Doha (Arabic: الدوحة‎, ad-Dawḥa or ad-Dōḥa, pronounced [adˈdawħa]) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar. Doha has a population of 1,850,000 in the city proper with the population close to 2.4 million.[1] The city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf in the east of the country. It is Qatar's fastest growing city, with over 80% of the nation's population living in Doha or its surrounding suburbs, and it is also the economic centre of the country.

Doha was founded in the 1820s as an offshoot of Al Bidda. It was officially declared as the country's capital in 1971, when Qatar gained independence from being a British Protectorate.[2] As the commercial capital of Qatar and one of the emergent financial centres in the Middle East, Doha is considered a world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Doha accommodates Education City, an area devoted to research and education.

The city was host to the first ministerial-level meeting of the Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization negotiations. It was also selected as host city of a number of sporting events, including the 2006 Asian Games, the 2011 Pan Arab Games and most of the games at the 2011 AFC Asian Cup. In December 2011, the World Petroleum Council held the 20th World Petroleum Conference in Doha.[3] Additionally, the city hosted the 2012 UNFCCC Climate Negotiations and is set to host a large number of the venues for the 2022 FIFA World Cup.[4] The city will also host the 140th Inter-Parliamentary Union Assembly in April 2019.

In May 2015, Doha was officially recognized as one of the New7Wonders Cities together with Vigan, La Paz, Durban, Havana, Beirut and Kuala Lumpur.[5]


Top to Bottom, Left to Right: Doha skyline in the morning, Modern buildings in West Bay district, Amiri Diwan which serves as the office of the Amir of Qatar, Sheraton hotel, Souq Waqif, Sword Arch on Hamad Street.
Top to Bottom, Left to Right: Doha skyline in the morning, Modern buildings in West Bay district, Amiri Diwan which serves as the office of the Amir of Qatar, Sheraton hotel, Souq Waqif, Sword Arch on Hamad Street.
Doha is located in Qatar
Location of Doha within Qatar
Doha is located in Asia
Doha (Asia)
Coordinates: 25°17′12″N 51°32′0″E / 25.28667°N 51.53333°ECoordinates: 25°17′12″N 51°32′0″E / 25.28667°N 51.53333°E
Country Qatar
 • City proper132 km2 (51 sq mi)
 • City proper2,382,000
 • Density18,000/km2 (47,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)


According to the Ministry of Municipality and Environment, the name "Doha" originated from the Arabic term dohat, meaning "roundness" — a reference to the rounded bays surrounding the area's coastline.[6]


Doha, Qatar Astronaut Imagery
A satellite view of Doha on the East coast of Qatar. As with most world cities, Doha developed on the water front around the Souq Waqif area today. It gradually spread out in a radial pattern with the use of ring roads.

Establishment of Al Bidda

The city of Doha was formed seceding from another local settlement known as Al Bidda. The earliest documented mention of Al Bidda was made in 1681, by the Carmelite Convent, in an account which chronicles several settlements in Qatar. In the record, the ruler and a fort in the confines of Al Bidda are alluded to.[7][8] Carsten Niebuhr, a German explorer who visited the Arabian Peninsula, created one of the first maps to depict the settlement in 1765 in which he labelled it as 'Guttur'.[7][9]

David Seaton, a British political resident in Muscat, wrote the first English record of Al Bidda in 1801. He refers to the town as 'Bedih' and describes the geography and defensive structures in the area.[10] He stated that the town had recently been settled by the Sudan tribe (Al-Suwaidi), whom he considered to be pirates. Seaton attempted to bombard the town with his warship, but returned to Muscat upon finding that the waters were too shallow to position his warship within striking distance.[11][12]

In 1820, British surveyor R.H. Colebrook, who visited Al Bidda, remarked on the recent depopulation of the town. He wrote:[11][13]

Guttur – Or Ul Budee [Al‐Bidda], once a considerable town, is protected by two square Ghurries [forts] near the sea shore; but containing no fresh water they are incapable of defence except against sudden incursions of Bedouins, another Ghurry is situated two miles inland and has fresh water with it. This could contain two hundred men. There are remaining at Ul Budee about 250 men, but the original inhabitants, who may be expected to return from Bahrein, will augment them to 900 or 1,000 men, and if the Doasir tribe, who frequent the place as divers, again settle in it, from 600 to 800 men.

The same year, an agreement known as the General Maritime Treaty was signed between the East India Company and the sheikhs of several Persian Gulf settlements (some of which were later known as the Trucial Coast). It acknowledged British authority in the Persian Gulf and sought to end piracy and the slave trade. Bahrain became a party to the treaty, and it was assumed that Qatar, perceived as a dependency of Bahrain by the British, was also a party to it.[14] Qatar, however, was not asked to fly the prescribed Trucial flag.[15] As punishment for alleged piracy committed by the inhabitants of Al Bidda and breach of treaty, an East India Company vessel bombarded the town in 1821. They razed the town, forcing between 300 and 400 natives to flee and temporarily take shelter on the islands between the Qatar and the Trucial Coast.[16]

Formation of Doha

Doha was founded in the vicinity of Al Bidda sometime during the 1820s.[17] In January 1823, political resident John MacLeod visited Al Bidda to meet with the ruler and initial founder of Doha, Buhur bin Jubrun, who was also the chief of the Al-Buainain tribe.[17][18] MacLeod noted that Al Bidda was the only substantial trading port in the peninsula during this time. Following the founding of Doha, written records often conflated Al Bidda and Doha due to the extremely close proximity of the two settlements.[17] Later that year, Lt. Guy and Lt. Brucks mapped and wrote a description of the two settlements. Despite being mapped as two separate entities, they were referred to under the collective name of Al Bidda in the written description.[19][20]

Al Bidda: View from the bay, 1823
Al Bidda: View from the bay, 1823

In 1828, Mohammed bin Khamis, a prominent member of the Al-Buainain tribe and successor of Buhur bin Jubrun as chief of Al Bidda, was embroiled in controversy. He had murdered a native of Bahrain, prompting the Al Khalifa sheikh to imprison him. In response, the Al-Buainain tribe revolted, provoking the Al Khalifa to destroy the tribe's fort and evict them to Fuwayrit and Ar Ru'ays. This incident allowed the Al Khalifa additional jurisdiction over the town.[21][22] With essentially no effective ruler, Al Bidda and Doha became a sanctuary for pirates and outlaws.[23]

Al Bidda trigonometrical plan 1823
‘Trigonometrical plan of the harbour of El Biddah on the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf’, 1823.

