Dollar sign

The dollar or peso sign ($ or Cifrão symbol.svg) is a symbol used to indicate the units of various currencies around the world, including the peso and the US dollar. The symbol can interchangeably have one or two vertical strokes. In common usage, the sign appears to the left of the amount specified, as in $1 (read: one dollar).

$
Dollar sign

Origin

Potosi Real
Spanish silver real or peso of 1768 - the right-hand pillar clearly resembles the dollar sign.
Philip V Coin silver, 8 Reales Mexico
Silver 8 real coin of Philip V of Spain, 1739 - This earlier example pre-dates other explanations by at least 30 years.
Columnas Plus Ultra
The Pillars of Hercules with a small "S" shaped ribbon around in the City of Seville, Spain (16th century).

Pillars of Hercules

A common hypothesis holds that the sign derives from the symbolic representation of the Pillars of Hercules. This representation can have either a banner separately around each pillar, or, as in the Spanish coat of arms, a banner curling between them.

In 1492, Ferdinand II of Aragon adopted the symbol of the Pillars of Hercules and added the Latin warning Non plus ultra meaning "nothing further beyond", indicating "this is the end of the (known) world". But when Christopher Columbus came to America, the legend was changed to Plus ultra, meaning "further beyond". The Pillars of Hercules wrapped in a banner thus became a symbol of the New World. The link between this symbol and the dollar sign is more clearly seen in Spanish coins of the period, which show two pillars, each with a separate banner, rather than one banner spanning both pillars. In this example the right-hand pillar clearly resembles the dollar sign, and additionally directly relates to the use of money.

The symbol was adopted by Charles V and was part of his coat of arms representing Spain's American possessions. The symbol was later stamped on coins minted in gold and silver. The coin, also known as Spanish dollar, was the first global currency used in the world since the Spanish Empire was the first global empire. These coins, depicting the pillars over two hemispheres and a small "S"-shaped ribbon around each, were spread throughout America, Europe and Asia. According to this, traders wrote signs that, instead of saying "Spanish dollar" (piece of eight, real de a ocho in Spanish or peso duro), had this symbol made by hand, and this in turn evolved into a simple S with two vertical bars. When the United States gained their independence from Great Britain, they created the US dollar, but in its early decades they continued to use the Spanish dollar, which was more trusted in all markets.

The United States, even after independence, was still using the pound sterling as currency. This is attested in state legislation of the early 1780s, referring to pounds[1] and pence,[2] which predated the U.S. Constitution and federal legislation.

Given the origin of this theory – related to Spanish (and Portuguese) colonisation of the Americas – it is likely that the cifrão or peso signs share the same origin, and that the double stroke usage is merely a stylistic variant, rather than a distinct character.

Alternative origin hypotheses

Dollar Symbol Evolution
Evolution of the dollar sign according to the best documented alternative hypothesis (top) and one alternative hypothesis (bottom)

The sign is first attested in Spanish American, American, Canadian, Mexican and other British business correspondence in the 1770s, referring to the Spanish American peso,[3][4] also known as "Spanish dollar" or "piece of eight" in North America, which provided the model for the currency that the United States adopted in 1792 and the larger coins of the new Spanish American republics such as the Mexican peso, Peruvian eight-real and Bolivian eight-sol coins.

This explanation holds that the sign evolved out of the Spanish and Spanish American scribal abbreviation "pˢ" for pesos. A study of late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century manuscripts shows that the s gradually came to be written over the p, developing into a close equivalent to the "$" mark.[5][6][7][8][9] A variation, though less plausible, of this hypothesis derives the sign from a combination of the Greek character "psi" (ψ) and "S".[10]

Other hypotheses

There are a number of other hypotheses about the origin of the symbol, some with a measure of academic acceptance, others the symbolic equivalent of false etymologies.[11]

Among the various hypotheses, the simplest one is that the barred S is actually a typo modified 8, from its obvious link with the pieces of eight, the popular name of the Spanish dollar. The added (single or double) bar should be the same commonly used to distinguish a letter dedicated to a currency value, like £.

