Dominant seventh chord

In music theory, a dominant seventh chord, or major minor seventh chord,[a] is a seventh chord composed of a root, major third, perfect fifth, and minor seventh. It can be also viewed as a major triad with an additional minor seventh. When using popular-music symbols, it is denoted by adding a superscript "7" after the letter designating the chord root.[3] The chord can be represented by the integer notation {0, 4, 7, 10}.

Of all the seventh chords, perhaps the most important is the dominant seventh. It was the first seventh chord to appear regularly in classical music. The name comes from the fact that it occurs naturally in the seventh chord built upon the dominant (i.e., the fifth degree, scale degree 5) of a given major scale. In Roman numerals, this is represented as V7. The V7 is found almost as often as the V, the dominant triad.[4]

The note G is the dominant degree of C major—its fifth note. When we arrange the notes of the C major scale in ascending pitch and use only these notes to build a seventh chord, and we start with G (not C), then the resulting chord contains the four notes G–B–D–F and is called G dominant seventh (G7). The note F is a minor seventh from G, and it is also called the dominant seventh with respect to G.

The dominant seventh chord on G: V7 in C major.
dominant seventh chord
Component intervals from root
minor seventh
perfect fifth
major third
root
Tuning
4:5:6:7,[1] 20:25:30:36,[2] or 36:45:54:64[2]
Forte no. / Complement
4-27 / 8-27

History

Renaissance composers conceived of harmony in terms of intervals rather than chords, "however, certain dissonant sonorities suggest that the dominant seventh chord occurred with some frequency."[5] Monteverdi (usually credited as the first to use the V7 chord without preparation[6]) and other early Baroque composers begin to treat the V7 as a chord as part of the introduction of functional harmony.

An excerpt from Monteverdi's "Lasciatemi Morire", Lamento d'Arianna (1608) is shown below. In it, a dominant seventh chord (in red) is handled conservatively, "prepared and resolved as a suspension, clearly indicating its dissonant status."[5]


    { 
      \override Score.SpacingSpanner.strict-note-spacing = ##t
      \set Score.proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1/8)
    << \new StaffGroup <<
        \new Staff <<
            \new Voice \relative c'' {
                \clef treble \time 4/4 \key c \major
                \voiceOne d2 r4 f, \once \override NoteHead.color = #red e1 fis2
                }
            \new Voice \relative c'' {
                \clef treble \time 4/4 \key c \major
                \voiceTwo bes2 d, \once \override NoteHead.color = #red cis4 d2 cis4 d1
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \new Voice \relative c'' {
                \clef treble \time 4/4 \key c \major
                \stemUp g2 r4 bes, \once \override NoteHead.color = #red a1 a
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                \clef bass \time 4/4 \key c \major
                \voiceOne bes4 a g2~ \once \override NoteHead.color = #red g4 f e2 d
                }
            \new Voice \relative c {
                \clef bass \time 4/4 \key c \major
                \voiceTwo g1 \once \override NoteHead.color = #red a d
                }
            >>
    >>
>> }

The V7 was in constant use during the Classical period, with similar treatment to that of the Baroque. In the Romantic period, freer voice-leading was gradually developed, leading to the waning of functional use in the post-Romantic and Impressionistic periods including more dissonant dominant chords through higher extensions and lessened use of the major minor chord's dominant function. Twentieth-century classical music either consciously used functional harmony or was entirely free of V7 chords while jazz and popular musics continued to use functional harmony including V7 chords.[5]

An except from Chopin's Mazurka in F minor (1849), Op. 68, No. 4, mm. 1–4 is shown below with dominant sevenths in red: "the seventh factor had by this time achieved nearly consonant status."[5]


    {
      \new PianoStaff <<
        \new Staff <<
            \new Voice \relative c'' {
                \clef treble \key f \minor \time 3/4
                \override DynamicLineSpanner.staff-padding = #2
                c4~(_\markup { \italic "sotto voce" } c8[ des] des[ c]
                b\trill aes \once \override NoteHead.color = #red b4\< g')\!
                bes,!( \once \override NoteHead.color = #red bes8[ c] c[ bes]
                a8\trill gis \once \override NoteHead.color = #red a4\< f')\!
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                \clef bass \key f \minor \time 3/4
                r4 <aes c f> <aes c f> 
                r \once \override NoteHead.color = #red <g d' f> <g des' f> 
                r \once \override NoteHead.color = #red <ges des' fes> <ges c es> 
                r \once \override NoteHead.color = #red <f c' es> <f ces' es>
                }
            >>
    >> }

Use

Function

Tritone resolutions in the last measures of Beethoven's Piano Sonata in B major, Op. 22 (1800).[7]

The function of the dominant seventh chord is to resolve to the tonic note or chord.