In November 1839, an outlaw from Abu Dhabi named Ghuleta took refuge in Al Bidda, evoking a harsh response from the British. A.H. Nott, a British naval commander, demanded that Salemin bin Nasir Al-Suwaidi, chief of the Sudan tribe in Al Bidda, take Ghuleta into custody and warned him of consequences in the case of non-compliance. Al-Suwaidi obliged the British request in February 1840 and also arrested the pirate Jasim bin Jabir and his associates. Despite the compliance, the British demanded a fine of 300 German krones in compensation for the damages incurred by pirates off the coast of Al Bidda; namely for the piracies committed by bin Jabir. In February 1841, British naval squadrons arrived in Al Bidda and ordered Al-Suwaidi to meet the British demand, threatening consequences if he declined. Al-Suwaidi ultimately declined on the basis that he was uninvolved in bin Jabir's actions. On 26 February, the British fired on Al Bidda, striking a fort and several houses. Al-Suwaidi then paid the fine in full following threats of further action by the British.[23][24]

Isa bin Tarif, a powerful tribal chief from the Al Bin Ali tribe, moved to Doha in May 1843. He subsequently evicted the ruling Sudan tribe and installed the Al-Maadeed and Al-Kuwari tribes in positions of power.[25] Bin Tarif had been loyal to the Al Khalifa, however, shortly after the swearing in of a new ruler in Bahrain, bin Tarif grew increasingly suspicious of the ruling Al Khalifa and switched his allegiance to the deposed ruler of Bahrain, Abdullah bin Khalifa, whom he had previously assisted in deposing of. Bin Tarif died in the Battle of Fuwayrit against the ruling family of Bahrain in 1847.[25]

Arrival of Al Thani

The Al Thani migrated to Doha from Fuwayrit shortly after Bin Tarif's death in 1847 under the leadership of Mohammed bin Thani.[26][27] In the proceeding years, the Al Thani assumed control of the town. At various times, they swapped allegiances between the two prevailing powers in the area: the Al Khalifa and the Saudis.[26]

Persian Gulf western sheet - Al Bidda Harbor
Plan of Al Bidda Harbour drawn in 1860 indicating the principal settlements and landmarks.

In 1867, a large number of ships and troops were sent from Bahrain to assault the towns Al Wakrah and Doha over a series of disputes. Abu Dhabi joined on Bahrain's behalf due to the conception that Al Wakrah served as a refuge for fugitives from Oman. Later that year, the combined forces sacked the two Qatari towns with around 2,700 men in what would come to be known as the Qatari–Bahraini War.[28][29] A British record later stated "that the towns of Doha and Wakrah were, at the end of 1867 temporarily blotted out of existence, the houses being dismantled and the inhabitants deported".[30]

The joint Bahraini-Abu Dhabi incursion and subsequent Qatari counterattack prompted the British political agent, Colonel Lewis Pelly, to impose a settlement in 1868. Pelly's mission to Bahrain and Qatar and the peace treaty that resulted were milestones in Qatar's history. It implicitly recognized Qatar as a distinct entity independent from Bahrain and explicitly acknowledged the position of Mohammed bin Thani as an important representative of the peninsula's tribes.[31]

A part of Doha as seen in January 1904. Most development was low-rise and use of locally available natural materials like rammed earth and palm fronds was common practice.

In December 1871, the Ottomans established a presence in the country with 100 of their troops occupying the Musallam fort in Doha. This was accepted by Mohammad bin Thani's son, Jassim Al Thani, who wished to protect Doha from Saudi incursions.[32] The Ottoman commander, Major Ömer Bey, compiled a report on Al Bidda in January 1872, stating that it was an "administrative centre" with around 1,000 houses and 4,000 inhabitants.[33]

Disagreement over tribute and interference in internal affairs arose, eventually leading to the Battle of Al Wajbah in March 1893. Al Bidda fort served as the final point of retreat for Ottoman troops. While they were garrisoned in the fort, their corvette fired indiscriminately at the townspeople, killing a number of civilians.[34] The Ottomans eventually surrendered after Jassim Al Thani's troops cut off the town's water supply.[35] An Ottoman report compiled the same year reported that Al Bidda and Doha had a combined population of 6,000 inhabitants, jointly referring to both towns by the name of 'Katar'. Doha was classified as the eastern section of Katar.[33][36] The Ottomans held a passive role in Qatar's politics from the 1890s onward until fully relinquishing control during the beginning of the first World War.[14]

20th century

The city's coastline in 1904 largely highlights the local community which was based on fishing and pearl diving.

Pearling had come to play a pivotal commercial role in Doha by the 20th century. The population increased to around 12,000 inhabitants in the first half of the 20th century due to the flourishing pearl trade.[37] A British political resident noted that should the supply of pearls drop, Qatar would 'practically cease to exist'.[38] In 1907, the city accommodated 350 pearling boats with a combined crew size of 6,300 men. By this time, the average prices of pearls had more than doubled since 1877.[39] The pearl market collapsed that year, forcing Jassim Al Thani to sell the country's pearl harvest at half its value. The aftermath of the collapse resulted in the establishment of the country's first custom house in Doha.[38]

Lorimer report (1908)

British administrator and historian J.G. Lorimer authored an extensive handbook for British agents in the Persian Gulf entitled Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf in 1908. In it, he gives a comprehensive account of Doha at the time:

Doha looking northwest 1934 (cropped)
"Dohah looking northwest", photographed by the Royal Air Force during a reconnaissance of the Qatar Peninsula on 9 May 1934.

Generally so styled at the present day, but Bedouins sometimes call it Dohat-al-Qatar; and it seems to have been formerly better known as Bida' (Anglice "Bidder"): it is the chief town of Qatar and is situated on the eastern side of that peninsula, about 63 miles south of its extremity at Ras Rakan and 45 miles north of Khor-al Odaid Harbour. Dohah stands on the south side of a deep bay at the south-western corner of a natural harbour which is about 3 miles in extent and is protected on the north-east and south-east sides by natural reefs. The entrance, less than a mile wide, is from the east between the points of the reefs; it is shallow and somewhat difficult, and vessels of more than 15 feet draught cannot pass. The soundings within the basin vary from 3 to 5 fathoms and are regular: the bottom is white mud or clay.

Town site and quarters, — The south-eastern point of the bay is quite low but the land on the western side is stony desert 40 or 50 feet above the level of the sea. The town is built up the slope of some rising ground between these two extremes and consists of 9 Fanqs or quarters, which are given below in their order from the east to the west and north: the total frontage of the place upon the sea is nearly 2 miles.[40]

An old district in Doha planned with narrow streets and rough plastered walls gives a glimpe of the city's past.

Lorimer goes on to list and describe the districts of Doha, which at the time included the still-existing districts of Al Mirqab, As Salatah, Al Bidda and Rumeilah.[41] Remarking on Doha's appearance, he states:

The general appearance of Dohah is unattractive; the lanes are narrow and irregular the houses dingy and small. There are no date palms or other trees, and the only garden is a small one near the fort, kept up by the Turkish garrison.[42]

As for Doha's population, Lorimer asserts that "the inhabitants of Dohah are estimated to amount, inclusive of the Turkish military garrison of 350 men, to about 12,000 souls". He qualified this statement with a tabulated overview of the various tribes and ethnic groups living in the town.[42]

British protectorate (1916–1971)

In April 1913, the Ottomans agreed to a British request that they withdraw all their troops from Qatar. Ottoman presence in the peninsula ceased, when in August 1915, the Ottoman fort in Al Bidda was evacuated shortly after the start of World War I.[43] One year later, Qatar agreed to be a British protectorate with Doha as its official capital.[44][45]

Buildings at the time were simple dwellings of one or two rooms, built from mud, stone and coral. Oil concessions in the 1920s and 1930s, and subsequent oil drilling in 1939, heralded the beginning of slow economic and social progress in the country. However, revenues were somewhat diminished due to the devaluation of pearl trade in the Persian Gulf brought on by introduction of the cultured pearl and the Great Depression.[46] The collapse of the pearl trade caused a significant population drop throughout the entire country.[37] It was not until the 1950s and 1960s that the country saw significant monetary returns from oil drilling.[14]

A view of Doha in the 1980s showing the Sheraton hotel, Westbay (pyramid-like building in the background) without any of the high-rises around it.