Kingdom of Sicily deniers minted by Manfred of Hohenstaufen in the Kingdom of Sicily between 1258 and 1266 had what can be construed as an early dollar symbol. These coins were widely circulated outside Europe due to the Crusades, including the Crusade that targeted Tunis.

Drawn with two vertical lines

Several alternative hypotheses relate specifically to the dollar sign drawn with two vertical lines.

From "U.S."

A dollar sign with two vertical lines could have started off as a monogram of 'USA', used on money bags issued by the United States Mint. The letters U and S superimposed resemble the historical double-stroke dollar sign Cifrão symbol.svg: the bottom of the 'U' disappears into the bottom curve of the 'S', leaving two vertical lines. It is postulated in the papers of Dr. James Alton James, a professor of history at Northwestern University from 1897 to 1935, that the symbol with two strokes was an adapted design of the patriot Robert Morris in 1778.[12] Robert Morris was such a zealous patriot – known as the "Financier of the Revolution in the West" – that James came to believe that this hypothesis is viable.[13] A similar idea claims that the letters U and S would stand for unit of silver, referencing pieces of eight again, but that is unlikely since one would expect it to be in Spanish instead.

German thaler

Another hypothesis is that it derives from the symbol used on a German Thaler. According to Ovason (2004), on one type of thaler one side showed a crucifix while the other showed a serpent hanging from a cross, the letters NU near the serpent's head, and on the other side of the cross the number 21. This refers to the Bible, Numbers, Chapter 21 (see Nehushtan).

A similar symbol, constructed by superposition of "S" and "I" or "J", was used to denote German Joachimsthaler ("S" and "J" standing for St. Joachim who gave his name to the place where the first thalers were minted). It was known in the English-speaking world by the 17th century, appearing in 1686 edition of An Introduction to Merchants' Accounts by John Collins.[14]

Later history

Robert Morris was the first to use this symbol in official documents and in official communications with Oliver Pollock. The U.S. dollar was directly based on the Spanish Milled Dollar when, in the Coinage Act of 1792, the first Mint Act, its value was fixed (per the U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 8, clause 1 power of the United States Congress "To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures") as being "of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, and to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver".

According to a plaque in St Andrews, Scotland, the dollar sign was first cast into type at a foundry in Philadelphia, United States in 1797 by the Scottish immigrants John Baine, Archibald Binney and James Ronaldson.

Bailie bell plaque
The plaque in St. Andrews

The dollar sign did not appear on U.S. coinage until February 2007, when it was used on the reverse of a $1 coin authorized by the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005.[15]

The dollar sign appears as early as 1847 on the $100 Mexican War notes and the reverse of the 1868 $1000 United States note.[16] The dollar sign also appears on the reverse of the 1934 $100,000 note.

In Japanese and Korean, the Han character 弗 has been repurposed to represent the dollar sign due to its visual similarity.

Use in computer software

The dollar sign is one of the few symbols that are almost universally present in computer character sets but rarely needed in its literal meaning within computer software. As a result, the character has been used on computers for many purposes unrelated to money. Its uses in programming languages have often influenced or provoked its uses in operating systems and applications.

Encoding

The dollar sign "$" has Unicode code point U+0024 (inherited from Latin-1).

  • U+0024  $  DOLLAR SIGN (HTML $) ($ in HTML5[17])

There are no separate characters for one- and two-line variants. This is typeface-dependent.

There are also three other code points that originate from other East Asian standards: the Taiwanese small form variant, the CJK fullwidth form, and the Japanese emoji. The glyphs for these code points are typically larger or smaller than the primary code point, but the difference is mostly aesthetic or typographic, and the meanings of the symbols are the same.