... the demand of the V7 for resolution is, to our ears, almost inescapably compelling. The dominant seventh is, in fact, the central propulsive force in our music; it is unambiguous and unequivocal.

— Goldman, 1965: 35[8]

This dominant seventh chord is useful to composers because it contains both a major triad and the interval of a tritone. The major triad confers a very "strong" sound. The tritone is created by the co-occurrence of the third degree and seventh degree (e.g., in the G7 chord, the interval between B and F is a tritone).

In a diatonic context, the third of the chord is the leading-tone of the scale, which has a strong tendency to pull towards the tonic of the key (e.g., in C, the third of G7, B, is the leading tone of the key of C). The seventh of the chord acts as an upper leading-tone to the third of the scale (in C: the seventh of G7, F, is a half-step above and leads down to E).[8] This, in combination with the strength of root movement by fifth, and the natural resolution of the dominant triad to the tonic triad (e.g., from GBD to CEG in the key of C major), creates a resolution with which to end a piece or a section, often in a cadence.


   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \relative c' {
             \voiceOne \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             <f g d'>1 <e g c> 
             }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             b_\markup { \concat { "V" \super \column { "6" "5" } \hspace #6 "I" } } c \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>

Because of this original usage, it also quickly became an easy way to trick the listener's ear with a deceptive cadence. The dominant seventh may work as part of a circle progression, preceded by the supertonic chord, ii.

Importantly, non-diatonic dominant seventh chords (sometimes called a chromatic seventh), borrowed from another key, can allow the composer to modulate to that other key. This technique is extremely common, particularly since the Classical period, and has led to further innovative uses of the dominant seventh chord such as secondary dominant (V7/V, shown below), extended dominant (V7/V/V), and substitute dominant (V7/V) chords.

 {
  \set Score.proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1/4)
   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \new voice \relative c'' {
             \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             \voiceOne c2  b c1
             }
         \new voice \relative c'' {
             \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             \voiceTwo a2  g g1
             }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new voice \relative c' {
             \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             \voiceOne d2 d e1
             }
         \new voice \relative c {
             \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             \voiceTwo fis2_\markup { \concat { "V" \super \column { "6" "5" } "/V" \hspace #1.5 "V" \hspace #6.5 "I" } } g c,1 \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>
}

Voice leading

For common practice voice leading or "strict resolution" of the dominant seventh chord:[9]

  • In the V7–I resolution, the dominant, leading note, and supertonic resolve to the tonic, whereas the subdominant resolves to the mediant.
    
   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \relative c' {
             \voiceOne \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             <f b d>1 <e c' c> 
             }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             g_\markup { \concat { "V" \super "7" \hspace #6 "I" } } c \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>
  • In the other resolutions, the dominant remains stationary, the leading note and supertonic resolve to the tonic, and the subdominant resolves to the mediant.
    
   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \relative c' {
             \voiceOne \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             <f g>1 <e g> 
             }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             <g b>_\markup { \concat { "V" \super "7" \hspace #6 "I" } } <c, c'> \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>
  • All four tones may be present, though the root may be doubled and the fifth omitted.[9][10][11]
  • The diminished fifth (if the seventh is above the third, as in the first measure below) resolves inwards while the augmented fourth (if the seventh is below the third, as in the second measure below) resolves outward. This means that the seventh resolves stepwise downwards[10][11] while the third resolves upwards to the tonic[9] though in such cases the root of the tonic chord may need to be tripled.[10]
    
