Doktor nauk

Doktor nauk (Russian: Доктор наук, IPA: [ˈdoktər nɐˈuk]; Ukrainian: До́ктор нау́к; Bulgarian: Доктор на науките; Belarusian: Доктар навук; lit. "Doctor of Sciences") is a higher doctoral degree which may be earned after the Candidate of Sciences (the latter is informally regarded in Russia and many other post-Soviet states as equivalent to the PhD obtained in countries in which the PhD is not the highest academic degree).


The "Doktor Nauk" degree was introduced in Russia in 1819 and abolished in 1917. Later it was revived in the USSR on January 13, 1934, by a decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR.[1] By the same decision, a lower degree, "Candidate of Sciences" (Kandidat Nauk), roughly the Russian equivalent to the research doctorate in other countries, was first introduced. This system was generally adopted by the USSR/Russia and many post-Soviet/Eastern block states, including Bulgaria, Belarus, former Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Ukraine. Of note, the former Yugoslav degree "Doktor nauka" / "Доктор наука" / "Doktor znanosti", still awarded by Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia follows the Bologna Process and is therefore equivalent to either a PhD, or to a Higher Doctorate, depending on the institution awarding the degree.


Doktor nauk degrees are conferred by a national government agency called the Higher Attestation Commission (Vysshaya Attestatsionnaya Komissiya, VAK) on the solicitation by the specialized dissertation committee before which the candidate has defended her or his dissertation. Such committees are created in academic institutions with established research record and are accredited by VAK.[2] The total number of committee members is typically about 20, all holding the Doktor Nauk degree. The area of research specialization of at least five committee members must match the profile of the materials submitted by the doctoral candidate for the consideration. The candidate must conduct independent research. Therefore, no academic supervisor is required; moreover, typically the candidate is an established scholar him/herself, supervising a few Ph.D. students while working towards his or her Doktor Nauk dissertation. However, it is normal practice when an experienced consultant is appointed to help the scholar with identifying the research problem and finding the approach to solving it; yet this is not technically regarded a supervision.

The procedures of conferring of both Kandidat and Doktor academic degrees are more formal and different from conferring a Ph.D. degree in Western universities. In particular, for the Doktor, the academic institution, where the scholar is affiliated as a doctoral candidate, must conduct a preliminary review of the research results and personal contribution made by the candidate and, depending on findings, elect whether to render formal support or not. By definition, this highly prestigious degree can be conferred only for a significant contribution to science and/or technology based on a public defense of a thesis, monograph, or (in rare cases) of a set of outstanding publications in peer-reviewed journals. The defense must be held at the session of a Specialized Dissertation Committee accredited by VAK. Prior to the defense, three referees holding Doktor Nauk degrees themselves (the so-called "official opponents") must submit their written motivated assessments of the thesis. One more similar assessment is to be provided by some university or academic institution, working in the same field of science or technology, and in addition several other reviewers must mail their conclusions made based on a thesis summary (usually a 32-page brochure in natural sciences and 48 pages in social sciences).

In the former USSR, this degree is considered a sufficient credential for tenured full professorship at any institution of higher education. Unless an academic holds a Doktor Nauk, she or he can make it to a full professor only through 15 years or more of outstanding teaching service on the university level. At least one published and widely accepted textbook and the degree of Kandidat Nauk are required in the latter case, anyway. A Doktor Nauk degree holder can become a tenured full professor after just one year of teaching experience in a non-tenured faculty position. A degree of Doktor Nauk also enables its holders to claim an academic rank of a professor awarded by VAK or a new rank of a "Professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences" established in 2015.

The Doktor Nauk thus has no academic equivalent in North America, as it is a post-doctoral degree.

The German Habilitation and, to some extent, the French habilitation à diriger des recherches (HDR) are comparable to it, as are the British higher doctorates (e.g. Doctor of Science), although the last-mentioned are not required for career advancement. On the average, only 10 per cent of Kandidats eventually earn a Doktor degree. Although some exceptionally talented researchers in mathematics do earn Doktor Nauk in their late 20s, the average age of the scholars reaching Doktor in most disciplines is about 50; this implicitly indicates the amount of contribution that must be made.