Qatar was not long in exploiting the new-found wealth from oil concessions, and slum areas were quickly razed to be replaced by more modern buildings. The first formal boys' school was established in Doha in 1952, followed three years later by the establishment of a girls' school.[47] Historically, Doha had been a commercial port of local significance. However, the shallow water of the bay prevented bigger ships from entering the port until the 1970s, when its deep-water port was completed. Further changes followed with extensive land reclamation, which led to the development of the crescent-shaped bay.[48] From the 1950s to 1970s, the population of Doha grew from around 14,000 inhabitants to over 83,000, with foreign immigrants constituting about two-thirds of the overall population.[49]


Qatar officially declared its independence in 1971, with Doha as its capital city.[2] In 1973, the University of Qatar was opened by emiri decree,[50] and in 1975 the Qatar National Museum opened in what was originally the ruler's palace.[51] During the 1970s, all old neighborhoods in Doha were razed and the inhabitants moved to new suburban developments, such as Al Rayyan, Madinat Khalifa and Al Gharafa. The metropolitan area's population grew from 89,000 in the 1970s to over 434,000 in 1997. Additionally, land policies resulted in the total land area increasing to over 7,100 hectares (about 17,000 acres) by 1995, an increase from 130 hectares in the middle of the 20th century.[52]

Developments in Doha's West bay district has seen an increase in the population density of the area with the construction of several high-rises.

In 1983, a hotel and conference center was developed at the north end of the Corniche. The 15-storey Sheraton hotel structure in this center would serve as the tallest structure in Doha until the 1990s.[52] In 1993, the Qatar Open became the first major sports event to be hosted in the city.[53] Two years later, Qatar stepped in to host the FIFA World Youth Championship, with all the matches being played in Doha-based stadiums.[54]

Qatar Petroleum tower, Palm tower B, Tornado tower, Doha tower and Al Jassimya tower seen (Left to Right) in the West Bay area in 2015.

The Al Jazeera Arabic news channel began broadcasting from Doha in 1996.[55] In the late 1990s, the government planned the construction of Education City, a 2,500 hectare Doha-based complex mainly for educational institutes.[56] Since the start of the 21st century, Doha attained significant media attention due to the hosting of several global events and the inauguration of a number of architectural mega-projects.[57] One of the largest projects launched by the government was The Pearl-Qatar, an artificial island off the coast of West Bay, which launched its first district in 2004.[58] In 2006, Doha was selected to host the Asian Games, leading to the development of a 250-hectare sporting complex known as Aspire Zone.[53] During this time, new cultural attractions were constructed in the city, with older ones being restored. In 2006, the government launched a restoration program to preserve Souq Waqif's architectural and historical identity. Parts constructed after the 1950s were demolished whereas older structures were refurbished. The restoration was completed in 2008.[59] Katara Cultural Village was opened in the city in 2010 and has hosted the Doha Tribeca Film Festival since then.[60]


Doha, Qatar
A view of Doha from the International Space Station in 2010 highlights the rapid development the city underwent since the discovery of oil in the 1960s.

Doha is located on the central-east portion of Qatar, bordered by the Persian Gulf on its coast. Its elevation is 10 m (33 ft).[61] Doha is highly urbanized. Land reclamation off the coast has added 400 hectares of land and 30 km of coastline.[62] Half of the 22 km² of surface area which Hamad International Airport was constructed on was reclaimed land.[63] The geology of Doha is primarily composed of weathered unconformity on the top of the Eocene period Dammam Formation, forming dolomitic limestone.[64]

Pearl-Qatar Doha Qatar 11Nov2017 SkySat
The Pearl is a purpose-built artificial island off the coast of Doha, connected to the mainland by a bridge.

The Pearl is an artificial island in Doha with a surface area of nearly 400 ha (1,000 acres)[65] The total project has been estimated to cost $15 billion upon completion.[66] Other islands off Doha's coast include Palm Tree Island, Shrao's Island, Al Safliya Island, and Alia Island.[67]

In a 2010 survey of Doha's coastal waters conducted by the Qatar Statistics Authority, it was found that its maximum depth was 7.5 meters (25 ft) and minimum depth was 2 meters (6 ft 7 in). Furthermore, the waters had an average pH of 7.83, a salinity of 49.0 psu, an average temperature of 22.7°C and 5.5 mg/L of dissolved oxygen.[68]


Doha has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh). Summer is very long, from May to September, when its average high temperatures surpass 38 °C (100 °F) and often approach 45 °C (113 °F). Humidity is usually the lowest in May and June. Dewpoints can surpass 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer. Throughout the summer, the city averages almost no precipitation, and less than 20 mm (0.79 in) during other months.[69] Rainfall is scarce, at a total of 75 mm (2.95 in) per year, falling on isolated days mostly between October to March. The winter's days are relativity warm while the sun is up and cool during the night. The temperature rarely drops below 7 °C (45 °F).[70]

Doha mean sea temperature[72]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
20.5 °C (68.9 °F) 19.1 °C (66.4 °F) 20.9 °C (69.6 °F) 23.7 °C (74.7 °F) 28.2 °C (82.8 °F) 30.9 °C (87.6 °F) 32.8 °C (91.0 °F) 33.9 °C (93.0 °F) 33.1 °C (91.6 °F) 31.0 °C (87.8 °F) 27.4 °C (81.3 °F) 23.1 °C (73.6 °F)


Historical population
1986[2] 217,294+171.6%
1998[74] 264,009+21.5%
2001[75] 299,300+13.4%
2004[2] 339,847+13.5%
2005[76][77] 400,051+17.7%
2010[78] 796,947+99.2%
Total population of the Doha metropolitan area[79]
Year Metro population
1997 434,000[52]
2004 644,000[80]
2008 998,651[81]

A significant portion of Qatar's population resides within the confines of Doha and its metropolitan area.[82] The district with the highest population density is the central area of Al Najada, which also accommodates the highest total population in the country. The population density across the greater Doha region ranges from 20,000 people per km² to 25 people per km².[83]

Ethnicity and languages

The population of Doha is overwhelmingly composed of expatriates, with Qatari nationals forming a minority. The largest portion of expatriates in Qatar are from South-East and South Asian countries, mainly India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Philippines, and Bangladesh with large numbers of expatriates also coming from the Levant Arab countries, North Africa, and East Asia. Doha is also home to a large number of expatriates from Europe, North America, South Africa, and Australia.[84]

Bilingual traffic sign qatar
A typical bilingual traffic sign in Doha denotes the zone numbers, street names and street numbers of 2 perpendicular streets.