      \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             \stemUp f2 e b c 
             }
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             \stemDown b2 c \bar "||" f, e \bar "||"
             }
            >>
  • The root of the V7, when in the bass, resolves to the root of the I, in the bass.[9]
  • In an incomplete V7, with a missing fifth, the doubled root remains stationary.[9]
  • The "free resolution of the seventh" features the seventh in an inner voice moving stepwise upwards to the fifth of I[9]

According to Heinrich Schenker, "The dissonance is always passing, never a chord member (Zusammenklang),'"[12] and often (though by no means always) the voice leading suggests either a passing note:

8 7 3
5 5 1

or resolution of a (hypothetical) suspension:

(8) 7 3
(4) 5 1

In blues progressions

In rock and popular music songs following the blues progression, the IV and V chords are "almost always" dominant seventh chords (sometimes with extensions) with the tonic most often being a major triad. Examples include Bill Haley and the Comets' "Rock Around the Clock" and Buster Brown's "Fanny Mae", while in Chuck Berry's "Back in the U.S.A." and Loggins and Messina's "Your Mama Don't Dance" the tonic is also a dominant seventh.[13] Used mostly in the first fifteen years of the rock era and now sounding somewhat "retrospective" (e.g., Oasis' "Roll With It"), other examples of tonic dominant seventh chords include Little Richard's "Lucille", The Beatles' "I Saw Her Standing There", Nilsson's "Coconut", Jim Croce's "You Don't Mess Around With Jim", and The Drifters' "On Broadway".[13] Chuck Berry's "Rock and Roll Music" uses the dominant seventh on I, IV, and V.[14]

Related chords

The dominant seventh is enharmonically equivalent to the German sixth. For example, the German sixth A–C–E–F (which typically resolves to G) is equivalent to the dominant seventh A–C–E–G (which typically resolves to D):


    {
      \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
      \new PianoStaff <<
        \new Staff <<
            \relative c' {
                \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
                \textLengthOn
                <es fis>1^\markup { \small "German 6th" }
                <es ges>^\markup {\small "Dominant 7th" }
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \relative c' {
                \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
                <aes c>1 \bar "||"
                <aes c> \bar "||"
                }
            >>
    >> }
Harmonic seventh chord just on C
Just harmonic seventh chord on C Play just . 7th: 968.826 cents, a septimal quarter tone lower than B.

The dominant seventh chord is frequently used to approximate a harmonic seventh chord, which is one possible just tuning, in the ratios 4:5:6:7[1] Play , for the dominant seventh. Others include 20:25:30:36 Play , found on I, and 36:45:54:64, found on V, used in 5-limit just tunings and scales.[2]

Today, the dominant seventh chord enjoys particular prominence in the music of barbershop quartets, with the Barbershop Harmony Society describing the chord as, "signature," of the barbershop sound, a song may use the chord type (built on any scale degree, not just scale degree 5) for up to 30 percent of its duration.[15] As barbershop singers strive to harmonize in just intonation to maximize the audibility of harmonic overtones, the practical sonority of the chord tends to be that of an harmonic seventh chord. This chord type has become so ingrained into the fabric of the artform that it is often referred to as the "barbershop seventh chord" by those who practice it.

Tuning

Chord Notation Seventh Ratios
Tonic seventh chord C E G B Minor seventh 20:25:30:36[16][2]
Harmonic seventh chord G B D F7+ Harmonic seventh 4:5:6:7[1]
German sixth chord A C E G7 Harmonic seventh 4:5:6:7
Dominant seventh chord G B D F Pythagorean minor seventh 36:45:54:64[2]

Dominant seventh chord table

Chord Root Major Third Perfect Fifth Minor Seventh
C7 C E G B
C7 C E (F) G B
D7 D F A C (B)
D7 D F A C
D7 D Fdouble sharp (G) A C
E7 E G B D
E7 E G B D
F7 F A C E
F7 F A C E
G7 G B D F (E)
G7 G B D F
G7 G B (C) D F
A7 A C E G
A7 A C E G
A7 A Cdouble sharp (D) E (F) G
B7 B D F A
B7 B D F A

Chord diagrams

In standard tuning, the left is the low E string. x means mute the string.[17][18]

