leading guerrilla campaigns against U.S. forces.[6] The occupation regime kept most Dominican laws and institutions and largely pacified the general population. The occupying government also revived the Dominican economy, reduced the nation's debt, built a road network that at last interconnected all regions of the country, and created a professional National Guard to replace the warring partisan units.[6]

Vigorous opposition to the occupation continued, nevertheless, and after World War I it increased in the United States as well. President Warren G. Harding (1921–23), Wilson's successor, worked to put an end to the occupation, as he had promised to do during his campaign. The U.S. government's rule ended in October 1922, and elections were held in March 1924.[6] The victor was former president (1902–03) Horacio Vásquez Lajara, who had cooperated with the United States. He was inaugurated on July 13, and the last U.S. forces left in September. Vásquez gave the country six years of stable governance, in which political and civil rights were respected and the economy grew strongly, in a relatively peaceful atmosphere.[6][7]

A rebellion (or coup d'état[8][9]) against President Horacio Vásquez broke out in February 1930 in Santiago. Rafael Trujillo secretly cut a deal with rebel leader Rafael Estrella Ureña; in return for Trujillo letting Estrella take power, Estrella would allow Trujillo to run for president in new elections. As the rebels marched toward Santo Domingo, Vásquez ordered Trujillo to suppress them. However, feigning "neutrality", Trujillo kept his men in barracks, allowing Estrella's rebels to take the capital virtually unopposed. On March 3, Estrella was proclaimed acting president, with Trujillo confirmed as head of the police and of the army. As per their agreement, Trujillo became the presidential nominee of the newly formed Patriotic Coalition of Citizens (Spanish: Coalición patriotica de los ciudadanos), with Estrella as his running mate.[10] The other candidates became targets of harassment by the army, and withdrew when it became apparent that Trujillo would be the only person who would be allowed to effectively campaign. Ultimately, the Trujillo-Estrella ticket was proclaimed victorious with an implausible 99 percent of the vote. According to the American ambassador, Trujillo received more votes than actual voters.[11]

On May 30, 1961, Trujillo was shot and killed when his blue 1957 Chevrolet Bel Air was ambushed on a road outside the Dominican capital.[12] He was the victim of an ambush plotted by a number of men, among them General Juan Tomás Díaz, Antonio de la Maza, Amado García Guerrero, and General Antonio Imbert Barrera.[13]

The country came under the rule of a military junta until 1963, when democratic elections were organized with the aid of the United States. Juan Emilio Bosch Gaviño emerged victorious in the elections, assuming office. Bosch then tried to implement a number of social democratic reforms, causing the anger of the clergy, business magnates and members of the army, who initiated a rumor campaign accusing Bosch of being a communist. On September 25, 1963, a group of 25 senior military commanders led by Elías Wessin y Wessin expelled Bosch from the country and instated Donald Reid Cabral as the new president. The newly installed president failed to gather popular support, and several factions prepared to launch coups. Those included Constitutionalists under Bosch, a group inside the Dominican army under Peña Taveras, supporters of former Dominican Revolutionary Party leader Nicolás Silfa and plotters siding with Joaquín Balaguer.[14]

Civil war

April Revolution

A Universal Newsreel about the U.S. invasion.
Honduran soldiers, first troops of Inter-American peace force, arrive to assume peace-keeping duties and to render emerg - NARA - 541976
Honduran IAPF soldiers arrive in the Dominican Republic, 1965.

On April 24, 1965, three junior officers requested a meeting with President Donald Cabral Reid. Reid revoked the commission after receiving news of a suspected anti-government plot. When Chief of staff Riviera Cuesta was instead sent to discuss with the officers at the August 16 military camp, he was immediately detained. A group of military constitutionalists and Dominican Revolutionary Party (DRP) supporters then seized the Radio Santo Domingo building, issuing calls of sedition, at the same time constitutionalist officers distributed weapons and molotov cocktails to their civilian comrades. The transmissions prompted the garrison of the February 27 camp and a unit of the Dominican Navy's frogmen to defect. Large numbers of police officers abandoned their positions and changed into civilian clothing.[15]