Arabic is the official language of Qatar. English is commonly used as a second language,[85] and a rising lingua franca, especially in commerce.[86] As there is a large expatriate population in Doha, languages such as Malayalam, Tamil, Bengali, Tagalog, Spanish, French, Urdu and Hindi are widely spoken.[84]

In 2004, the Foreign Ownership of Real Estate Law was passed, permitting non-Qatari citizens to buy land in designated areas of Doha, including the West Bay Lagoon, the Qatar Pearl, and the new Lusail City.[57] Prior to this, expatriates were prohibited from owning land in Qatar. Ownership by foreigners in Qatar entitles them to a renewable residency permit, which allows them to live and work in Qatar.[82]

Registered live births in Doha by nationality[79][87]
Year Qatari Non-Qatari Total
2001 2,080 3,619 5,699
2002 1,875 3,657 5,532
2003 2,172 4,027 6,199
2004 2,054 3,760 5,814
2005 1,767 3,899 5,666
2006 1,908 4,116 6,024
2007 1,913 4,708 6,621
2008 1,850 5,283 7,133
2009 2,141 5,979 8,120
2010[88] 1,671 5,919 7,590
2011[89] 1,859 6,580 8,439

Each month, thousands immigrate to Qatar, and as a result, Doha has witnessed explosive growth rates in population. Doha's population currently stands at around one million,[81] with the population of the city more than doubling from 2000 to 2010. Due to the high influx of expatriates, the Qatari housing market saw a shortage of supply which led to a rise in prices and increased inflation. The gap in the housing market between supply and demand has narrowed, however, and property prices have fallen in some areas following a period which saw rents triple in some areas.[90]

According to Qatar Chamber, expatriate workers have remitted $60bn between 2006 and 2012. 54 percent of the workers' remittances of $60bn were routed to Asian countries, followed by Arab nations that accounted for nearly half that volume (28 percent). India was the top destination of the remittances, followed by the Philippines, while the US, Egypt and the neighbouring UAE trailed.[91]


The majority of residents in Doha are Muslim.[92] Catholics account for over 90% of the 150,000 Christian population in Doha.[93] Following decrees by the Emir for the allocation of land to churches, the first Catholic church, Our Lady of the Rosary, was opened in Doha in March 2008. The church structure is discreet and Christian symbols are not displayed on the outside of the building.[94] Several other churches exist in Doha, including the [1] St.Isaac and St. George Greek Orthodox Church of Qatar the Syro-Malabar Church, Malankara Orthodox Church, Mar Thoma Church (affiliated with the Anglicans, but not part of the Communion), CSI Church, Syro-Malankara Church and a Pentecostal church. A majority of mosques are either Muwahhid or Sunni-oriented.[95]



At the turn of the 20th century, Doha was divided into 9 main districts.[96] In the 2010 census, there were more than 60 districts recorded in Doha Municipality.[97] Some of the districts of Doha include:

Doha - panoramio (3)
Doha's Al Dafna area with the high-rises seen on the water front and the villa compounds and other residential areas seen in the background.

Shortly after Qatar gained independence, many of the districts of old Doha including Al Najada, Al Asmakh and Old Al Hitmi faced gradual decline and as a result much of their historical architecture has been demolished.[98] Instead, the government shifted their focus toward the Doha Bay area, which housed districts such as Al Dafna and West Bay.[98]


Doha City, UNCTAD XIII (7115124733)
West Bay serves as the commercial district of Doha and houses offices of many local and global companies.

Doha is the economic centre of Qatar. The city is the headquarters of numerous domestic and international organizations, including the country's largest oil and gas companies, Qatar Petroleum, Qatargas and RasGas. Doha's economy is built primarily on the revenue the country has made from its oil and natural gas industries.[99]

Beginning in the late 20th century, the government launched numerous initiatives to diversify the country's economy in order to decrease its dependence on oil and gas resources. Doha International Airport was constructed in a bid to solidify the city's diversification into the tourism industry.[99] This was replaced by Hamad International Airport in 2014. The new airport is almost twice the size of the former and features two of the longest runways in the world.[100]

As a result of Doha's rapid population boom and increased housing demands, real estate prices have raised significantly.[101] Real estate prices experienced a further spike after Qatar won the rights to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup.[102] Al Asmakh, a Qatari real estate firm, released a report in 2014 which revealed substantial increases in real estate prices following a peak in 2008. Prices increased 5 to 10% in the first quarter of 2014 from the end of 2013.[101][103] A 2015 study conducted by Numbeo, a crowd-sourced database, named Doha as the 10th most expensive city to live in globally.[104] This rate of growth has led to the development of planned communities in and around the city.[105]

Thirty-nine new hotels were under construction in 2011.[106] Doha was included in Fortune's 15 best new cities for business in 2011.[107]



Museum of Islamic Art park in the Doha Port area with the West Bay district in the background (across the bay).

Most traditional architecture in the Old Doha districts have been demolished to make space for new buildings.[98] As a result, a number of schemes have been taken to preserve the city's cultural and architectural heritage, such as the Qatar Museums Authority's 'Al Turath al Hai' ('living heritage') initiative.[108] Katara Cultural Village is a small village in Doha launched by sheikh Tamim Al Thani to preserve the cultural identity of the country.[109]

Skyline of the water front area as seen from the Doha Corniche.

In 2011, more than 50 towers were under construction in Doha,[106] the largest of which was the Doha Convention Center Tower.[110] Constructions were suspended in 2012 following concerns that the tower would impede flight traffic.[111]

In 2014, Abdullah Al Attiyah, a senior government official, announced that Qatar would be spending $65bn on new infrastructure projects in upcoming years in preparation for the 2022 World Cup as well as progressing towards its objectives set out in the Qatar National Vision 2030.[112]


Due to excessive heat from the sun during the summer, some Doha-based building companies have implemented various forms of cooling technology to alleviate the extremely torrid climatic conditions. This can include creating optical phenomena such as shadows, as well as more expensive techniques like ventilation, coolants, refrigerants, cryogenics, and dehumidifiers.[113] Discussions regarding temperature control have also been features of various scheduled events involving large crowds.[114] There are other initiatives that attempt to counter the heat by altering working hours, weather alteration methods such as cloud seeding,[115][116] and using whiter and brighter construction materials to increase the albedo effects.[117] Nonetheless, despite these measures, Doha and other areas of Qatar could become uninhabitable for humans due to climate change by the 2070s.[118]

مدينة الوعب
Al Waab City is a planned 3 district development in Doha designed to house over 8000 residents.[119]

Planned communities

One of the largest projects underway in Qatar is Lusail City, a planned community north of Doha which is estimated to be completed by 2020 at a cost of approximately $45bn. It is designed to accommodate 450,000 people.[120] Al Waab City, another planned community under development, is estimated to cost QR15 bn.[121] In addition to housing 8,000 individuals, it will also have shopping malls, educational, and medical facilities.[121]


Since 2004, Doha has been undergoing a huge expansion to its transportation network, including the addition of new highways, the opening of a new airport in 2014, and the currently ongoing construction of an 85 km metro system. This has all been as a result of Doha's massive growth in a short period of time, which has resulted in congestion on its roads. The first phase of the metro system is expected to be operational by 2019.[122]


Qatar, Dukhan Highway
Dukhan Highway connects the city of Dukhan on the West coast of the country with the country's capital, Doha.