Dominant 7

  • A7: x02020
  • B7: x21202
  • C7: x3231x
  • D7: xx0212
  • E7: 020100
  • F7: 131211
  • G7: 320001

Dominant 7 Sus2

  • A7sus2: x02000
  • B7sus2: x24222
  • C7sus2: x30333
  • D7sus2: x57555
  • E7sus2: x79777
  • F7sus2: xx3543
  • G7sus2: 303033

Dominant 7 Sus4

  • A7sus4: x00030
  • B7sus4: x24252
  • C7sus4: x35363
  • D7sus4: xx0013
  • E7sus4: 020200
  • F7sus4: 111311
  • G7sus4: 330011

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Also written major-minor seventh chord.

Sources

  1. ^ a b c Benitez, J. M. (1988). Contemporary Music Review: Listening 2, p. 34. ISBN 3-7186-4846-6. Cites Euler (1764).
  2. ^ a b c d e Wright, David (2009). Mathematics and Music, pp. 140–41. ISBN 978-0-8218-4873-9.
  3. ^ Bruce Benward & Marilyn Nadine Saker (2003). Music in Theory and Practice, seventh edition (Boston: McGraw-Hill), vol. 1: p. 77. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0.
  4. ^ Benward & Saker (2003), vol. 1: p. 199.
  5. ^ a b c d Benward & Saker (2003), vol. 1: p. 201.
  6. ^ Goldman (1965), p. 39.
  7. ^ Forte, Allen (1979). Tonal Harmony in Concept & Practice, p. 145. Third edition. ISBN 0-03-020756-8.
  8. ^ a b Goldman, Richard Franco (1965), Harmony in Western Music (London: Barrie and Rockliff), pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-214-66680-3.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Benjamin, Horvit, and Nelson (2008). Techniques and Materials of Music, pp. 46–47. ISBN 0-495-50054-2.
  10. ^ a b c Benward & Saker (2003), vol. 1: pp. 202–204.
  11. ^ a b Benward & Saker (2008), vol. 2: p. 343
  12. ^ Schenker, Heinrich. Jahrbuch II, p. 24 cited in Jonas, Oswald (1982). Introduction to the Theory of Heinrich Schenker (1934: Das Wesen des musikalischen Kunstwerks: Eine Einführung in Die Lehre Heinrich Schenkers), p. 20. Trans. John Rothgeb. ISBN 0-582-28227-6.
  13. ^ a b Stephenson, Ken (2002). What to Listen for in Rock: A Stylistic Analysis, p. 82. ISBN 978-0-300-09239-4.
  14. ^ Stephenson (2002), p. 75.
  15. ^ Rose, Amy (February 2, 2017). "Intro to Barbershop: What is Barbershop?", BarberShop.org.
  16. ^ Shirlaw, Matthew (1900). The Theory of Harmony, p. 86. ISBN 978-1-4510-1534-8.
  17. ^ "Chord calculator", JGuitar.com.
  18. ^ Guitar Chord Name Finder, Gootar.com.
A7

A7, A.7, A 7, A07 or A-7 may refer to:

A7 (bar), bar in New York City

Altec Lansing's A-7 speaker

ATC code A07 Antidiarrheals, intestinal anti-inflammatory/anti-infective agents, a subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System

Arrows A7, a 1984 British racing car

Audi A7, a mid-size coupé released in 2010

British NVC community A7 (Nymphaea alba community), a British Isles plant community

Route A7 (WMATA), a bus route operated by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority

Subfamily A7, a Rhodopsin-like receptors subfamily

Air Comet, its IATA airline designator

A7, an ISO 216, international standard paper size, 74×105 mm

A7, the A dominant seventh chord used in many rock songs, see dominant seventh chord

A (musical note)

A7 road, in several countries

Avenged Sevenfold, a hard rock/metal band

Arutz Sheva, an Israeli radio station meaning Channel Seven

A7, a type of stereoautograph

A type of Réti Opening code for Chess (A07)

Autobacs Seven, sports car manufacturer

ARM Cortex-A7, a processor in the ARM Cortex-A processor family

LNER Class A7, a class of British 4-6-2T steam locomotive

Apple A7, a system on a chip used first in the iPhone 5S

Samsung Galaxy A7, a smartphone

Noradrenergic cell group A7

Aeolian dominant scale

The Aeolian dominant scale (also known as the Hindu scale, the Mixolydian ♭6 [or ♭13], Aeolian major, and melodic major) is the fifth mode of the melodic minor scale. It is named such because its sound derives from having a dominant seventh chord on the tonic in the context of what is otherwise the Aeolian mode and because it is on the fifth degree of the melodic minor scale.