  • U+FE69  ﹩  SMALL DOLLAR SIGN (HTML ﹩)
  • U+FF04  $  FULLWIDTH DOLLAR SIGN (HTML $)
  • U+1F4B2  💲  HEAVY DOLLAR SIGN (HTML 💲)

However, for usage as the special character in various computing applications (see following sections), U+0024 is typically the only code that is recognized.

Programming languages

  • $ was used for defining string variables in older versions of the BASIC language ("$" was often pronounced "string" instead of "dollar" in this use).
  • $ is used for defining hexadecimal constants in Pascal-like languages such as Delphi, and in some variants of assembly language.
  • $ is prefixed to names to define variables in the PHP language and the AutoIt automation script language, scalar variables in the Perl language (see sigil (computer programming)), and global variables in the Ruby language. In Perl programming this includes scalar elements of arrays $array[7] and hashes $hash{foo}.
  • In most shell scripting languages, $ is used for interpolating (substitution of) environment variables, special variables, arithmetic computations and special characters, and for performing translation of localised strings. Christopher Stratchey's GPM, the inspiration for the Multics shell, used the non-ASCII symbol § for macro expansion.
  • $ is used in the ALGOL 68 language to delimit transput format regions.
  • $ is used in the TeX typesetting language to delimit mathematical regions.
  • In many versions of FORTRAN 66, $ could be used as an alternative to a quotation mark for delimiting strings.
  • In PL/M, $ can be used to put a visible separation between words in compound identifiers. For example, 'Some$Name' refers to the same thing as 'SomeName'.
  • In Haskell, $ is used as a function application operator.
  • In an AutoHotkey script, a hotkey declared with $ is not triggered by a 'Send' command elsewhere in the script.
  • In several JavaScript frameworks such as Prototype.js and jQuery, $ is a common utility class, and is often referred to as the buck.
  • In JavaScript from ES6 onward it is used inside template literals to insert the value of a variable. For example, if var word = such then `as ${word}` would equal 'as such'
  • In C#, $ marks a string literal as an interpolated string.
  • In ASP.NET, the dollar sign used in a tag in the web page indicates an expression will follow it. The expression that follows is .NET language-agnostic, as it will work with c#, vb.net, or any CLR supported language.
  • In Erlang, the dollar sign precedes character literals. The dollar sign as a character can be written $$.
  • In COBOL the $ sign is used in the Picture clause to depict a floating currency symbol as the left most character. The default symbol is $ however if the CURRENCY= or CURRENCY SIGN clause is specified, any single symbol can be used.
  • In some assembly languages, such as MIPS, the $ sign is used to represent registers.
  • In Honeywell 6000 series assembler, the $ sign, when used as an address, meant the address of the instruction in which it appeared.
  • In CMS-2, the $ sign is used as a statement terminator.
  • In Q (programming language from Kx Systems), the $ sign is used as a casting/padding/enumeration/conditional operator.
  • In Sass, the $ sign is prefixed to define a variable.

Operating systems

  • In CP/M and subsequently in all versions of DOS (86-DOS, MS-DOS, PC DOS, more) and derivatives, $ is used as a string terminator (Int 21h with AH=09h).
    • $ is used by the prompt command to insert special sequences into the DOS command prompt string.
  • In Microsoft Windows, $ is appended to the share name to hide a shared folder or resource. For example, "\\server\share" will be visible to other computers on a network, while "\\server\share$" will be accessible only by explicit reference. Hiding a shared folder or resource will not alter its access permissions but may render it unaccessible to programs or other functions which rely on its visibility. Most administrative shares are hidden in this way.
  • In Unix-like systems the $ is often part of the command prompt, depending on the user's shell and environment settings. For example, the default environment settings for the bash shell specify $ as part of the command prompt.
    The using history expansion !$ (same as !!1$ and !-1$) means the last argument of the previous command in bash: !-2$ expands to the last argument of the penultimate command, !5$ expands into the last argument of the fifth command and so on. For example:
> touch my_first_file
> echo "This is my file." > !$
where !$ expands into my_first_file.
  • In the LDAP directory access protocol, $ is used as a line separator in various standard entry attributes such as postalAddress.
  • In the UNIVAC EXEC 8 operating system, "$" means "system". It is appended to entities such as the names of system files, the "sender" name in messages sent by the operator, and the default names of system-created files (like compiler output) when no specific name is specified (e.g., TPF$, NAME$, etc.)
  • In RISC OS, $ is used in system variables to separate the application name from the variables specific to that application. For example Draw$Dir specifies the directory where the !Draw application is located. It is also used to refer to the root directory of a file system.