In 2015, the Public Works Authority declared their plan to construct a free-flowing road directly linking Al-Wakrah and Mesaieed to Doha in order to decrease traffic congestion in the city. It is set for completion by 2018.[123]

Commutes between Doha and the municipality of Al Khor are currently facilitated by Al Shamal Road and Al Khor Coastal Road, with the latter road running through Al Daayen and the former running through Umm Salal.[124]

Doha is linked to the country's western settlements, namely Dukhan, through Dukhan Highway. The Public Works Authority carried out the Dukhan Highway Central Project in 2017 to enhance the road network.[125]


Doha Metro will consist of four lines: the Red Line, the Gold Line, the Blue Line and the Green Line. The Blue Line is expected to be completed in the second phase.[126] Msheireb Station will be the point of intersection for all of the metro lines.[122]

The Red Line (also known as Coast Line) will extend through Doha, running from Al Wakrah to Al Khor. It is separated into two divisions: Red Line North and Red Line South. The former will run from Mushayrib Station to Al Khor City, over a length of 55.7 km. Doha Metro's Green Line will connect Doha to Education City and is also known as the Education Line. Starting in Old Airport, the Gold Line (also known as Historic Line) will end in Al Rayyan and cover a distance of 30.6 km. Lastly, the Blue Line, or City Line, will only cover the city of Doha, and is planned to be circular with a length of 17.5 km.[127]


Doha is served by Hamad International Airport which is Qatar's principal international gateway. The airport opened in 2014, replacing Doha International Airport.


Doha is the educational center of the country and contains the highest preponderance of schools and colleges.[73] In 1952, the first formal boys' school was opened in Doha. This was proceeded by the opening of the first formal girls' school three years later.[128] The first university in the state, Qatar University, was opened in 1973.[129] It provided separate faculties for men and women.[130]

Education City, a 14 km2 education complex launched by non-profit organization Qatar Foundation, began construction in 2000.[131] It houses eight universities, the country's top high school, and offices for Al Jazeera's children television channel.[131] It is geographically located in Al Rayyan municipality's Al Luqta, Al Gharrafa, Gharrafat Al Rayyan and Al Shagub districts, but falls under the umbrella of Metropolitan Doha.[6]

In 2009, the government launched the World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE), a global forum that brings together education stakeholders, opinion leaders and decision makers from all over the world to discuss educational issues.[132] The first edition was held in Doha in November 2009.[133]

Some of the universities in Doha include:



Football is the most popular sport in Doha. There are six Doha-based sports clubs with football teams currently competing in the Qatar Stars League, the country's top football league. They are Al Ahli, Al Arabi, Al Sadd, Al-Duhail and Qatar SC.[136] Al Sadd, Al Arabi and Qatar SC are the three most successful teams in the league's history.[137]

Numerous football tournaments have been hosted in Doha. The most prestigious tournaments include the 1988 and 2011 editions of the AFC Asian Cup[138] and the 1995 FIFA World Youth Championship.[54]

In December 2010, Qatar won the rights to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup.[139] Three of the nine newly announced stadiums will be constructed in Doha, including Sports City Stadium, Doha Port Stadium, and Qatar University Stadium. Additionally, the Khalifa International Stadium is set to undergo an expansion.[140]


Doha was the host of the official 2005 FIBA Asia Championship, where Qatar's national basketball team finished 3rd, its best performance to date, and subsequently qualified for the Basketball World Cup.[141]

The majority of the teams that make up the official Qatari Basketball League are based in Doha.


Doha four times was the host of the official FIVB Volleyball Men's Club World Championship and three times host FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship. Doha one time Host Asian Volleyball Championship.[142]

Other sports

Orry the Oryx on a foggy night
Orry the Oryx, mascot of the 15th Asian Games, on the Doha Corniche in 2014.

In 2001, Qatar became the first country in the Middle East to hold a women's tennis tournament with the inauguration of its Qatar Ladies Open tournament.[143] Doha also hosts International Tennis Federation (ITF) ladies tournaments. Since 2008, the Sony Ericsson Championships (equivalent to the ATP's season-ending Championships) has taken place in Doha, in the Khalifa International Tennis Complex, and features record prize money of $4.45 million, including a check of $1,485,000 for the winner, which represents the largest single guaranteed payout in women's tennis.[144]

Doha hosted the 15th Asian Games, held in December 2006, spending a total of $2.8 billion for its preparation.[145] The city also hosted the 3rd West Asian Games in December 2005.[146] Doha was expected to host the 2011 Asian Indoor Games; but the Qatar Olympic Committee cancelled the event.[147]

Relekta (6989973445)
Powerboat races in Doha Bay.

The city submitted a bid for the 2016 Olympics.[148] On June 4, 2008, the city was eliminated from the shortlist for the 2016 Olympic Games. On August 26, 2011 it was confirmed that Doha would bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[149] Doha however failed to become a Candidate City for the 2020 Games.[150]

The MotoGP motorcycling grand prix of Doha is held annually at Losail International Circuit, located just outside the city boundaries.[151] The city is also the location of the Grand Prix of Qatar for the F1 Powerboat World Championship, annually hosting a round in Doha Bay.[152] Beginning in November 2009, Doha has been host of The Oryx Cup World Championship, a hydroplane boat race in the H1 Unlimited season. The races take place in Doha Bay.[153]

In April 2012 Doha was awarded both the 2014 FINA World Swimming Championships[154] and the 2012 World Squash Championships.[155] The fourth World Mindsports Championships took place in Doha from August 19 to August 27, 2017 with the participation of more than 1,000 competitors.[156]

Stadiums and sport complexes

Aspire dome Doha
An indoor stadium in the Aspire Zone sporting complex.