This scale can also be obtained by raising the third degree of the natural minor scale.

The name melodic major also refers to the combined scale that goes as natural major ascending and as melodic major descending.

The Mask of Zorro song "I Want to Spend My Lifetime Loving You", was composed in the Aeolian dominant scale mode. It was written by film composer James Horner.

Altered chord

An altered chord is a chord in which one or more notes from the diatonic scale is replaced with a neighboring pitch from the chromatic scale. According to the broadest definition any chord with a nondiatonic chord tone is an altered chord, while the simplest use of altered chords is the use of borrowed chords, chords borrowed from the parallel key, and the most common is the use of secondary dominants. As Alfred Blatter explains,"An altered chord occurs when one of the standard, functional chords is given another quality by the modification of one or more components of the chord."For example, altered notes may be used as leading tones to emphasize their diatonic neighbors. Contrast this with chord extensions:

Whereas chord extension generally involves adding notes that are logically implied, chord alteration involves changing some of the typical notes. This is usually done on dominant chords, and the four alterations that are commonly used are the ♭5, ♯5, ♭9 and ♯9. Using one (or more) of these notes in a resolving dominant chord greatly increases the bite in the chord and therefore the power of the resolution.

In jazz harmony, chromatic alteration is either the addition of notes not in the scale or expansion of a [chord] progression by adding extra non-diatonic chords. For example, "A C major scale with an added D♯ note, for instance, is a chromatically altered scale" while, "one bar of Cmaj7 moving to Fmaj7 in the next bar can be chromatically altered by adding the ii and V of Fmaj7 on the second two beats of bar" one. Techniques include the ii-V-I turnaround, as well as movement by half-step or minor third.

The five most common types of altered dominants are: V+, V7♯5 (both raised fifths), V♭5, V7♭5 (both lowered fifths), and Vø7 (lowered fifth and third).

Augmented seventh chord

The augmented seventh chord Play , or seventh augmented fifth chord,

or seventh sharp five chord is a dominant seventh chord consisting of an augmented triad with a minor seventh. Thus, it consists of a root, major third, augmented fifth, and the minor seventh.

Thus in the key of C major it would be C, E, G♯, and B♭ as in the figure. It may be notated with the C+7, Caug7, or C7♯5, and can be represented by the integer notation {0, 4, 8, 10}.

The root is the only optional note in an augmented seventh chord, the fifth being required because it is raised. This alteration is useful in the major mode because the raised 5th creates a leading tone to the 3rd of the tonic triad. See also dominant.

In rock parlance, the term Augmented seventh chord is sometimes confusingly and erroneously used to refer to the so-called "Hendrix chord", a 7♯9 chord which contains the interval of an augmented ninth but not an augmented fifth.

The augmented minor seventh chord may be considered an altered dominant seventh and may use the whole-tone scale, as may the dominant seventh flat five chord. See chord scale system.

The augmented seventh chord normally resolves to the chord a perfect fifth below, thus Gaug7 resolves to a C major chord, for example.

Constant structure

In jazz, a constant structure is a chord progression consisting of three or more chords of the same type or quality. Popularized by pianists Bill Evans and Herbie Hancock, the combination of functional and nonfunctional chords provides cohesiveness while producing a free and shifting tonal center.

For example, the progression Fmaj7–A♭maj7–D♭maj7–G♭maj7–C13sus4 contains four major seventh chords (and one thirteenth chord), none of which are diatonic to the key of F major except the first.

In contrast, the vi–ii–V–I or circle progression from classical theory contains four chords of two or three different qualities: major, minor, and possibly a dominant seventh chord; all of which, however, are diatonic to the key. Thus diversity is achieved within a stable and fixed tonal center.