Applications

Currencies that use the dollar or peso sign

In addition to those countries of the world that use dollars or pesos, a number of other countries use the $ symbol to denote their currencies, including:

An exception is the Philippine peso, whose sign is written as .

The dollar sign is also still sometimes used to represent the Malaysian ringgit (which replaced the local dollar), though its official use to represent the currency has been discontinued since 1993.

Some currencies use the cifrão (Cifrão symbol.svg), similar to the dollar sign, but always with two strokes:

In Mexico and other peso-using countries, the cifrão is used as a dollar sign when a document uses both pesos and dollars at the same time, to avoid confusion, but when the dollar sign is used alone (not in conjunction with the cifrão), it is usually represented as US $ (United States dollars) or by its ISO 4217 code "USD". Example: US $5 or 5 USD (five U.S. dollars).

However, in Argentina, the $ sign is always used for pesos, and if they want to indicate dollars, they always write U$S 5 or US$5 (5 US dollars).

In the United States, Mexico, Australia, Argentina, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Pacific Island nations, and English-speaking Canada, the dollar or peso symbol precedes the number. Five dollars or pesos is written and printed as $5, whereas five cents is written as 5¢. In French-speaking Canada, the dollar symbol usually appears after the number (5$).

Other uses

The symbol is sometimes used derisively to indicate greed or excess money such as in "Micro$oft", "George Luca$", "Lar$ Ulrich", "Di$ney", "Chel$ea" and "GW$"; or supposed overt Americanisation as in "$ky". The dollar sign is also used intentionally to stylize names such as A$AP Rocky, Ke$ha and Ty Dolla $ign or words such as ¥€$. In 1872, Ambrose Bierce referred to the California Governor as $tealand Landford.[19]