The following day President Reid appointed general Wessin y Wessin as the new chief of staff, Wessin rallied the government troops, branding them Loyalists and announcing his plans of suppressing the rebellion. At 10:30 am rebels stormed the presidential palace, arresting Reid. Several hours later four loyalist P-51 Mustangs conducted aerial bombings of the National Palace and other constitutionalist positions; one plane was shot down during the incident. A single loyalist vessel, Mella, situated on the river Ozama also bombarded the palace. Fearing a mob that had gathered at the palace would lynch Reid, rebel commander Francisco Caamaño allowed him to escape, as Reid had already lost the support of the loyalists. The majority of the DRP leadership fled the capital, while constitutionalists mobilized a total of 5,000 armed civilians and 1,500 members of the military.[14][15] On April 26, José Rafael Molina Ureña was declared provisional president while large crowds gathered in the streets demanding Bosch's return from exile.

U.S. intervention

In the meantime, U.S. diplomats in Santo Domingo initiated preparations for evacuating 3,500 U.S. citizens. In the early morning of April 27, 1,176 foreign civilians who had previously assembled in Hotel Embajador were airlifted to the Bajos de Haina naval facility, where they boarded USS Ruchamkin and USS Wood County, as well as the helicopters of HMM-264 which evacuated them from the island to USS Boxer and USS Raleigh. Later in the day, 1,500 loyalist troops supported by armored cars and tanks marched from the San Isidro Air Base, capturing the Duarte bridge and taking position on the west bank of the Ozama river. A second force consisting of 700 soldiers left San Cristóbal and attacked the western suburbs of Santo Domingo. Rebels overran the Fortaleza Ozama police headquarters, taking 700 prisoners. On April 28, armed civilians attacked the Villa Consuelo police station, executing all the police officers who survived the initial skirmish. One U.S. Marine battalion landed in Haina, later moving to Hotel Embajador where it provided assistance in the upcoming airlifts. During the night, 684 civilians were airlifted to USS Boxer. One U.S. Marine was killed by a rebel sniper during the operation.[15]

Domrep-f2
U.S. Medical Service officers conferring near Santo Domingo in early May 1965.

On April 29, U.S. Ambassador to the Dominican Republic William Tapley Bennett, who had previously sent numerous reports to President Lyndon Johnson, reported that the situation had reached life-threatening proportions for U.S. citizens and that the rebels received foreign support. Bennett stressed that the United States must act immediately as the creation of an international coalition would be time-consuming. Contrary to the suggestions of his advisers, Johnson authorized the transformation of evacuation operations into a large-scale military intervention through Operation Power Pack, aiming to prevent the development of what he saw as a second Cuban Revolution.[14][15][16] It was the first U.S. military intervention in Latin America in more than 30 years.[17]

Corridor of Santo Dominguo
International Security Zone map.

At 2:16 AM on April 30, 1965, the 3rd Brigade of the 82nd Airborne Division landed at the San Isidro Air Base, beginning the American military intervention in the conflict. During the next couple of hours, two brigade combat teams and heavy equipment were also dispatched. At sunrise the 1st Battalion, 508th Infantry Regiment moved up the San Isidoro highway, securing a position east of the Duarte bridge. The 1st Battalion 505th Infantry Regiment remained at the airbase and sent out patrols to the perimeter. A force of 1,700 Marines of the 6th Marine Expeditionary Unit occupied an area containing a number of foreign embassies; the locale was proclaimed an International Security Zone by the Organization of American States (OAS). Earlier in the day, OAS also issued a resolution calling the combatants to end all hostilities. At 16:30 hrs, representatives of the loyalists, the rebels and the U.S. military signed a ceasefire that was to take effect at 23:45 hrs. The treaty's timing favored the demoralized loyalists, who had at that point lost control of Ciudad Colonial.[15][18]

On 5 May, the OAS Peace Committee arrived in Santo Domingo, a second definite ceasefire agreement was then signed ending the main phase of the civil war. Under the Act of Santo Domingo, OAS was tasked with overseeing the implementation of the peace deal as well as distributing food and medication through the capital. The treaties failed to fully prevent violations such as small scale firefights and sniper fire. A day later, OAS members established the Inter-American Peace Force (IAPF) with the goal of serving as a peacekeeping formation in the Dominican Republic. IAPF consisted of 1,748 Brazilian, Paraguayan, Nicaraguan, Costa Rican, Salvadoran and Honduran troops; it was headed by Brazilian general Hugo Panasco Alvim, with U.S. Army General Bruce Palmer serving as his deputy commander.[1][18]