Aspire Academy was launched in 2004 with the aim of creating world-class athletes. It is situated in the Doha Sports City Complex, which also accommodates the Khalifa International Stadium, the Hamad Aquatic Centre, the Aspire Tower and the Aspire Dome. The latter has hosted more than 50 sporting events since its inception, including some events during the 2006 Asian Games.[157]

Sporting venues in Doha and its suburbs include:


The five-storeyed Museum of Islamic Art designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect I.M. Pei.[158]

Doha was chosen as the Arab Capital of Culture in 2010.[159] Cultural weeks organized by the Ministry of Culture, which featured both Arab and non-Arab cultures, were held in Doha from April to June to celebrate the city's selection.[160]


The Museum of Islamic Art in Doha, opened in 2008, is regarded as one of the best museums in the region.[161] This, and several other Qatari museums located in the city, like the Arab Museum of Modern Art, falls under the Qatar Museums Authority (QMA) which is led by Sheikha Al-Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, the sister of the emir of Qatar.[162]

Al jazeera arabic
Al Jazeera Arabic Building


Qatar's first radio station, Mosque Radio, began broadcasting in the 1960s from Doha.[163] The multinational media conglomerate Al Jazeera Media Network is based in Doha with its wide variety of channels of which Al Jazeera Arabic, Al Jazeera English, Al Jazeera Documentary Channel, Al Jazeera Mubasher, beIN Sports Arabia and other operations are based in the TV Roundabout in the city.[164] Al-Kass Sports Channel's headquarters is also located in Doha.[165]


The Doha Film Institute (DFI) is an organisation established in 2010 to oversee film initiatives and create a sustainable film industry in Qatar. DFI was founded by H.E. Sheikha Al Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani.[166]

The Doha Tribeca Film Festival (DTFF), partnered with the American-based Tribeca Film Festival, was held annually in Doha from 2009 to 2012.[167]


Theatre was introduced to Qatar in the mid-20th century. Theatrical performances are held at Qatar National Theater and at the Qatar National Convention Centre in Doha.

Twin towns and sister cities


Click on the thumbnail to enlarge.

Souq Waqif, Doha, Catar, 2013-08-05, DD 82

The spring festival at Souq Waqif, Doha

Souq Waqif, Doha, Catar, 2013-08-05, DD 38

An old mosque minaret stands out in front of the under-construction National Archive building in the Diwan Amiri Quarter of the Musheireb downtown Doha development.

Fuerte Al Koot, Doha, Catar, 2013-08-06, DD 03

Camels next to Al Koot Fort, one of Qatar's historic sites.

Doha Palace

Qatar's Amir (ruler) is housed in the Amiri Diwan located in the historic Al Bidda district.

Modern Doha

These twin towers are among the earliest towers in Doha and serve as a great example of post-modern architecture.

Msheireb Enrichment Centre moored off Doha Corniche

Msheireb Enrichment Centre moored off Doha Corniche is a learning center focused on the history and developments of Doha, particularly the Musheirib district.

Aspire Park Fountain

Aspire Park, Al Waab is one of the city's green spaces that forms a part of the Aspire zone.

Doha skyline from the Museum of Islamic Art, Doha, Qatar

Doha skyline from the Museum of Islamic Art.

Doha Qatar skyline at night Sept 2012

Doha skyline at night.

DOha corniche view1

Doha Corniche is the 7 km long water front that connects the new district of West Bay with the old district of Al-Bidda and Al-Souq on the other end.


Aerial view of a part of the city.


The Katara cultural village is designed to be a hub of human interaction connecting theatre, literature, music, visual art, conventions and exhibitions in a planned development on the waterfront.[187]

Torch tower, Aspire Park, Doha - panoramio (5)

Built to resemble a torch for the 2006 Asian games, the 300m high Aspire tower (Torch hotel) now houses a hotel with a 360 degree revolving restaurant at the top.

Qatar General Post Office, Doha

The post office building in Qatar sits located on the main Corniche street.

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External links

2006 Asian Games

The 2006 Asian Games (Arabic: دورة الألعاب الآسيوية ٢٠٠٦‎, Dawrat al-ʼAl‘ab al-Asīawīah 2006), officially known as the XV Asiad, was an Asian multi-sport event held in Doha, Qatar from December 1 to 15, 2006 with 424 events in 39 sports featured in the games. Doha was the first city in its region and only the second in West Asia (following Tehran in 1974) to host the games.

It was the first time that all 45 member nations of the Olympic Council of Asia took part in this event. Also, Eurosport broadcast the event, marking the first time that the European continent could watch this Asian sporting event. 22 venues including the games' village were used for the Games, with 18 of them are newly constructed.

The final medal tally was led by China followed by South Korea and Japan with host Qatar at 9th place. Tajikistan, Jordan and United Arab Emirates won their first ever Asian Games gold medals. 7 world and 16 Asian records were broken during the games. South Korean swimmer Park Tae-hwan was announced as the most valuable player (MVP) of the Games. Though there were several controversies such as the death of South Korean equestrian rider Kim Hyung-chil in a fatal accident during the competition, the games were deemed generally successful with the rising standard of competition amongst the Asian nations.

2010 IAAF World Indoor Championships

The 2010 IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics was held between 12 and 14 March at the Aspire Dome in Doha, Qatar. The championships was the first of six IAAF World Athletics Series events to take place in 2010.

2015 World Men's Handball Championship

The 2015 World Men's Handball Championship was the 24th staging of the World Men's Handball Championship, organised by the International Handball Federation (IHF). The final tournament was held for the first time in Qatar, from 15 January to 1 February 2015. The Qatari bid was selected over those of Norway, Poland and France after a vote by the IHF Council on 27 January 2011, in Malmö, Sweden.

This is the third time that the World Championship was hosted in the Middle East And North Africa, after Egypt in 1999 and Tunisia in 2005.

France won the final against Qatar 25–22 to win their fifth title, a first in handball history while Qatar won their first ever medal.Poland captured the bronze medal by defeating Spain 29–28 after extra time. Denmark secured the fifth place by winning against Croatia which finished sixth and thus had the worst result in the past 13 years of international handball competing.

The competition was marred by numerous controversies throughout.

ACS International Schools

ACS International Schools is a group of four private schools, three in England and one in Qatar. Until 2005, the organisation was known as American Community Schools. The four campuses are in Cobham and Egham in Surrey, the London Borough of Hillingdon, and the city of Doha in Qatar, the latter of which opened in September 2011. Full boarding fees are £46,930 ($60,000) per year.The head office is in Heywood House in Cobham.

Al-Arabi SC (Qatar)

Al-Arabi Sports Club (Arabic: النادي العربي الرياضي‎), is a Qatari sports club based in Doha, Qatar. Founded in 1952, the most prominent team of the club is the football team which plays in the Qatar Stars League. The club's home ground is the 13,000-seat Grand Hamad Stadium, where they have played since their establishment.

Al-Arabi had their first major success in 1978, winning the Emir of Qatar Cup, and won various titles during the 1980s and 1990s. The club enjoyed their greatest period of success in those two decades, winning 17 major trophies. Domestically, Al-Arabi have won seven league titles, eight Emir of Qatar Cups, one Qatar Crown Prince Cup and six Qatar Sheikh Jassem Cups.

Al-Arabi's regular kit colours are red shirts and shorts with red socks. The club's crest has been changed several times in attempts to re-brand the club and modernise its image. The current crest, featuring a ceremonial falcon, is a modification of the one introduced in the early 1950s. They are known for having one of the largest fan bases in Qatar next to rivals Al Rayyan. In terms of championships won, they are the second most successful club on a local level after Al Sadd. Al-Arabi is known by various nicknames including "Dream Team", "The Red Devils", and "Century Club".