In Scrabble notation, a dollar sign is placed after a word to indicate that it is valid according to the North American word lists, but not according to the British word lists.[20]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Massachusetts Copyright Statute,(1783), p. 370".
  2. ^ "Maryland Copyright Statute (1783)".
  3. ^ Kinnaird, Lawrence (July 1976). "The Western Fringe of Revolution". The Western Historical Quarterly. 7 (3): 259. JSTOR 967081.
  4. ^ Popular Science (February 1930). "Origin of Dollar Sign is Traced to Mexico". Popular Science: 59. ISSN 0161-7370.
  5. ^ Cajori, Florian (1993) [1929]. A History of Mathematical Notations. 2. pp. 15–29.
  6. ^ Aiton, Arthur S.; Wheeler, Benjamin W. (May 1931). "The First American Mint". The Hispanic American Historical Review. 11 (2): 198. JSTOR 2506275.
  7. ^ Nussbaum, Arthur (1957). A History of the Dollar. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 56. The foreign coins remained in circulation [in the United States], and the more important among them, especially the Spanish (including the Mexican) dollars, were declared by Congress on February 9, 1793, to be legal tender. The dollar sign, $, is connected with the peso, contrary to popular belief, which considers it to be an abbreviation of 'U.S.' The two parallel lines represented one of the many abbreviations of 'P,' and the 'S' indicated the plural. The abbreviation '$.' was also used for the peso, and is still used in Argentina.
  8. ^ Riesco Terrero, Ángel (1983). Diccionario de abreviaturas hispanas de los siglos XIII al XVIII: Con un apendice de expresiones y formulas juridico-diplomaticas de uso corriente. Salamanca: Imprenta Varona. p. 350. ISBN 84-300-9090-8.
  9. ^ Bureau of Engraving and Printing. "What is the origin of the $ sign?". Resources: FAQs. Retrieved 2016-04-08.
  10. ^ Larson, Henrietta M. (October 1939). "Note on Our Dollar Sign". Bulletin of the Business Historical Society. 13 (4): 57–58. JSTOR 3111350.
  11. ^ F. Cajori discusses the origins of the slash-8, the Potosi mint mark, the Pillars of Hercules, the "U.S.", the Roman sestertius, and the Boaz and Jachin hypotheses and discounts them in A History of Mathematical Notations (Vol. 2), 15–20.
  12. ^ James, James Alton (1970) [1937]. Robert Morris: The Life and Times of an Unknown Patriot. Freeport: Books for Libraries Press. p. 356. ISBN 978-0-8369-5527-9.
  13. ^ James, James Alton (1929). "'Robert Morris, Financier of the Revolution in the West'". The Mississippi Valley Historical Review.
  14. ^ Florence Edler de Roover. Concerning the Ancestry of the Dollar Sign. - Bulletin of the Business Historical Society. Vol. 19, No. 2 (Apr., 1945), pp. 63-64
  15. ^ Pub. L. No. 109-145, 119 Stat. 2664 (Dec. 22, 2005).
  16. ^ Cuhaj, p. 100, 321–22
  17. ^ HTML5 is the only version of HTML that has a named entity for the dollar sign, see https://www.w3.org/TR/html4/sgml/entities.html ("The following sections present the complete lists of character entity references.") and https://www.w3.org/TR/2014/CR-html5-20140731/syntax.html#named-character-references ("dollar;").
  18. ^ http://web.pdx.edu/~stipakb/CellRefs.htm
  19. ^ Roy Morris (1995). Ambrose Bierce: Alone in Bad Company. Oxford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 9780195126280.
  20. ^ "Scrabble Glossary". Tucson Scrabble Club. Retrieved 2012-02-06.

References

  • Cajori, Florian (1993). A History of Mathematical Notations. New York: Dover (reprint). ISBN 0-486-67766-4. – contains section on the history of the dollar sign, with much documentary evidence supporting the "pesos" hypothesis.
  • Cuhaj, George (2009). Standard Catalog of United States Paper Money. Krause Publications, 28th Ed. ISBN 0-89689-939-X.
  • Ovason, David (2004-11-30). The Secret Symbols of the Dollar Bill. Harper Paperbacks (reprint). ISBN 0-06-053045-6.
Australian dollar

The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of Australia (including its external territories Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island), and of three independent Pacific Island states, specifically Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu. It was introduced on 14 February 1966 when the pre-decimal Australian pound, with subunits of shillings and pence, was replaced by the new decimal currency, the Australian dollar.

Within Australia, it is almost always abbreviated with the dollar sign ($), with A$ or AU$ sometimes used to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is subdivided into 100 cents.

In 2016, the Australian dollar was the fifth most traded currency in world foreign exchange markets, accounting for 6.9% of the world's daily share (down from 8.6% in 2013) behind the United States dollar, the European Union's euro, the Japanese yen and the United Kingdom's pound sterling. The Australian dollar is popular with currency traders, because of the comparatively high interest rates in Australia, the relative freedom of the foreign exchange market from government intervention, the general stability of Australia's economy and political system, and the prevailing view that the Australian dollar offers diversification benefits in a portfolio containing the major world currencies, especially because of its greater exposure to Asian economies and the commodities cycle.The Australian dollar was legal tender of Papua New Guinea until 1 January 1976, when the Papua New Guinean kina became the sole legal tender there.

Bahamian dollar

The dollar (sign: $; code: BSD) has been the currency of The Bahamas since 1966. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively B$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

Barbadian dollar

The dollar has been the currency of Barbados since 1935. The present dollar has the ISO 4217 code BBD and is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign "$" or, alternatively, "Bds$" to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

Belize dollar

The Belize dollar is the official currency in Belize (currency code BZD). It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively BZ$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies.