U.S. withdrawal

On 26 May, U.S. forces began gradually withdrawing from the island. On June 15, the Constitutionalists launched a second and final attempt to expand the boundaries of their stronghold. In the bloodiest battle of the intervention, the rebels began their attack on U.S. outposts. Employing the greatest firepower to date, they used tear gas grenades, .50-caliber machine guns, 20 mm guns, mortars, rocket launchers, and tank fire. The 1st battalions of the 505th and 508th Infantry quickly went on the offensive. Two days of fighting cost the U.S. five KIA and 31 WIA. The OAS forces, consisting of a large number of Brazilians and whose orders were to remain at their defenses, counted five wounded. The Constitutionalists claimed 67 dead and 165 injured.

The first postwar elections were held on July 1, 1966, pitting Reformist Party candidate Joaquín Balaguer against former president Juan Emilio Bosch Gaviño. Balaguer emerged victorious in the elections, after building his campaign on promises of reconciliation. On September 21, 1966, the last OAS peacekeepers withdrew from the island, ending the foreign intervention in the conflict.[1][14]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Lawrence Yates (July 1988). "Power Pack:U.S. Intervention in the Dominican Republic 1965–1966" (PDF). Lawrence Papers. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  2. ^ Celso Castro. «O golpe de 1964 e a instauração do regime militar». Fundação Getulio Vargas. Consultado em 16 de fevereiro de 2010
  3. ^ "El Gobierno del General Alfredo Stroessner" by Helio Vera. Portal Guaraní. Retrieved on March 18, 2017
  4. ^ a b c d e Palmer, Bruce (2015). Intervention in the Caribbean: The Dominican Crisis of 1965. University Press of Kentucky. p. 137. ISBN 9780813150024.
  5. ^ Maurer 2013, pp. 194–96.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Dominican Republic: Occupation by the United States, 1916–1924". Country Studies. Library of Congress; Federal Research Division. Retrieved May 29, 2007.
  7. ^ "Dominican Republic – The era of Trujillo". Country Studies. Library of Congress; Federal Research Division.
  8. ^ "Golpe de Estado a Horacio Vásquez" (in Spanish). Santo Domingo: Museo Memorial de la Resistencia Dominicana. 2010. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
  9. ^ Torres, José Antonio (February 20, 2010). "Golpe de Estado a Horacio". El Nacional (in Spanish). Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
  10. ^ Galindez, p. 44.
  11. ^ Official results: 223,731 vs 1,883. Galindez, p. 51.
  12. ^ Harris, Bruce. "Moreorless: Heroes & Killers of the 20th century". Archived from the original on November 12, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
  13. ^ Museo Memorial de la Resistencia Dominicana. "Heroes del 30 de Mayo. Resenas Biograficas" (in Spanish). Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  14. ^ a b c d James Fearon (June 26, 2006). "Dominican Republic" (PDF). Stanford University. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  15. ^ a b c d e Lawrence Greenberg (November 1986). "US Army Unilateral and Coalition Operations in the 1965 Dominican Republic Intervention" (PDF). US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  16. ^ David Coleman (April 28, 2015). "The Dominican Intervention". NSA Archives. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  17. ^ Gleijeses, Piero (October 28, 2011). "The United States Invasion of the Dominican Republic, 1961–1966". Oxford Bibliographies Online. doi:10.1093/OBO/9780199766581-0071. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  18. ^ a b Jack Ringler (1970). "US Marine Corps Operations in the Dominican Republic April–June 1965" (PDF). Historical Division USMC. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 3, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2015.

Further reading

  • McPherson, Darrell G. The Role of the Army Medical Service in the Dominican Republic. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.
  • Warnock, Timothy (2000). Dominican Crisis: Operation POWER PACK. Short of War: Major USA Contingency Operations. Air Force History and Museums Program.
  • Maurer, Noel (2013). The Empire Trap: The Rise and Fall of U.S. Intervention to Protect American Property Overseas, 1893–2013. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691155821.
  • Galindez, Jésus (1962). L'Ère de Trujillo. Paris: Gallimard. ISBN 0816503591.