Al-Duhail SC

Al-Duhail Sports Club (Arabic: نادي الدحيل الرياضي‎), formerly Lekhwiya SC, is a Qatari sports club, best known for its football team, which plays in the Qatar Stars League. The club is based in the Duhail district in the city of Doha and plays its home games at Abdullah bin Khalifa Stadium. It is the first team in Qatari football to win the first division title on its debut season.

In April 2017, it was announced that the club would take over El Jaish SC and merge with following the 2016–17 Qatar Stars League and be known as Al-Duhail Sports Club in rebranding of Lekhwiya SC.

Al-Gharafa SC

Al-Gharafa Sports Club (Arabic: نادي الغرافة الرياضي‎) is a Qatari sports club based in the Al Gharrafa district of Al Rayyan. It is best known for its football team, although it also has teams for other sports. It was established on 6 June 1979 as Al-Ittihad and later officially incorporated into the Qatar Football Association on 23 September that same year. The club was officially renamed to its current form in 2004 to better represent the district of Al-Gharafa, which the club belongs to.

The idea of creating the new club that would represent Gharafat Al-Rayyan sparked from a group of young Qataris in 1978. Most notably, people like Sheikh Mohammed bin Jassim Al-Thani, Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim Al-Thani, Sheikh Hamad bin Faisal Al-Thani, Sheikh Ali bin Abdullah Al-Thani and Saad Mohammad Al-Rumaihi. In a documentary produced by Al Kass sports channel about the history of the club, Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim mentioned that the idea was suggested by Saad Al-Romaihi initially who was working as a sports journalist at Al Raya newspaper.

Al Ahli SC (Doha)

Al Ahli SC (Arabic: النادي الأهلي الرياضي‎), also known as Al Ahli Doha is a Qatari multi-sport club based in Doha. It is most notable for its professional association football section. Their home ground is the Hamad bin Khalifa Stadium. It is the oldest sports club in Qatar, having been established in 1950.

Al Jazeera English

Al Jazeera English (AJE) is a Qatari pay television news channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar. It is the first English-language news channel to be headquartered in the Middle East. Instead of being run centrally, news management rotates between broadcasting centres in Doha and London.

Aspire Tower

Aspire Tower, also known as The Torch Doha, is a 300-metre-tall (980 ft) skyscraper hotel located in the Aspire Zone complex in Doha, Qatar. Designed by architect Hadi Simaan and AREP and engineer Ove Arup and Partners, the tower served as the focal point for the 15th Asian Games hosted by Qatar in December 2006.

The tower is currently the tallest structure and building in Doha and Qatar, but it will be surpassed by the Dubai Towers Doha and the Barwa Tower, when either project is completed. The tower has also been known as Khalifa Sports Tower or Doha Olympic Tower.

Brookings Institution

The Brookings Institution is an American research group founded in 1916 on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development. Its stated mission is to "provide innovative and practical recommendations that advance three broad goals: strengthen American democracy; foster the economic and social welfare, security and opportunity of all Americans; and secure a more open, safe, prosperous, and cooperative international system."Brookings has five research programs at its Washington, D.C. campus (Economic Studies, Foreign Policy, Governance Studies, Global Economy and Development, and Metropolitan Policy) and three international centers based in Doha, Qatar (Brookings Doha Center); Beijing, China (Brookings-Tsinghua Center for Public Policy); and New Delhi, India (Brookings India).The University of Pennsylvania's Global Go To Think Tank Index Report has named Brookings "Think Tank of the Year" and "Top Think Tank in the World" every year since 2008. The Economist describes Brookings as "perhaps America’s most prestigious think-tank".Brookings states that its staff "represent diverse points of view" and describes itself as non-partisan, and various media outlets have alternately described Brookings as "conservative", "centrist" or "liberal". An academic analysis of Congressional records from 1993 to 2002 found that Brookings was referred to by conservative politicians almost as frequently as liberal politicians, earning a score of 53 on a 1–100 scale with 100 representing the most liberal score. The same study found Brookings to be the most frequently cited think tank by the U.S. media and politicians.


Darfur (Arabic: دار فور‎ Dār Fūr, English: "Realm of the Fur") is a region in western Sudan. Dar is an Arabic word meaning home of - the region was named Dardaju (Arabic: دار داجو‎) while ruled by the Daju, who migrated from Meroë c. 350 AD, and it was then renamed Dartunjur (Arabic: دار تنجر‎) when the Tunjur ruled the area. Darfur was an independent sultanate for several hundred years, incorporated into Sudan by Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1916. The region is divided into five federal states: Central Darfur, East Darfur, North Darfur, South Darfur and West Darfur. Because of the war in Darfur between Sudanese government forces and the indigenous population, the region has been in a state of humanitarian emergency since 2003.

The First historical mention of the word 'Fur' occurs in 1664 in the account by J. M. Vansleb, a traveler, of a visit to Egypt (Petermann (1862-3). Mittheilungen, Erganzungsband II). It is claimed that, like sudan, fur means "blacks", and was the name given by the early light-colored Berber sultans of Darfur to the original inhabitants of the country such as the Binga, Banda, etc. Those original inhabitants agreed to become muslims and submit to the sultan's rule, the alternative being to be attacked and either killed or enslaved. As the historic dynasty's physical appearance became more "Africanized" from intermarriage with black wives and concubines, the appearance of the sultans darkened correspondingly and they became known by the appellation of their black subjects, Fur.

Doha Declaration

The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health was adopted by the WTO Ministerial Conference of 2001 in Doha on November 14, 2001. It reaffirmed flexibility of TRIPS member states in circumventing patent rights for better access to essential medicines.

In Paragraphs 4 to 6 of the Doha Declaration, governments agreed that:

"4. The TRIPS Agreement does not and should not prevent Members from taking measures to protect public health. Accordingly, while reiterating our commitment to the TRIPS Agreement, we affirm that the Agreement can and should be interpreted and implemented in a manner supportive of WTO Members' right to protect public health and, in particular, to promote access to medicines for all.In this connection, we reaffirm the right of WTO Members to use, to the full, the provisions in the TRIPS Agreement, which provide flexibility for this purpose.5. Accordingly and in the light of paragraph 4 above, while maintaining our commitments in the TRIPS Agreement, we recognize that these flexibilities include:(a) In applying the customary rules of interpretation of public international law, each provision of the TRIPS Agreement shall be read in the light of the object and purpose of the Agreement as expressed, in particular, in its objectives and principles.

(b) Each Member has the right to grant compulsory licences and the freedom to determine the grounds upon which such licences are granted.

(c) Each Member has the right to determine what constitutes a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency, it being understood that public health crises, including those relating to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other epidemics, can represent a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency.

(d) The effect of the provisions in the TRIPS Agreement that are relevant to the exhaustion of intellectual property rights is to leave each Member free to establish its own regime for such exhaustion without challenge, subject to the MFN and national treatment provisions of Articles 3 and 4.6. We recognize that WTO Members with insufficient or no manufacturing capacities in the pharmaceutical sector could face difficulties in making effective use of compulsory licensing under the TRIPS Agreement. We instruct the Council for TRIPS to find an expeditious solution to this problem and to report to the General Council before the end of 2002."These provisions in the Declaration ensure that governments may issue compulsory licenses on patents for medicines, or take other steps to protect public health.