It is divided into 100 cents. The official value is pegged at 2 BZ$ = 1 US$.

British and American keyboards

There are two major English language computer keyboard layouts, the United States layout and the United Kingdom layout defined in BS 4822 (48-key version). Both are QWERTY layouts. Users in the United States do not frequently need to make use of the £ (pound) and € (euro) currency symbols, which are common needs in the United Kingdom and Ireland, although the $ (dollar sign) symbol is also provided as standard on UK and Irish keyboards. In commonwealth countries like Australia, Canada, Pakistan, India, and New Zealand, the US keyboard is commonly used.

Cayman Islands dollar

The Cayman Islands Dollar (currency code KYD) is the currency of the Cayman Islands. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively CI$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is subdivided into 100 cents. It is the 9th-highest-valued currency unit in the world, as of 5 November 2018.

Cifrão

The cifrão (Portuguese pronunciation: [siˈfɾɐ̃w̃] (listen)) is a currency sign similar to the dollar sign ($) but always written with two vertical lines: . It is the symbol of the former Portuguese currency and other past Brazilian currencies such as the Brazilian real (sign: R$; ISO: BRL) and is the official sign of the Cape Verdean escudo (ISO 4217: CVE).

It was formerly used by the Portuguese escudo (ISO: PTE) before its replacement by the euro and by the Portuguese Timor escudo (ISO: TPE) before its replacement by the Indonesian rupiah and the US dollar. In Portuguese and Cape Verdean usage, the cifrão is placed as a decimal point between the escudo and centavo values (e.g., 2$50). The name originates in the Arabic cifr.

Code page 903

Code page 903 is encoded for use as the single byte component of certain simplified Chinese character encodings. It is used in China. Despite this, it follows ISO 646-JP / the Roman half of JIS X 0201, in that it replaces the ASCII backslash 0x5C (rather than the ASCII dollar sign 0x24 as in GB 1988 / ISO 646-CN) with the yen/yuan sign. It also uses the same C0 replacement graphics as code page 897. When combined with the double-byte Code page 928, it forms the two code-sets of IBM code page 936.

Currency sign (typography)

The currency sign (¤) is a character used to denote an unspecified currency. It is sometimes used in place of a currency symbol that is not present in the font in use; for example, in place of the colón (₡). It can be described as a circle the size of a lowercase character with four short radiating arms at 45° (NE), 135° (SE), 225°, (SW) and 315° (NW). It is raised slightly above the baseline. It is represented in Unicode as U+00A4 ¤ CURRENCY SIGN (HTML ¤ · ¤ · Windows Alt+0164), \textcurrency in LaTeX. The character is sometimes called scarab.

Dollar

Dollar (often represented by the dollar sign $) is the name of more than 20 currencies, including those of Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Liberia, Namibia, New Zealand, Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States. The U.S. dollar is also the official currency of the Caribbean Netherlands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, Palau, and Zimbabwe. One dollar is generally divided into 100 cents.

Kesha

Kesha Rose Sebert (; born March 1, 1987; formerly stylized as Ke$ha) is an American singer, songwriter, rapper, and actress. In 2005, at age 18, Kesha was signed to Kemosabe Records. Her first major success came in early 2009 after she was featured on American rapper Flo Rida's number-one single "Right Round".

Kesha's music and image propelled her to immediate success. She has earned two number-one albums on the US Billboard 200 with Animal (2010) and Rainbow (2017), and the number-six record Warrior (2012). She has attained ten top-ten singles on the US Billboard Hot 100, including "Blah Blah Blah", "Your Love Is My Drug", "Take It Off", "Blow", "Die Young", "My First Kiss" with 3OH!3, and the chart-topping "Tik Tok", "We R Who We R", "Right Round" with Flo Rida, and "Timber" with Pitbull. "Tik Tok", at one point, was the best-selling digital single in history, selling over 16.5 million units internationally. She has written songs for other artists, including "Till the World Ends" for Britney Spears.