According to the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, "In countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees, the degree of Doctor Nauk should be considered for recognition at the level of the second doctoral degree. In countries with only one doctoral degree, the degree of Doctor Nauk should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this degree."[3]

According to the International Standard Classification of Education, for purposes of international educational statistics

  1. D.Sc.; D.Phil. to Doktor Nauk in Philosophy,
  2. D.Lit.; Dr.Litt. to Doktor Nauk in Literature,
  3. D.Sc.; Dr.Nat.Sci. to Doktor Nauk of Natural Science,
  4. LL.D.; D.Sci.Jus. to Doktor Nauk of Legal Science.[4]

See also


  1. ^ Leitenberg, Milton and Raymond A. Zilinskas (2012), The Soviet Biological Weapons Program: A History, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2012, Table 2.1.
  2. ^ NIC ARaM of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation
  3. ^ "Guidelines for the recognition of Russian qualifications in the other European countries". Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  4. ^ Par. 262 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) UNESCO 2011
Academic ranks in Russia

Academic ranks in Russia (also called scientific ranks) are the conferred titles, indicating relative importance and power of professors, researchers, and administrative personnel in Russian academia and scientific institutions. The rank “certifies” the demonstrated ability of an individual to function in the specific academic position(s).

Alexei Stanislavovich Avtonomov

Alexei Stanislavovich Avtonomov (born 9 March 1959 in Moscow) is a Russian legal scholar, member of UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination since 2003. He graduated from MGIMO in 1981 and was awarded Candidate of Sciences (equivalent of PhD) degree in 1984. In 1999, he was awarded Doktor nauk degree. Since 2001, Avtonomov is a professor of the State University of Humanitarian Sciences. Since 2004, he is senior research fellow of the Institute of State and Law. Avtonomov is also a professor of the Higher School of Economics.

Avram Moiseevich Razgon

Avram Moiseevich Razgon (Russian: Аврам Моисе́евич Разго́н́; 6 January 1920, Yartsevo – 3 February 1989, Moscow) was a Russian historian and a prominent Soviet theoretician of museology, Doktor nauk (1974), and university professor (1986).

Candidate of Sciences

Kandidat nauk (Russian: Кандидат наук, literally "Candidate of Sciences") is the first of two doctoral level scientific degrees in some former Soviet countries. It is formally classified as UNESCO ISCED level 8, 'doctoral or equivalent', and is thus officially translated into English and other languages as Doctor of Philosophy (i.e. PhD) and recognised as such.

As in Germany, former Soviet countries have an additional doctoral degree, Doktor nauk (Доктор наук), which by official agreement is equivalent to habilitation and typically requires 10 years of original research after Kandidat nauk is attained.

Dmitry Borisovich Prusakov

Dmitry Borisovich Prusakov) (born 31 July 1965, Moscow) is a Russian Egyptologist with Doktor nauk of history. He is a graduate of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, chief research officer at Institute of Oriental Studies RAN, member of the University of Chicago Oriental Institute and of the Egypt Exploration Society (London) and has participated in various archaeological expeditions. He investigates the socio-ecological history of the ancient world and is one of the leading Russian specialists in Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt.


Doktor may refer to:

the word "doctor" in Slavic and Germanic languages

Doktor nauk, a post-doctoral degree in post-Soviet states

Doktoringenieur, a post-doctoral degree in Germany

Martin Doktor, a sprint canoer

Paul Doktor, a violinist

Doktor Yosifovo, a village in Bulgaria

Doktor Yusefpur Fishery, a village in Iran

Doktor Sleepless, a comic book by Warren Ellis

Doktor Dolittle, an album by Fred Akerstrom

"Pan Doktor" and "Stary Doktor", nicknames used for children's author Janusz Korczak

Elena Efimovna Kuzmina

Elena Efimovna Kuzmina (Russian: Еле́на Ефи́мовна Кузьмина́; 13 April 1931 – 17 October 2013) was a Russian archaeologist. She was the Chief Research Officer of the Russian Institute for Cultural Researches. She led twenty five archaeological expeditions and participated in over a hundred, mostly in the Eurasian steppe region.She received her Candidate of Sciences degree in archaeology in 1964 at the Moscow State University, and her Doktor nauk degree in 1988. She was a full professor of archaeology from 1988 to 2013.

She was the head scholar of the Russian Institute for Cultural Research. She was also an academician, member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (1988), Corresponding Fellow of the German Archaeological Institute (1982), member of the Italian Società Iranologica Europea (1996), and of the European Association of South Asian Archaeologists.

In 2009, she won Iran's World Prize for book of the year for her book The Origins of the Indo-Iranians.