Dominant seventh flat five chord

In music theory, the dominant seventh flat five chord is a seventh chord composed of a root note, together with a major third, a diminished fifth, and a minor seventh above the root (1, ♮3, ♭5 and ♭7). For example, C7♭5 is composed of the pitches, C–E–G♭–B♭. It can be represented by the integer notation {0, 4, 6, 10}.

This chord is enharmonically equivalent to its own second inversion. That is, it has the same notes as the dominant seventh flat five chord a tritone away (although they may be spelled differently), so for instance, F♯7♭5 and C7♭5 are enharmonically equivalent. Because of this property, it readily functions as a pivot chord. It is also frequently encountered in tritone substitutions. In this sense, there are only six "unique" dominant seventh flat five chords.

In diatonic harmony, the dominant seventh flat five chord does not naturally occur on any scale degree (as does, for example, the dominant seventh chord on the fifth scale degree of the major scale e.g. C7 in F major). In classical harmony, the chord is rarely seen spelled as a seventh chord and is instead most commonly found as the enharmonically equivalent French sixth chord.

In jazz harmony, the dominant seventh flat five may be considered an altered chord, created by lowering the fifth of a dominant seventh chord, and may use the whole-tone scale, as may the augmented minor seventh chord, or the Lydian ♭7 mode, as well as most of the modes of the Neapolitan major scale, such as the major Locrian scale, the leading whole-tone scale, and the Lydian minor scale.

First inversion

The first inversion of a chord is the voicing of a triad, seventh chord, or ninth chord in which the third of the chord is the bass note and the root a sixth above it. In the first inversion of a C-major triad, the bass is E — the third of the triad — with the fifth and the root stacked above it (the root now shifted an octave higher), forming the intervals of a third and a sixth above the inverted bass of E, respectively.

In the first inversion of G-dominant seventh chord, the bass note is B, the third of the seventh chord.

Harmonic seventh chord

The harmonic seventh chord is a major triad plus the harmonic seventh interval (ratio of 7:4, about 968.826 cents). This interval is somewhat narrower (about 48.77 cents flatter, a septimal quarter tone) and is "sweeter in quality" than an "ordinary" minor seventh, which has a just intonation ratio of 9:5 (1017.596 cents), or an equal-temperament ratio of 1000 cents (2​5⁄6:1). Frequent use of this chord is one of the defining characteristics of blues and barbershop harmony; barbershoppers refer to it as "the barbershop seventh". Since barbershop music tends to be sung in just intonation, the barbershop seventh chord may be accurately termed a harmonic seventh chord. The harmonic seventh chord is also widely used in "blues flavored" music. As guitars, pianos, and other equal-temperament instruments cannot play this chord, it is frequently approximated by a dominant seventh chord. As a result, it is often called a dominant seventh chord and written with the same symbols (such as the blues progression I7 – V7 – IV7).

A frequently encountered example of the harmonic seventh chord is the last word of the "...and many more!" modern addition to the song "Happy Birthday to You" When sung by professional singers, the harmony on the word "more" typically takes the form of a harmonic seventh chord.The alpha scale has, "excellent harmonic seventh chords...using the inversion of 7:4, i.e., 8/7." Play .

It is suggested that the harmonic seventh on the dominant not be used as a suspension, since this would create a mistuned fourth over the tonic. The harmonic seventh of G, F+, is lower than the perfect fourth over C, F♮, by Archytas' comma (27.25 cents). 22 equal temperament avoids this problem because it tempers out this comma, while still offering a reasonably good approximation of the harmonic seventh chord.

Introduction (music)

In music, the introduction is a passage or section which opens a movement or a separate piece, preceding the theme or lyrics. In popular music, this is often known as the song intro or just the intro. The introduction establishes melodic, harmonic or rhythmic material related to the main body of a piece.Introductions may consist of an ostinato that is used in the following music, an important chord or progression that establishes the tonality and groove for the following music, or they may be important but disguised or out-of-context motivic or thematic material. As such, the introduction may be the first statement of primary or other important material, may be related to but different from the primary or other important material, or may bear little relation to any other material.