Doha Development Round

The Doha Development Round or Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is the trade-negotiation round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) which commenced in November 2001 under then director-general Mike Moore. Its objective was to lower trade barriers around the world, and thus facilitate increased global trade.

The Doha Round began with a ministerial-level meeting in Doha, Qatar in 2001. The aim was to put less developed countries' priorities at heart. The needs of the developing countries were the core reasons for the meeting. The major factors discussed include trade facilitation, services, rules of origin and dispute settlement. Special and differential treatment for the developing countries were also discussed as a major concern. Subsequent ministerial meetings took place in Cancún, Mexico (2003), and Hong Kong (2005). Related negotiations took place in Paris, France (2005), Potsdam, Germany (2007), and Geneva, Switzerland (2004, 2006, 2008);

Progress in negotiations stalled after the breakdown of the July 2008 negotiations. The most significant differences are between developed nations led by the European Union (EU), the United States (US), Canada, and Japan and the major developing countries led and represented mainly by India, Brazil, China, and South Africa. There is also considerable contention against and between the EU and the US over their maintenance of agricultural subsidies—seen to operate effectively as trade barriers.Since the breakdown of negotiations in 2008, there have been repeated attempts to revive the talks, so far without success. Intense negotiations, mostly between the US, China, and India, were held at the end of 2008 seeking agreement on negotiation modalities, an impasse which was not resolved. In April 2011, then director-general Pascal Lamy "asked members to think hard about 'the consequences of throwing away ten years of solid multilateral work'." A report to the WTO General Council by Lamy in May 2012 advocated "small steps, gradually moving forward the parts of the Doha Round which were mature, and re-thinking those where greater differences remained." Adoption of the Bali Ministerial Declaration on 7 December 2013 for the first time successfully addressed bureaucratic barriers to commerce—a small part of the Doha Round agenda. However, as of January 2014, the future of the Doha Round remains uncertain.

Doha International Airport

Doha International Airport (IATA: DIA, ICAO: OTBD) (Arabic: مطار الدوحة الدولي‎) is an airport in Doha, Qatar. It was Qatar's commercial international airport until Hamad International Airport opened on 27 May 2014. While all scheduled commercial traffic ceased, the airport site and existing runway is still used by Qatar Emiri Air Force, Rizon Jet, Gulf Helicopters and Qatar Aeronautical College.

Hamad International Airport

Hamad International Airport (IATA: DOH, ICAO: OTHH) (Arabic: مطار حمد الدولي‎, Maṭār Ḥamad al-Duwalī) is the international airport of Doha, the capital city of Qatar. It replaced the former Doha International Airport as Qatar's principal airport.

Formerly known as New Doha International Airport (NDIA), Hamad International Airport was originally scheduled to open in 2009, but after a series of costly delays, the airport finally opened on 30 April 2014 with a ceremonial Qatar Airways flight landing from nearby Doha International. National carrier Qatar Airways and all other carriers formally relocated to the new airport on 27 May 2014.

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the protocol, effective December 2012) to the Protocol.

The Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to reduce the onset of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to "a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" (Article 2). The Kyoto Protocol applies to the six greenhouse gases listed in Annex A: Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).The Protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities: it acknowledges that individual countries have different capabilities in combating climate change, owing to economic development, and therefore puts the obligation to reduce current emissions on developed countries on the basis that they are historically responsible for the current levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

The Protocol's first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. A second commitment period was agreed in 2012, known as the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, in which 37 countries have binding targets: Australia, the European Union (and its 28 member states), Belarus, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine have stated that they may withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol or not put into legal force the Amendment with second round targets. Japan, New Zealand, and Russia have participated in Kyoto's first-round but have not taken on new targets in the second commitment period. Other developed countries without second-round targets are Canada (which withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol in 2012) and the United States (which has not ratified). As of January 2019, 124 states have accepted the Doha Amendment, while entry into force requires the acceptances of 144 states. Of the 37 countries with binding commitments, 7 have ratified.

Negotiations were held in the framework of the yearly UNFCCC Climate Change Conferences on measures to be taken after the second commitment period ends in 2020. This resulted in the 2015 adoption of the Paris Agreement, which is a separate instrument under the UNFCCC rather than an amendment of the Kyoto Protocol.


Qatar (, (listen), or (listen); Arabic: قطر‎ Qaṭar [ˈqɑtˤɑr]; local vernacular pronunciation: [ˈɡɪtˤɑr]), officially the State of Qatar (Arabic: دولة قطر‎ Dawlat Qaṭar), is a country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

Whether the sovereign state should be regarded as a constitutional monarchy or an absolute monarchy is disputed. Its sole land border is with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. An arm of the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from the nearby Bahrain.

In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates. Islam is the official religion of Qatar. The country has the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of very high human development and is widely regarded as the most advanced Arab state for human development. Qatar is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves.Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since Mohammed bin Thani signed a treaty with the British in 1868 that recognised its separate status. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. In 2003, the constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with almost 98% in favour. In the 21st century, Qatar emerged as a significant power in the Arab world both through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network, and reportedly supporting several rebel groups financially during the Arab Spring. For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, and has been identified as a middle power. Qatar is currently the subject of a diplomatic and economic embargo by Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, and Egypt, which began in June 2017. Saudi Arabia has also proposed the construction of the Salwa Canal, which would run along the Saudi-Qatar border, effectively turning Qatar into an island.

Qatar Airways

Qatar Airways Company Q.C.S.C. (Arabic: القطرية‎, al-Qaṭariya), operating as Qatar Airways, is the state-owned flag carrier of Qatar. Headquartered in the Qatar Airways Tower in Doha, the airline operates a hub-and-spoke network, linking over 150 international destinations across Africa, Central Asia, Europe, Far East, South Asia, Middle East, North America, South America and Oceania from its base at Hamad International Airport, using a fleet of more than 200 aircraft. Qatar Airways Group employs more than 43,000 people. The carrier has been a member of the Oneworld alliance since October 2013 (2013-10), the first Gulf carrier to sign with one of the three airline alliances.

Climate data for Doha (1962–2013, extremes 1962–2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.2
Average high °C (°F) 22.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.5
Average low °C (°F) 13.5
Record low °C (°F) 3.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.2
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.7 2.1 1.8 1.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 1.3 8.8
Average relative humidity (%) 71 70 63 52 44 41 49 55 62 63 66 71 59
Mean monthly sunshine hours 244.9 224.0 241.8 273.0 325.5 342.0 325.5 328.6 306.0 303.8 276.0 241.8 3,432.9
Mean daily sunshine hours 7.9 8.0 7.8 9.1 10.5 11.4 10.5 10.6 10.2 9.8 9.2 7.8 9.4
Source #1: NOAA[70]
Source #2: Qatar Meteorological Department (Climate Normals 1962–2013)[71]

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