Igor A. Shiklomanov

Igor Alekseyevich Shiklomanov (Russian: Игорь Алексеевич Шикломанов; February 28, 1939, Tver Oblast - August 22, 2010, St. Petersburg) was a Russian hydrologist, Doktor nauk, Professor, Director of the Russian State Hydrological Institute from 1981, Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (since 2001), Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation (1999), Laureate of the 2001 International Hydrology Prize and of the 2006 Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement.He graduated from the Russian State Hydrometeorological University in 1961.

In 1967, he defended his Candidate's Dissertation.

He was a student of Professor Daniil Sokolovsky.

In 1977, he defended his doctoral dissertation.

I.A.Shiklomanov is the author more than 220 scientific papers including 11 monographs.

Inesa Kozlovskaya

Inesa Benediktovna Kozlovskaya (Russian: Инеса Бенедиктовна Козловская; b. June 2, 1927 in Harbin) is a Soviet Russian physiologist, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation (1996).

She is a Doktor nauk of Medical Sciences, Professor, and is (since 1977) fellow researcher at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP).She is a laureate of the 2001 State Prize of the Russian Federation.

Ivan Antanovich (politician)

Ivan Ivanavich Antanovich (Belarusian: Іван Іванавіч Антановіч, Russian: Иван Иванович Антонович born 3 April 1937) is a Belarusian sociologist, linguist, political scientist, philosopher, diplomat, and politician. He was a professor of sociology in 1973 and a doctorate for Doktor nauk in 1977. He is a founder of the Republican Party of Labour and Justice. He was the Minister of Foreign Affairs for Belarus from 1997 to 1998. He speaks fluent Belarusian, Russian and English.

Ivan Bekh

Ivan Bekh (born October 9, 1940) is a professor who currently holds the position of Director of the Institute for Educational Problems. He was born in Vilchya, a village in the Polissya district of the Kiev Oblast province, and he is a respected member of the science and technology fields in Ukraine. Bekh is also a doctor of psychology (Doktor nauk) and an active member of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine.

Ivanovo State University

Ivanovo State University (Russian: Ива́новский госуда́рственный университе́т) or IvSU (Russian: ИвГУ) is in Ivanovo, about 300 km east of Moscow, Russia. The University was founded in 1918; before 1974 was called Ivanovo State Pedagogical Institute.

IvSU has accreditation and license from the Russian Ministry of Education. It is a member of Euroasian association of universities and Russian Association of Classical Universities, co-operates with educational institutions of Germany (Passau University and the Berlin Technical University), Sweden (University of Uppsala), Denmark (Aarhus University, Institute of Business and Technology in Herning) and China (Xiangtan University) among many others. The training of international students has started in 60's with the programs for the students from socialist countries. In 1982 the separated Department of Russian as a Foreign Language was created in order to prepare international students to study in Russia. It was the first university in the region offering degrees unusual in the Soviet system: economics (1976), law (1962), sociology (1999) and applied programming.

IvSU has different types of programs from traditional five years specialist degree to four years bachelor's degree and two years master's degree following the modernization of Russian education system and Bologna Process. Also, the university has 10 specialized councils that grant the degree of Kandidat Nauk as well as postgraduate degree of Doktor Nauk in the fields of history, technical science, linguistics, philosophy and economics.

Kaliningrad State Technical University

Kaliningrad State Technical University (Russian: Калининградский государственный технический университет, (КГТУ); abbreviated KSTU) is a technical university at Victory Square in Kaliningrad, Russia. It is located in the former combined Amtsgericht and Landgericht building of Königsberg, Germany.

Having been founded on the basis of Moscow Technical Institute for the Fishery Industry, KSTU is justly considered as the beginning of Russian higher fishery education and a range of scientific schools in navigation, commercial fishery, and progressive technologies of food production. At present, it develops as a multi-disciplinary institution considering the demands and the economic potential of the Region, maintaining traditions of high quality specialist training for the fishery industry.

Students are trained in 42 higher educational courses at various levels, namely, Bachelor, Professional Diploma, Master, Doctor of Philosophy (Kandidat Nauk) and Doctor of Science (Doktor Nauk) Degrees; professionals are offered various upgrading courses.600 teachers and researchers, including 75 professors holding the Doktor Nauk Degree, 80 academicians and corresponding members of international and public Russian Academies of Science form the faculty if the University. 28 scientists are awarded titles of honoured workers of science, Russian higher education, branches of science, and the fishery industry.