A common introduction to a rubato ballad is a dominant seventh chord with fermata, Play an introduction that works for many songs is the last four or eight measures of the song, Play while a common introduction to the twelve-bar blues is a single chorus. Play

If a movement in sonata form starts with an introductory section, this introduction is not usually analyzed as being part of the movement's exposition.

Irregular resolution

In music, an irregular resolution is resolution by a dominant seventh chord or diminished seventh chord to a chord other than the tonic. Regarding the dominant seventh, there are many irregular resolutions including to a chord with which it has tones in common or if the parts move only a whole or half step. Consecutive fifths and octaves, augmented intervals, and false relations should still be avoided. Voice leading may cause the seventh to ascend, to be prolonged into the next chord, or to be unresolved.The following resolutions to a chord with tones in common have been identified:

Type I, in which the root motion descends by minor third. C, E, G, B♭ would resolve to C♯, E, G, A; two tones are common, two voices move by half-step in contrary motion.

Type II, in which the root motion rises by minor third. C, E, G, B♭ would resolve to D♭, E♭, G, B♭; again, two tones are common, two voices move by half-step in contrary motion.

Type III, in which the root moves a tritone (two minor thirds) away. C, E, G, B♭ would resolve to C♯, E, F♯, B♭ = A♯; again, two tones are common (with enharmonic change), two voices move by half-step in contrary motion.

Type I is common from the 18th century; Type II may be found from the second quarter of the 19th century; Type III may be found from the mid-19th century. The composer Richard Edward Wilson is responsible for the categorization.

The most important irregular resolution is the deceptive cadence, most commonly V7–vi in major or V7–VI in minor. Irregular resolutions also include V7 becoming an augmented sixth [specifically a German sixth] through enharmonic equivalence or in other words (and the adjacent image) resolving to the I chord in the key the augmented sixth chord (FACD♯) would be in (A) rather than the key the dominant seventh (FACE♭) would be in (B♭).

Jazz minor scale

The jazz minor scale is a derivative of the melodic minor scale, except only the ascending form of the scale is used. As the name implies, it is primarily used in jazz. It may be derived from the major scale with a minor third, making it a synthetic scale, and features a dominant seventh chord on the fifth degree (V) like the harmonic minor scale.

Thus, the jazz minor scale can be represented by the following notation:

1, 2, ♭3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8The scale may be considered to originate in the use of extensions beginning with the seventh in jazz and thus the necessity to, "chromatically raise the diatonic 7th to create a stable, tonic sound," rather than use a minor seventh chord, associated with ii, for tonic.The jazz minor scale contains all of the altered notes of the dominant seventh chord whose root is a semitone below the scale's tonic: "In other words to find the correct jazz minor scale for any dominant 7th chord simply use the scale whose tonic note is a half step higher than the root of the chord." For example, the G7 chord and A♭ jazz minor scale: the A♭ scale contains the root, third, seventh, and the four most common alterations of G7. This scale may be used to resolve to C in the progression G7–C (over G7, which need not be notated G7♭5♯5♭9♯9).

It is used over a minor major seventh chord. See: chord-scale system. The scale also easily allows diatonic chord progressions, for example a I−vi−ii−V progression:

Its modes also include Lydian ♯5, Lydian ♭7, Locrian ♮2, and the altered scale.

Leading-tone

In music theory, a leading-note (also subsemitone, and called the leading-tone in the US) is a note or pitch which resolves or "leads" to a note one semitone higher or lower, being a lower and upper leading-tone, respectively. Typically, the leading tone refers to the seventh scale degree of a major scale (), a major seventh above the tonic.

A leading-tone triad is a triad built on the seventh scale degree in a major key (viio), while a leading-tone seventh chord is a seventh chord built on the seventh scale degree (either viiø7 or viiø7).

Minor seventh

In music theory, a minor seventh is one of two musical intervals that span seven staff positions. It is minor because it is the smaller of the two sevenths, spanning ten semitones. The major seventh spans eleven. For example, the interval from A to G is a minor seventh, as the note G lies ten semitones above A, and there are seven staff positions from A to G. Diminished and augmented sevenths span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones (nine and twelve).