Kesha's career was halted between Warrior and Rainbow due to a legal dispute with her former producer Dr. Luke, which has been ongoing since 2014. A series of lawsuits, known collectively as Kesha v. Dr. Luke, were exchanged between the two parties in which Kesha accused him of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and employment discrimination against her, while Dr. Luke claims breach of contract and defamation by Kesha. Kesha has received several awards and nominations, including her win for the MTV Europe Music Award for Best New Act in 2010. As of November 2013, she has reportedly sold over 59 million records in the United States and 76 million records worldwide.

Liberation (Talib Kweli and Madlib album)

Liberation is a collaborative album by Talib Kweli and Madlib. It was made available as a free download from Stones Throw's Rappcats website, and Kweli and Madlib's MySpace pages for the first week of 2007, beginning New Year's Eve 2007. It was removed about a week later. One cover for the album is an adaptation of a piece by guerrilla artist Banksy, and an alternative cover (given away as a print-ready download) is a collage of Talib Kweli, a dollar sign, and the Statue of Liberty.

Liberian dollar

The dollar (currency code LRD) has been the currency of Liberia since 1943. It was also the country's currency between 1847 and 1907. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively L$ or LD$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

Namibian dollar

The Namibia dollar (symbol: $; code: NAD; Afrikaans: Namibiese dollar) has been the currency of Namibia since 1993. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively N$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

New Zealand dollar

The New Zealand dollar (sign: $; code: NZD, also abbreviated NZ$) (Māori: Tāra o Aotearoa) is the official currency and legal tender of New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, the Ross Dependency, Tokelau, and a British territory, the Pitcairn Islands. Within New Zealand, it is almost always abbreviated with the dollar sign ($), with "NZ$" sometimes used to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. In the context of currency trading, it is often informally called the "Kiwi" or "Kiwi dollar", since New Zealand is commonly associated with the indigenous bird and the one-dollar coin depicts a kiwi.

Introduced in 1967, the dollar is subdivided into 100 cents. Altogether there are ten denominations—five coins and five banknotes—with the smallest being the 10-cent coin. Formerly there were lower denominations, but those were discontinued due to inflation and production costs.

The New Zealand dollar is consistently one of the 10 most traded currencies in the world, being approximately 2.0% of global foreign exchange market daily turnover in 2013.

Shekel sign

The shekel sign (₪) is a currency sign used for the Israeli new shekel, which is the currency of the State of Israel.

Singapore dollar

The Singapore dollar (sign: S$; code: SGD) is the official currency of Singapore. It is divided into 100 cents. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or S$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. The Monetary Authority of Singapore issues the banknotes and coins of the Singapore dollar.

As of 2016, the Singapore dollar is the twelfth-most traded currency in the world by value. Apart from its use in Singapore, the Singapore dollar is also accepted as customary tender in Brunei according to the Currency Interchangeability Agreement between the Monetary Authority of Singapore and the Autoriti Monetari Brunei Darussalam (Monetary Authority of Brunei Darussalam). Likewise, the Brunei dollar is also customarily accepted in Singapore.

Solomon Islands dollar

The Solomon Islands dollar (ISO 4217 code: SBD) is the currency of Solomon Islands since 1977. Its symbol is "$", with "SI$" used to differentiate it from other currencies also using the dollar sign. It is subdivided into 100 cents.

Surinamese dollar

The Surinamese dollar (ISO 4217 code SRD) has been the currency of Suriname since 2004. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively Sr$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

Currencies named dollar or similar
Circulating
Circulating,
but renamed
Obsolete
Noncirculating
Conceptual
Virtual
Fictional
Private
See also
Currencies named peso or similar
Circulating
Obsolete
See also
Circulating
Historic
Uncirculated

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