External links

14th of June Movement

The 14th of June Movement, abbreviated 14J (and 1J4) was a leftist clandestine group opposed to the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo contrived by the Dominican lawyer Manolo Tavárez Justo, that covered almost all the Dominican Republic territory, with some 300 engaged of all the social sectors.

On 14 June 1959, troops of the Movement for Dominican Release, a group of Dominican exiles, after a period of time organizing funding, teams and people, met in Cuba to train for a guerrilla warfare with Fidel Castro’s support. They disembarked in the northern villages of Constanza, Maimón, and Estero Hondo under the direction of the Commander Enrique Jiménez Moya.

This effort to overthrow the tyranny was defeated from the military point of view by the army and the aerial strength of Trujillo, but it succeeded in planting the seed of rebellion among the Dominican population.

This was the inspiration for the name of a political group organised for the internal resistance: The 14th of June Movement, secretly called 14. Manolo Tavares Justo was the president of the group. A man called Rafael Miguel 'Pipe' Faxas Canto was its general secretary, and Leandro Guzmán was the treasurer. Soon after the failed invasion, the Movement for Dominican Release organised other conspiracies, which continued into the early 1960s.

Antonio Imbert Barrera

Major General Antonio Cosme Imbert Barrera (December 3, 1920 – May 31, 2016) was a two-star army general advitam of the Dominican Army and was President of the Dominican Republic from May to August 1965.

Imbert, who plotted to assassinate dictator Rafael Trujillo in 1961, was one of the two rival rulers in the Dominican Republic from May 7, 1965 until August 30, 1965, amid the Dominican Civil War. He had succeeded General Pedro B. Benoit van der Horst who ruled for less than a week. After the civil war ended, both General Imbert and his rival Colonel Francisco Caamaño resigned and Héctor García-Godoy, a civilian, was sworn as interim president.

Dominican Civil War (1911–12)

The Dominican Civil War that lasted from December 1911 until November 1912 was the bloodiest in the history of the Dominican Republic. It began as an uprising in the northwest of the country. The United States considered military intervention, but it succeeded in negotiating a settlement without landing its forces. The war is sometimes known as the "War of the Quiquises", a nickname given to the rebels.

On 19 November 1911, General Luis Tejera led a group of conspirators in an ambush on the horse-drawn carriage of President Ramón Cáceres. During the shootout, Cáceres was killed and Tejera wounded in the leg. The assassins fled in an automobile, which they soon crashed into a river. After rescuing Tejera from the water and depositing him in a hut by the road the other conspirators fled on foot. Tejera was found shortly after and summarily executed.In the ensuing power vacuum, General Alfredo Victoria, commander of the Dominican Army, seized control and forced the Congress to elect his uncle, Eladio Victoria, as the new president. The general was widely suspected of bribing the Congress, and his uncle, who took office on 27 February 1912, lacked legitimacy. The former president Horacio Vásquez soon returned from exile to lead his followers, the horacistas, in a popular uprising against the new government. He joined forces with the border caudillo General Desiderio Arias and by December the country was in a state of civil war. The violence prompted the United States to abandon the customs houses it operated on the Haitian border, despite the fact that they had not been targeted. The small American force that monitored the frontier to combat smuggling also withdrew, handing over responsibility for border defence to the Dominican Army. Men and weapons passed freely over the Haitian border to the rebels as the Haitian government tried to promote instability in its neighbour. On 12 April 1912, the American consul general, Thomas Cleland Dawson, reported that "the government has a well-equipped force in the field and could soon put down the rebellion on the northwestern frontier were it not for the effective aid they claim the Haitian government is giving it." General Arias's forces seized the customs houses and extorted loans from the peasants and plantation owners in the districts they controlled. The officers of the corrupt Dominican Army commonly pocketed their troops' pay and plundered the territories they were sent to subdue.The anarchic situation was to the advantage of the military leadership of both sides, who enriched themselves at the people's expense. A report emanating from the American legation, dated 3 August, blamed the military for prolonging the conflict. Towards the end of September, the President of the United States, William Howard Taft, sent a commission to investigate options for obtaining peace. Taft did not seek the permission of the Dominican government, but did give them advance notice prior to the commission's arrival on 2 October. That same day the Dominican government decided to make 12 October an official holiday, the Día de Colón (Columbus Day), in an effort to please the Americans. An executive decree was published to this effect on 5 October. On 20 November the Dominican foreign minister suggested that other countries should adopt the holiday, so that "all the American nations would have a common holiday". The day is now celebrated as the Día de la Raza.