Minor seventh intervals rarely feature in melodies (and especially in their openings) but occur more often than major sevenths. The best-known example, in part due to its frequent use in theory classes, is found between the first two words of the phrase "There's a place for us" in the song "Somewhere" in West Side Story. Another well-known example occurs between the first two notes of the introduction to the main theme music from Star Trek: The Original Series theme.The most common occurrence of the minor seventh is built on the root of the prevailing key's dominant triad, producing the all-important dominant seventh chord.

Consonance and dissonance are relative, depending on context, the minor seventh being defined as a dissonance requiring resolution to a consonance.

Nondominant seventh chord

In music theory, a nondominant seventh chord is both a diatonic chord and a seventh chord, but it does not possess dominant function, and thus it is not a dominant seventh chord.

Since the V and viio chords are the dominant function chords, the "major minor seventh" V7 and "half-diminished seventh" viiø7 are the dominant seventh chords. Since the nondominant function chords are I, i, ii, iio, iii, III, IV, iv, vi, and VI, the nondominant seventh chord qualities include the augmented major seventh chord, major seventh chord, minor major seventh chord, minor seventh chord, and major minor seventh chords that do not possess dominant function, such as, in melodic minor, IV7m.

To analyze seventh chords indicate the quality of the triad; major: I, minor: ii, half-diminished: viiø, or augmented: III+; and the quality of the seventh; same: 7, or different: 7M or 7m. In macro analysis indicate the root and chord quality, and add 7, thus a seventh chord on ii in C major (minor minor seventh) would be d7.As with dominant seventh chords, nondominant seventh chords usually progress according to the circle progression, thus III+7M resolves to vi or VI, for example.

When possible, as in circle progressions, resolve the seventh of nondominant seventh chords down by step to the third of the following chord.

Seventh (chord)

In music, the seventh factor of a chord is the note or pitch seven scale degrees above the root or tonal center. When the seventh is the bass note, or lowest note, of the expressed chord, the chord is in third inversion Play .

Conventionally, the seventh is fourth in importance to the root, fifth, and third, with third inversion being the third strongest inversion and the seventh variably minor or major.

Seventh chord

A seventh chord is a chord consisting of a triad plus a note forming an interval of a seventh above the chord's root. When not otherwise specified, a "seventh chord" usually means a dominant seventh chord: a major triad together with a minor seventh. However, a variety of sevenths may be added to a variety of triads, resulting in many different types of seventh chords.

In its earliest usage, the seventh was introduced solely as an embellishing or nonchord tone. The seventh destabilized the triad, and allowed the composer to emphasize movement in a given direction. As time passed and the collective ear of the western world became more accustomed to dissonance, the seventh was allowed to become a part of the chord itself, and in some modern music, jazz in particular, nearly every chord is a seventh chord. Additionally, the general acceptance of equal temperament during the 19th century reduced the dissonance of some earlier forms of sevenths.

Stradella bass system

The Stradella Bass System (sometimes called standard bass) is a buttonboard layout equipped on the bass side of many accordions, which uses columns of buttons arranged in a circle of fifths; this places the principal major chords of a key (I, IV and V) in three adjacent columns. In a typical layout, as pictured, each column contains, in order:

The major third above the root ("counter-bass")

The root note

The major chord

The minor chord

The dominant seventh chord

The diminished seventh chord

Tonicization

In music, tonicization is the treatment of a pitch other than the overall tonic (the "home note" of a piece) as a temporary tonic in a composition. In Western music that is tonal, the song or piece is heard by the listener as being in a certain key. A tonic chord has a dominant chord; in the key of C major, the tonic chord is C major and the dominant chord is G major or G dominant seventh. The dominant chord, especially if it is a dominant seventh, is heard by Western composers and listeners familiar with music as resolving (or "leading") to the tonic, due to the use of the leading note in the dominant chord. A tonicized chord is a chord other than the tonic chord to which a dominant or dominant seventh chord progresses. When a dominant chord or dominant seventh chord is used before a chord other than the tonic, this dominant or dominant seventh chord is called a secondary dominant. When a chord is tonicized, this makes this non-tonic chord sound temporarily like a tonic chord.

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