Scientific research is traditionally undertaken in many areas being the most important for the modern navigation, fisheries and seafood processing, power engineering, construction, production automation and control, information technology, natural science, nano-technology, etc. The University founded effectively working schools in ichthyology, commercial fishery, shipbuilding and repair, automation of production and control, technique and technology of raw materials processing. There are 12 research laboratories and scientific centres, four of them being of the applied character. Four dissertation councils work at the University.

Recently, intensification of scientific work has involved the University into 25 federal scientific programmes, as well as in TEMPUS and TACIS projects. Regional representatives of public professional Academies of Science applied Centre for new Information Technologies, Research Institute for Maritime Engineering Service, Institute of Ecology and Sustainable Development successfully operate on the University basis.

International co-operation of the University with foreign educational and research organizations is constantly expanding, with the Baltic Sea region in particular.

Developing progressively, Kaliningrad State Technical University looks ahead with confidence.

Ludmila Peterson

Ludmila Georgievna Peterson, (Russian: Людми́ла Гео́ргиевна Пе́терсон) – Russian educator, Doktor nauk (equivalent of PhD). Author of mathematical curricula for preK-Middle School students. Namely she created textbooks and workbooks:

“Playbook – Steps to school” ("Игралочка – ступеньки к школе")

"Learn to Learn" и ("Учись учиться")

and othersShe is Chief Scientist of Center of Active Education "School 2000", ("Школа 2000") and "Perspective", ("Перспектива") Complex of Education.

In northern spring of 2014 mathematical textbooks by Ludmila Peterson didn't pass annual state Evaluation and excluded from federally approved list of textbooks for 2014/2015. The evaluator from Russian Academy of Education stated that "It is unlikely the contents of the textbook will encourage the sense of patriotism and pride for the Country and the People".

Luka Kyzya

Luke E. Kyzya (Ukrainian: Лука Єгорович Кизя) (8 February 1912 in Zhyhove, Seredyna-Buda Raion, Sumy Oblast – 29 December 1974 in Kyiv) - Ukrainian politician, a member of the guerrillas, researcher of the history of the Soviet-German war, Doktor nauk, diplomat, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. Permanent Representative of Ukraine to the United Nations.

Marina Tchebourkina

Marina Tchebourkina (Russian: Марина Николаевна Чебуркина) is a French and Russian organist and musicologist. She has a Doktor nauk (the highest post-doctoral) degree in Science of the Arts. Marina Tchebourkina is known as an expert in French Baroque organ art and an ambassador of Russian organ music.

Mikhail Volkenshtein

Mikhail Vladimirovich Volkenshtein (October 23, 1912 – February 18, 1992) was a notable Russian biophysicist, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor and Doktor nauk.

Vera Afanasyeva

Vera Vladimirovna Afanasyeva (Russian: Вера Владимировна Афанасьева) is a Professor at the Saratov State University and author, Doktor Nauk in Philosophy, Member of the Petrovskaya Academy of Sciences and Arts.Vera Afanasyeva was born and lives in Saratov.

She graduated from the Saratov State University in 1984, and earned her Candidat degree in 1991.

In 2002, she defended her doctoral thesis.Afanasyeva is the author of 10 monographs and about 200 scientific articles.She has two daughters.

Vladimir Dergachev

Vladimir Alexandrovich Dergachev (Russian: Владимир Александрович Дергачёв) (born 9 September 1945 in Zabaykalsky Krai, Russian SFSR) is a Ukrainian expert in geopolitics. He holds a Doktor nauk in Geography, and is a Professor in the Union of Journalists of Ukraine.

Dergachev is an ethnic Russian living in Odessa, Ukraine. He is a graduate of the Moscow State University.

Dergachev has authored over 550 scientific and popular writings, including:

The Geopolitics (Kiev: VIRA-R, 2000) ISBN 966-95440-5-X;

The Geoeconomics (Kiev: VIRA-R, 2002) ISBN 966-7807-15-0;

The Civilization Geopolitics: Geophilosophy (Kiev: VIRA-R, 2004) ISBN 966-7807-17-7;

The Geopolitics Textbook (M.: UNITI- DANA, 2004) ISBN 5-238-00779-5;

The Regionology (M.: UNITI- DANA, 2004, co-authored by L.B. Vardomsky) ISBN 5-238-00765-5;

The International Economic Relations (M.: UNITI- DANA, 2005) ISBN 5-238-00863-5;

The Globalistics (M.: UNITI- DANA, 2005)ISBN 5-238-00957-7 .He has frequently contributed to Kiev and Moscow newspapers such as Izvestiya, Literaturnaya Gazeta, Economicheskaya Gazeta, and Obschaya Gazeta.

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