The American commission reported on 13 November that the military's self-interest and the rebels' confidence precluded any mutual agreement to end the fighting. The Taft administration then reduced its payouts to the Dominican government down to 45% of customs revenues, which was the floor established when Dominican customs came under American receivership through the convention of 1907. The United States further threatened to transfer formal recognition to the rebels and cede all the 45% of customs revenues to them unless President Victoria resigned. The presence of the United States Navy and 750 Marines gave force to the threat. Victoria stepped down on 26 November. American official met with the rebel leader, Vásquez, and Archbishop of Santo Domingo Adolfo Alejandro Nouel was appointed interim president on 30 November. Nouel was tasked with holding free elections, but Arias soon defied the government. After four months Nouel resigned and Congress elected as his successor Senator José Bordas Valdez, who took office on 14 April 1913. Valdez's sole concern was to remain president.

Dominican Civil War (1914)

The Dominican Civil War (1914) was a civil war in the Dominican Republic that started as a rebellion against the government led by General Desiderio Arias in La Vega and Santiago de los Caballeros, beginning on March 30, 1914. José Bordas Valdez was elected President without opposition on June 15, 1914. United States Navy ships intervened to end the bombardment of Puerto Plata beginning on June 26, 1914. United States Army troops were deployed in support of the government in Santo Domingo in July 1914. The U.S. government mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement between government and rebel representatives on August 6, 1914. Some 500 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Dominican Civil War (disambiguation)

The Dominican Civil War (1965) started when supporters of former President Juan Bosch overthrew acting President Donald Reid Cabral.

Dominican Civil War may also refer to:

Six Years' War (1868–74), a civil war fought between irregulars and the regular Dominican Army loyal to President Buenaventura Báez

Dominican Civil War (1911–12), a civil war between the government led by Eladio Victoria and rebel forces led by Horacio Vásquez

Dominican Civil War (1914), a civil war that began when General Desiderio Arias led a rebellion against the government in La Vega and Santiago

Dominican Navy

The Navy of the Dominican Republic or Armada de Republica Dominicana (ARD), is one of the three branches of the Military of the Dominican Republic, together with the Army and the Air Force.

Eladio Victoria

Eladio Victoria y Victoria (July 30, 1864 in Baní – July 27, 1939 in Santiago de los Caballeros) was a Dominican politician. He served as the 32nd president of the Dominican Republic from December 5, 1911 until November 30, 1912. His entire presidency coincided with the Dominican Civil War of 1911–12.

Victoria was ¾ French. He was great-granduncle of Arístides Victoria Yeb.

Elías Wessin y Wessin

Elías Wessin y Wessin (July 22, 1924 – April 18, 2009) was a Dominican politician and Dominican Air Force general. Wessin led the military coup which ousted the government of Dominican President Juan Bosch in 1963, replacing it with a triumvirate. Wessin was also a key figure in the ensuing Dominican Civil War, which led to a United States military intervention into and occupation of the Dominican Republic in 1965.

Football War

The Football War (Spanish: La guerra del fútbol; colloquial: Soccer War or the 100 Hours War) was a brief war fought between El Salvador and Honduras in 1969. Existing tensions between the two countries coincided with rioting during a 1970 FIFA World Cup qualifier. The war began on 14 July 1969, when the Salvadoran military launched an attack against Honduras. The Organization of American States (OAS) negotiated a cease-fire on the night of 18 July (hence "100 Hour War"), which took full effect on 18 July. Salvadoran troops were withdrawn in early August.

Héctor García-Godoy

Héctor Rafael García-Godoy Cáceres (Moca, January 11, 1921 – Santo Domingo, April 20, 1970) was a politician from the Dominican Republic. He served as the 7th provisional president of the Dominican Republic from September 3, 1965, until July 1, 1966, following the Dominican Civil War.

García-Godoy was the grandson of the Cuban-born Dominican poet Federico García Godoy and the Dominican President Ramón Cáceres. He was also the cousin of the Dominican painter Darío Suro.

Landsverk L-60

Landsverk L-60, was a Swedish tank developed in 1934. It was developed by AB Landsverk as a light tank which included several advanced design features such as torsion bar suspension, periscopes rather than view slits and all-welded construction.The L-60 was progressively improved with several turrets, engines and guns offered by Landsverk. The L-60 entered the international market in 1935 and was eventually adopted by the Swedish army in 4 main variants: Stridsvagn m/38, Stridsvagn m/39, Stridsvagn m/40L and Stridsvagn m/40K.

List of Presidents of the Dominican Republic

During the 174 years since its independence, the Dominican Republic has counted 53 people in the presidential office, whether constitutional, provisional or interim, divided into 66 periods of government. Likewise, there are also those periods in which the head of the State has been exercised by collegiate bodies (such as triumvirates, military juntas or councils of state).

List of conflicts related to the Cold War

While the Cold War itself never escalated into direct confrontation, there were a number of conflicts related to the Cold War around the globe, spanning the entirety of the period usually prescribed to it (March 12, 1947 to December 26, 1991, a total of 44 years, 9 months, and 2 weeks).

List of wars involving the Dominican Republic

This is a list of wars involving the Dominican Republic.

Operation Limpieza

Operation Limpieza took place during the Dominican Civil War in May 1965. In order to soften up the rebel positions and to try to silence Radio Santo Domingo TV, the military junta sent its airplanes to bomb and strafe on the 14 May. The bombing was ineffective, but one of the airplanes missed the rebel radio station and strafed U.S. Marines and junta troops. This convinced the U.S. government to ground the Dominican Air Force. The military junta, although deprived of air cover for its troops, decided to launch Operation Limpieza (Cleanup).

Pedro Bartolomé Benoit

Pedro Bartolomé Benoit Vanderhorst (February 13, 1921, Samaná – April 5, 2012) was a politician and military officer from the Dominican Republic. He served as the 7th provisional president of the Dominican Republic from 1 May until 7 May 1965. He was also a member of the Revolutionary Committee, which ruled the country for about few hours on 25 April 1965.

Rathvon M. Tompkins

Rathvon McClure Tompkins (August 23, 1912 – September 17, 1999) was a highly decorated United States Marine Corps major general. He saw combat in World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and led Marine units during the Dominican Civil War. Tompkins is well known for his part as commander of the 3rd Marine Division during the Battle of Khe Sanh in Vietnam.During his 36 years of Marine Corps service, Tompkins was awarded the Navy Cross, the United States military's second-highest decoration awarded for valor in combat, for his actions during the Battle of Saipan and the Silver Star for actions during the Battle of Tarawa.

Second Liberian Civil War

The Second Liberian Civil War began in 1999 when a rebel group backed by the government of neighbouring Guinea, the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), emerged in northern Liberia. In early 2003, a second rebel group, the Movement for Democracy in Liberia, emerged in the south, and by June–July 2003, Charles Taylor's government controlled only a third of the country.

The capital Monrovia was besieged by LURD, and the group's shelling of the city resulted in the deaths of many civilians. Thousands of people were displaced from their homes as the result of the conflict.

The Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed by the warring parties on August 18, 2003 marking the political end of the conflict and beginning of the country's transition to democracy under the National Transitional Government of Liberia which was led by interim President Gyude Bryant until the Liberian general election of 2005.

Ulbricht Doctrine

The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could occur only if both states fully recognised each other's sovereignty. That contrasted with the Hallstein Doctrine, a West German policy which insisted that West Germany was the only legitimate German state.

East Germany gained acceptance of its view from fellow Communist states, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, which all agreed not to normalise relations with West Germany until it recognised East German sovereignty.

West Germany eventually abandoned its Hallstein Doctrine, instead adopting the policies of Ostpolitik. In December 1972, a Basic Treaty between East and West Germany was signed that reaffirmed two German states as separate entities. The treaty also allowed the exchange of diplomatic missions and the entry of both German states to the United Nations as full members.

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